Special Issue "Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ryan J. Arsenault
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, United States
Interests: host–pathogen interaction; gut health; kinome; cellular signaling; agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The significant impact that infectious microbes have on animal and human health has been well-known and studied for hundreds of years. More recently, research has shown that there is intricate cross-talk between microbes (both beneficial and pathogenic) and the host, and just how sophisticated microbes are at interacting with the host and host immune system. We are continually discovering new ways that microbes influence the host; examples include direct immunological activation, redirection of metabolism, production of host-specific kinases altering cellular signal transduction, or the production of exosomes carrying genetic material to other cells. This host–microbe interaction can span effects as intricate as parasites altering the behavior of mice for uptake into cats to species of Mycobacterium subverting the immune system to grow inside macrophages. In addition, interest and research into the host microbiota’s seemingly innumerable effects on host health have exploded, but the direct cross-talk between the microbiota and the host is still understudied. The evolutionary dance that microbes and their animal hosts are engaged in, and how this biological arms race is run, is of critical importance to understanding microbe effects. I invite you to submit manuscripts to this Special Issue entitled “Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease.” This edition has been established to highlight your work on the interplay of microbes and host, in its variety of facets.

Dr. Ryan J. Arsenault
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microbe
  • Pathogen
  • Microbiota
  • Microbiome
  • Animal
  • Immunity
  • Host response
  • gut health
  • molecular response

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Host Innate Immune Response of Geese Infected with Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020224 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
Since 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses have circulated in waterfowls and caused human infections in China, posing significant threats to the poultry industry and the public health. However, the genetics, pathogenicity and innate immune response of H5N6 HPAIVs in geese [...] Read more.
Since 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses have circulated in waterfowls and caused human infections in China, posing significant threats to the poultry industry and the public health. However, the genetics, pathogenicity and innate immune response of H5N6 HPAIVs in geese remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the genetic characteristic of the two H5N6 viruses (GS38 and DK09) isolated from apparently healthy domestic goose and duck in live poultry markets (LPMs) of Southern China in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HA genes of the two H5N6 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4 and were clustered into the MIX-like group. The MIX-like group viruses have circulated in regions such as China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The NA genes of the two H5N6 viruses were classified into the Eurasian sublineage. The internal genes including PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS of the two H5N6 viruses derived from the MIX-like. Therefore, our results suggested that the two H5N6 viruses were reassortants of the H5N1 and H6N6 viruses and likely derived from the same ancestor. Additionally, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmission of the two H5N6 viruses in domestic geese. Results showed that both the two viruses caused serious clinical symptoms in all inoculated geese and led to high mortality in these birds. Both the two viruses were transmitted efficiently to contact geese and caused lethal infection in these birds. Furthermore, we found that mRNA of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), interferons (IFNs), and stimulated genes (ISGs) exhibited different levels of activation in the lungs and spleens of the two H5N6 viruses-inoculated geese though did not protect these birds from H5N6 HPAIVs infection. Our results suggested that the clade 2.3.4.4 waterfowl-origin H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from LPMs of Southern China could cause high mortality in geese and innate immune-related genes were involved in the geese innate immune response to H5N6 HPAIVs infection. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the evolution, pathogenic variations of these viruses and enhance virological surveillance of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 HPAIVs in waterfowls in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Upregulation of Cytokines and Differentiation of Th17 and Treg by Dendritic Cells: Central Role of Prostaglandin E2 Induced by Mycobacterium bovis
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020195 - 31 Jan 2020
Abstract
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes bovine and human tuberculosis. Dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses by promoting antigen-specific T-cell activation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-COX signaling is an important mediator of inflammation [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes bovine and human tuberculosis. Dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses by promoting antigen-specific T-cell activation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-COX signaling is an important mediator of inflammation and immunity and might be involved in the pathogenesis of M. bovis infection. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the character of PGE2 in the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells induced by infected dendritic cells (DCs). Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were pre-infected with M. bovis and its attenuated strain M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Then, the infected DCs were co-cultured with naïve CD4+ T cells with or without the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and protein detection showed that PGE2/COX-2 signaling was activated, shown by the upregulation of PGE2 production as well as COX-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES1) transcription in DCs specifically induced by M. bovis and BCG infection. The further co-culture of infected DCs with naïve CD4+ T cells enhanced the generation of inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-23, while indomethacin suppressed their production. Following this, the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cell subsets was significantly induced by the infected DCs rather than uninfected DCs. Meanwhile, M. bovis infection stimulated significantly higher levels of IL-17 and IL-23 and the differentiation of Treg and Th17 cell subsets, while BCG infection led to higher levels of TNF-α and IL-12, but lower proportions of Treg and Th17 cells. In mice, M. bovis infection generated more bacterial load and severe abnormalities in spleens and lungs, as well as higher levels of COX-2, mPGE2 expression, Treg and Th17 cell subsets than BCG infection. In conclusion, PGE2/COX-2 signaling was activated in DCs by M. bovis infection and regulated differentiation of Treg and Th17 cell subsets through the crosstalk between DCs and naive T cells under the cytokine atmosphere of IL-17 and IL-23, which might contribute to M. bovis pathogenesis in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Stringent Selection of Knobby Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes during Cytoadhesion at Febrile Temperature
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020174 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Changes in the erythrocyte membrane induced by Plasmodium falciparum invasion allow cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelium, which can lead to severe complications. Binding to endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) is mainly mediated by members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane [...] Read more.
Changes in the erythrocyte membrane induced by Plasmodium falciparum invasion allow cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelium, which can lead to severe complications. Binding to endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) is mainly mediated by members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, encoded by var genes. Malaria infection causes several common symptoms, with fever being the most apparent. In this study, the effects of febrile conditions on cytoadhesion of predominately knobless erythrocytes infected with the laboratory isolate IT4 to chondroitin-4-sulfate A (CSA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and CD36 were investigated. IEs enriched for binding to CSA at 40 °C exhibited significantly increased binding capacity relative to parasites enriched at 37 °C. This interaction was due to increased var2csa expression and trafficking of the corresponding PfEMP1 to the IE surface as well as to a selection of knobby IEs. Furthermore, the enrichment of IEs to ICAM-1 at 40 °C also led to selection of knobby IEs over knobless IEs, whereas enrichment on CD36 did not lead to a selection. In summary, these findings demonstrate that knobs are crucial for parasitic survival in the host, especially during fever episodes, and thus, that selection pressure on the formation of knobs could be controlled by the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Microbiota Composition and Antimicrobial Antibody Response in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120636 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa, and it has been recently associated with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. To study this link further, we investigated microbial shifts during RAS manifestation at an ulcer site, in its surroundings, [...] Read more.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa, and it has been recently associated with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. To study this link further, we investigated microbial shifts during RAS manifestation at an ulcer site, in its surroundings, and at an unaffected site, compared with healed mucosa in RAS patients and healthy controls. We sampled microbes from five distinct sites in the oral cavity. The one site with the most pronounced differences in microbial alpha and beta diversity between RAS patients and healthy controls was the lower labial mucosa. Detailed analysis of this particular oral site revealed strict association of the genus Selenomonas with healed mucosa of RAS patients, whereas the class Clostridia and genera Lachnoanaerobaculum, Cardiobacterium, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium were associated with the presence of an active ulcer. Furthermore, active ulcers were dominated by Malassezia, which were negatively correlated with Streptococcus and Haemophilus and positively correlated with Porphyromonas species. In addition, RAS patients showed increased serum levels of IgG against Mogibacterium timidum compared with healthy controls. Our study demonstrates that the composition of bacteria and fungi colonizing healthy oral mucosa is changed in active RAS ulcers, and that this alteration persists to some extent even after the ulcer is healed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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