Special Issue "Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Bukowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: salt deposits; sedimentology of evaporites; stable isotopes and geochemistry of evaporites; radiometric dating; study of fluid inclusion in halite

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce the Special Issue "Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites", focusing on the origin and recognition of evaporites, such as rock salts, potassium–magnesium salts, gypsum, anhydrite, and borates.

Evaporites are chemical sediments that often retain the geochemical record of parent brines, including their chemical composition, proportions of particular ions, and content of stable isotopes. Thus, mineralogical and geochemical studies of marine evaporites, in particular those based on isotope analyses and fluid inclusion investigations, allow us to detail the evolution and transformations of the global ocean, from the beginning of Earth's history to modern times. In evaporites, environmental changes of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, occurring in the crucial moments of Earth's history, are recorded. The first sulfates (gypsum and anhydrite) appeared on Earth together with the transition to a more oxygenated atmosphere about 1.8–2.2 billion years ago. The formation of an extensive salt series at the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition coincided with the rapid development of life on Earth. The appearance of large evaporitic formations was usually accompanied by global climate changes and intensification of orogenic processes, for example in the Permian or Miocene.

Mineralogical and geochemical determinations related to evaporite basins (including modern environments) are used for the practical recognition and management of valuable deposits of potassium salts, borates, and lithium brines. Evaporite studies play a significant role in determining the spatial and temporal distribution of sedimentary (or reservoir) facies, as well as the generation, migration, and entrapment of hydrocarbons.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect original research studies and data that can throw new light on the characteristics of evaporitic formations. This Special Issue will highlight the latest advancements in both fundamental and applied studies in a wide range of fields related to the application of mineralogical and geochemical methods in the exploration and recognition of deposits.

Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Bukowski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • evaporites
  • mineralogy
  • geochemistry
  • stable isotopes
  • fluid inclusions
  • salt deposits

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry of Evaporites”
Minerals 2021, 11(11), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111263 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 250
Abstract
In his excellent and complete compendium “Evaporites” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)

Research

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Article
The Temperature of Halite Crystallization in the Badenian Saline Basins, in the Context of Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Carpathian Area
Minerals 2021, 11(8), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11080831 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Currently, fluid inclusions in halite have been frequently studied for the purpose of paleoclimate reconstruction. For example, to determine the air temperature in the Middle Miocene (Badenian), we examine single-phase primary fluid inclusions of the bottom halites (chevron and full-faceted) and near-surface (cumulate) [...] Read more.
Currently, fluid inclusions in halite have been frequently studied for the purpose of paleoclimate reconstruction. For example, to determine the air temperature in the Middle Miocene (Badenian), we examine single-phase primary fluid inclusions of the bottom halites (chevron and full-faceted) and near-surface (cumulate) halites collected from the salt-bearing deposits of the Carpathian region. Our analyses showed that the temperatures of near-bottom brines varied in ranges from 19.5 to 22.0 °C and 24.0 to 26.0 °C, while the temperatures of the surface brines ranged from 34.0 to 36.0 °C. Based on these data, such as an earlier study of lithology and sedimentary structures of the Badenian rock salts, the crystallization of bottom halite developed in the basin from concentrated and cooled near-surface brines of about 30 m depth. Our results comply with the data on the temperature distribution in the modern Dead Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Organic and Isotopic Geochemistry of Evaporites and Shales of the Santana Group (Araripe Basin, Brazil): Clues on the Evolution of Depositional Systems and Global Correlation during the Lower Cretaceous
Minerals 2021, 11(8), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11080795 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Even being the more studied of the interior basins of Northeast Brazil, the Araripe Basin still lacks research in organic geochemistry designed to support interpretations of depositional systems and conditions of formation. This work aims to investigate the organic behavior of evaporites and [...] Read more.
Even being the more studied of the interior basins of Northeast Brazil, the Araripe Basin still lacks research in organic geochemistry designed to support interpretations of depositional systems and conditions of formation. This work aims to investigate the organic behavior of evaporites and shales from the Santana Group (Lower Cretaceous), as well as discuss their role in the evolution of its depositional systems. A total of 23 samples, 17 shales and six evaporites, were collected in outcrops and quarries. Analyses of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Sulfur (TS), Rock Eval pyrolysis, and the δ34S isotope ratio were performed. The TOC results revealed high organic content for seven intervals, of which only five had high TS content. From the Rock Eval pyrolysis, dominance of the Type I kerogen was verified, thus corresponding to the best type of organic matter (mainly algal) for the generation of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The Lower Cretaceous (probably Aptian) response to the progressive evolution in redox conditions is linked to a remarked Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-1a). The TOC/TS ratio suggests variable palaeosalinity, indicating most of the shales were formed under brackish waters with saline influence, yet tending to increase the salinity upwards where hypersaline conditions dominate in the Ipubi Formation. The isotope data also suggest the occurrence of marine ingressions in the depositional systems even prior to the well-documented event of the Romualdo Formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages and Geochemical Features of the Jingxing Formation, (Qamdo Basin, Tibet: Implications): Inferences for the Metallogenic Model of the East Tethys Evaporite
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070745 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
Qamdo basin is located between the suture zone of Jinsha River (Ailao Mountains) and that of Ban Gong Lake (Nujiang) in the eastern Tethys. Part of the Jingxing Formation is deposited in the southwest of the basin. In this study, two profiles were [...] Read more.
Qamdo basin is located between the suture zone of Jinsha River (Ailao Mountains) and that of Ban Gong Lake (Nujiang) in the eastern Tethys. Part of the Jingxing Formation is deposited in the southwest of the basin. In this study, two profiles were investigated from the north and south of Qamdo basin. The characteristics of detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age, and the main and trace elements of sandstone were analyzed. The characteristics of major and trace elements showed that the tectonic setting of the study area is mainly composed of a relatively stable active continental margin and a passive continental margin, showing characteristics of a continental island arc. The weathering degree of Jingxing Formation in the Qamdo area is lower than that in the Lanping-Simao area, which may be closer to the origin. The age distribution characteristics of detrital zircon grains indicate that the Qiangtang Block, Youjiang basin, and Yangtze area jointly constitute the provenance of the Qamdo-Lanping-Simao basin. Both basins may be part of a large marine basin with unified water conservancy connection before evaporite deposition. Metamorphic seawater from the Qamdo basin may migrate to the Lanping-Simao basin and even the Khorat basin, where evaporite was deposited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Taloe—Sedimentation in an Intermittent Lake (Russian Federation, Republic of Khakassia)
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050522 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
This paper examines the mineral and geochemical features of lake sediments and waters in intermittent Lake Taloe, located in a semiarid climate. Minerals that belong to groups of oxides, sulfides, aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulfates, and halides are identified through the use of precision methods. [...] Read more.
This paper examines the mineral and geochemical features of lake sediments and waters in intermittent Lake Taloe, located in a semiarid climate. Minerals that belong to groups of oxides, sulfides, aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulfates, and halides are identified through the use of precision methods. The resulting mineral species are divided by genetic features into two associations: terrigenous and hydrogenic. The terrigenous association includes water-insoluble minerals, while the hydrogenic association combines typical hydrogenic minerals. The regularities of the accumulation and distribution of minerals along the lake laterally and to a depth of up to one meter are also examined. The order of deposition of hydrogenous association minerals from sulfate-chloride lake waters was established. The obtained results are confirmed and supplemented by physicochemical calculations, which show the equilibrium of lake waters with hydroxides, oxides, aluminosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates. It has been established that the formation of minerals mainly occurs through evaporative concentration in conjunction with bedrock weathering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Paleogeographic Characteristics of the Mengyejing Formation in the Simao Basin during Its Depositional Period and Its Indication of Potash Mineralization: A Case Study of MZK-3 Well
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040338 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
In China, pre-Quaternary solid potash deposit has only been discovered in the Simao Basin, and the Lower Cretaceous Mengyejing (MYJ) Formation (Fm.) is the productive layer of potash deposit. In this study, we investigated the clay conglomerates which are distributed in upper and [...] Read more.
In China, pre-Quaternary solid potash deposit has only been discovered in the Simao Basin, and the Lower Cretaceous Mengyejing (MYJ) Formation (Fm.) is the productive layer of potash deposit. In this study, we investigated the clay conglomerates which are distributed in upper and lower members of the potash-bearing salt rock layer. We analyzed the relative contents of major elements (Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O) and trace elements (B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr) in the samples. The results show that MgO and CaO in the major elements are rich relative to Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS), whose average enrichment factor values of the MgO (EFMgO) is 2.61 and CaO (EFCaO) is 4.57, and the others major elements are relatively minor; trace elements (B, Ga, Mn, Zr) are rich relative to PAAS, and the others trace elements are minor relative to PAAS. The study of paleogeographic conditions using various parameters shows that the paleoclimate is generally dry and hot during the period of clay conglomerate deposition, but it was warm and humid in certain periods; the main sedimentary environment is weak oxidation condition with strong oxidation conditions in individual periods; the average value of paleosalinity is ~21‰, and the highest is no more than ~92‰. The significance of the paleogeographic characteristics of MYJ Fm. to potash mineralization are as follows: (1) they indicates that the clay conglomerates of MYJ Fm. are not clastic sediments in brine formed by seawater, because the paleosalinity of clay conglomerates deposition period is obviously lower than that of seawater; (2) MYJ potassic salt ore is not formed by evaporation and concentration of seawater in clay conglomerates in the sedimentary basin, because there is no carbonate rock and sulfate rock of corresponding scale after the deposition of clay conglomerates in the basin; (3) clay conglomerates of MYJ Fm. were deposited in continental shallow water basin; (4) the matter source of potash minerals is deep marine strata; (5) in the MYJ Fm. sedimentation period, deep source salt moved to the surface under the background of extensional structure, and the subsequent sedimentary clastic rock formed a protective layer of potash-bearing rock, thus completing the “deep source and shallow mineralization” metallogenic process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Unraveling Sources and Climate Conditions Prevailing during the Deposition of Neoproterozoic Evaporites Using Coupled Chemistry and Boron Isotope Compositions (δ11B): The Example of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020161 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
In this study, the ion concentrations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, Br, NO3, and B3+) and boron isotope compositions (δ11B) [...] Read more.
In this study, the ion concentrations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, Br, NO3, and B3+) and boron isotope compositions (δ11B) of 34 halite and brines samples from the Neoproterozoic Salt Range Formation, Punjab, Pakistan were studied. Relation among B3+ vs. Mg2+, B3+ vs. SO42−, δ11B vs. B3+, and δ11B vs K+ were observed, they indicated that these elements originate from multiple sources and the end members were identified as seawater, B desorption from clays, and meteoric precipitation. Halite samples of the area under study displayed a Na-HCO3-type to Ca-Cl type sedimentary basin of deposition, on δ11B vs. 1/B plot. Molar ratios of B/Cl vs. δ11B revealed the addition of B in some of the studied samples from desorption of clay minerals. This type of diagenetic desorption of B from clays is the consequence of a stress driven mechanism, generated in the proximity of a decollement zone. Results confirm that the number of B stable isotopes that fractionate between the brine and the halite is low. The halite δ11B from the Salt Range Formation vary from +2.1 to +24.4‰, compared to +17.3 to +26.1‰ in the salt pool brines, and suggest that boron isotope compositions are controlled by the δ11B of the B sources. The positive relationship between the boron content and the corresponding δ11B indicates a higher salinity and drier paleoclimate conditions during the formation process, associated with a high evaporation rate in the Late Neoproterozoic time. Presence of elevated δ11B in the present study, demonstrate compatibility with other marine basins of the world, arising the need for further investigations to better characterize the 11B-enriching processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Sr, S, and O Isotope Compositions of Evaporites in the Lanping–Simao Basin, China
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020096 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Evaporites are widely distributed within continental “red beds” in the Lanping–Simao Basin, west Yunnan, China. Sr (Strontium), S (Sulfur), and O (Oxygen) isotope compositions have been measured on 54 sulfate or/and sulfate-bearing samples collected from Lanping, Nuodeng, Jinggu, Mengyejing, Baozang throughout the Lanping–Simao [...] Read more.
Evaporites are widely distributed within continental “red beds” in the Lanping–Simao Basin, west Yunnan, China. Sr (Strontium), S (Sulfur), and O (Oxygen) isotope compositions have been measured on 54 sulfate or/and sulfate-bearing samples collected from Lanping, Nuodeng, Jinggu, Mengyejing, Baozang throughout the Lanping–Simao Basin. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of all samples (0.708081 to 0.710049) are higher than those of contemporaneous seawater, indicating a significant continental contribution to the drainage basin. Sulfates in the Lanping Basin have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.709406 to 0.710049) than those (0.708081 to 0.709548) in the Simao Basin. Nevertheless, the δ34S values of gypsums (13.4‰ to 17.6‰) in Lanping and Baozang fall within the range of Cretaceous seawater. Gypsums from a single section in Baozang have trends of decreasing δ34S values and increasing 87Sr/86Sr ratios from base to top, indicating continental input played an increasingly significant role with the evaporation of brines. High δ34S values (20.5‰ to 20.7‰) of celestites in Lanping are probably caused by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) process in which 34S were enriched in residual sulfates and/or recycling of Triassic evaporites. The reduced δ34S values of gypsums (9.5‰ to 10.4‰) in Nuodeng could have been caused by oxidation of sulfides weathered from Jinding Pb-Zn deposit. The complex O isotope compositions indicate that sulfates in the Lanping–Simao Basin had undergone sulfate reduction, re-oxidation, reservoir effects, etc. In conclusion, the formation of continental evaporites was likely derived from seawater due to marine transgression during the Cretaceous period. Meanwhile, non-marine inflows have contributed to the basin significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Geochemical Data and Fluid Inclusion Study of the Middle Miocene Halite from Deep Borehole Huwniki-1, Situated in the Inner Zone of the Carpathian Foredeep in Poland
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121113 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
The geochemical data and the study of fluid inclusions in primary halite are invaluable sources of saline basin information. Most of the previous analyses of salt from the Carpathian area have been obtained by studying the halite samples collected from depths not exceeding [...] Read more.
The geochemical data and the study of fluid inclusions in primary halite are invaluable sources of saline basin information. Most of the previous analyses of salt from the Carpathian area have been obtained by studying the halite samples collected from depths not exceeding 1000 m (i.e., from salt mine outcrops or boreholes). In this article, for the first time, we present the results of samples obtained from a deep well where salt occurs below the frontal orogenic wedge at a depth of ~5000 m. The salt core’s petrological studies showed, quite unexpectedly, the presence of the chevron relics, typical for primary halite. Their geochemical data and fluid inclusion study can be used to reconstruct the environment of the salt sedimentation. The bromine, strontium, and rubidium content values indicated that primary brines were of marine origin, and salts may have undergone partial dissolution and redeposition under lower salinity water inflows. The main ions’ (K, Mg, SO4) ratios in the fluid inclusions were typical for those of the Badenian brines collected from the Carpathian Foredeep’s eastern part. Compared with modern seawater’s chemical composition, this brine contained a slightly lower content of sulfate ions. This was associated with evolutionary changes occurring in the contents of sulfate ions during the Cenozoic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
Controls on Associations of Clay Minerals in Phanerozoic Evaporite Formations: An Overview
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110974 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Information on the associations of clay minerals in Upper Proterozoic and Phanerozoic marine evaporite formations suggests that cyclic changes in the (SO4-rich and Ca-rich) chemical type of seawater during the Phanerozoic could affect the composition of associations of authigenic clay minerals [...] Read more.
Information on the associations of clay minerals in Upper Proterozoic and Phanerozoic marine evaporite formations suggests that cyclic changes in the (SO4-rich and Ca-rich) chemical type of seawater during the Phanerozoic could affect the composition of associations of authigenic clay minerals in marine evaporite deposits. The vast majority of evaporite clay minerals are authigenic. The most common are illite, chlorite, smectite and disordered mixed-layer illite-smectite and chlorite-smectite; all the clay minerals are included regardless of their quantity. Corrensite, sepiolite, palygorskite and talc are very unevenly distributed in the Phanerozoic. Other clay minerals (perhaps with the exception of kaolinite) are very rare. Evaporites precipitated during periods of SO4-rich seawater type are characterized by both a greater number and a greater variety of clay minerals—smectite and mixed-layer minerals, as well as Mg-corrensite, palygorskite, sepiolite, and talc, are more common in associations. The composition of clay mineral association in marine evaporites clearly depends on the chemical type of seawater and upon the brine concentration in the evaporite basin. Along with increasing salinity, aggradational transformations of clay minerals lead to the ordering of their structure and, ideally, to a decrease in the number of minerals. In fact, evaporite deposits of higher stages of brine concentration often still contain unstable clay minerals. This is due to the intense simultaneous volcanic activity that brought a significant amount of pyroclastic material into the evaporite basin; intermediate products of its transformation (in the form of swelling minerals) often remained in the deposits of the potassium salt precipitation stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
The Lotsberg Salt Formation in Central Alberta (Canada)—Petrology, Geochemistry, and Fluid Inclusions
Minerals 2020, 10(10), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10100868 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
The Lotsberg Salt Formation (LSF) of the Lower Devonian age occupies a large area in Alberta (Canada). It has been used for brine production, disposal, and storage purposes since the 1950s. Its petrological and geochemical features remain poorly understood up to now. Previous [...] Read more.
The Lotsberg Salt Formation (LSF) of the Lower Devonian age occupies a large area in Alberta (Canada). It has been used for brine production, disposal, and storage purposes since the 1950s. Its petrological and geochemical features remain poorly understood up to now. Previous studies showed that these salt rocks are large crystalline and distinguishable by a very low bromine content (2–5 ppm). Our studies reveal that the main impurity is dolomite with an addition of haematite. It showed, also, a lack of sulphate minerals (anhydrite). Manganite also occurs within the halite crystals. Microthermometric measurements of primary fluid inclusions in halite show a large range of homogenization temperatures from 32.4 °C to 357.0 °C with the highest temperature in the upper part of the salt profile. Geochemical analysis confirms the low bromine contents, which is between 0.67–12.74 ppm. Potassium contents (166–3651 ppm) seem to be in the normal range for salt rocks, but magnesium content (25–177 ppm) is much lower than potassium. Rubidium is, as well, within the normal range, with values between <0.01 ppm and 3.13 ppm, while caesium contents (5.07–211.22 ppm) are almost sixty times higher in comparison to those of rubidium. The high concentration of Cs, Mn, Rb, and the high homogenization temperatures of the host minerals suggest that the LSF underwent extensive ion exchange related to hydrothermal inflow. These hydrothermal solutions originated from the basement of the LSF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
The History of Transgressions during the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin: Constraints from C-O-S-Sr Isotopic Geochemistry
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090834 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
The Tethys Sea extended into the Kuqa Depression from the Paleocene to the late Eocene and provided an abundant provenance for the deposition of evaporite sequences. Until now, detailed research on the history of transgressions during the late Paleocene-early Eocene in the Kuqa [...] Read more.
The Tethys Sea extended into the Kuqa Depression from the Paleocene to the late Eocene and provided an abundant provenance for the deposition of evaporite sequences. Until now, detailed research on the history of transgressions during the late Paleocene-early Eocene in the Kuqa Depression has been limited. Therefore, in this study, we took the upper Paleocene Talak section and the lower Eocene Xiaokuzibai section in the western part of the Depression as the research objects and analyzed the petrology, the carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate rocks, and the sulfur and strontium isotopes of gypsum rocks to systematically study the above issues. The δ13C, δ18O and δ34S values of the upper Paleocene evaporite sequences were determined to be between 4.2‰ and 5.7‰, between −5.2‰ and 2.4‰, and between 16.5‰ and 17.9‰, respectively. The δ13C, δ18O, δ34S, and 87Sr/86Sr values of the lower Eocene evaporite sequences were determined to be between −6.9‰ and −2.0‰, between −9.0‰ and −4.5‰, between 10.5‰ and 17.0‰, and between 0.708642 and 0.709883, respectively. The analysis results show that the evaporite sequence of the upper Paleocene was formed by transgression. The deposition of the evaporite sequence changed from continental to marine deposition, and then gradually transitioned to continental during the Early Eocene. This paper is of great significance for reconstructing the history of transgressions in the Tethys tectonic realm during this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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Article
The Ultramicrochemical Analyses (UMCA) of Fluid Inclusions in Halite and Experimental Research to Improve the Accuracy of Measurement
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090823 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Fluid inclusions in halite are widely used in research to determine the conditions of sedimentation in salt basins and reconstruct the chemical composition of seawater during a specific geological period. However, previous preliminary studies of the genetic types of inclusions, considered in the [...] Read more.
Fluid inclusions in halite are widely used in research to determine the conditions of sedimentation in salt basins and reconstruct the chemical composition of seawater during a specific geological period. However, previous preliminary studies of the genetic types of inclusions, considered in the present research project, have not received due attention. Consequently, we decided to take into account the main distinguishing features of fluid inclusions in halite, belonging to various genetic types. The ultramicrochemical analysis (UMCA) method is one of the several methods that are used for the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the primary fluid inclusions in halite. We have upgraded that technique, and that allowed us to reduce the analytical error rates of each component determination. The error rates were calculated in the study of Ca-rich and SO4-rich types of natural sedimentary brines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
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