Special Issue "Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ryan J. Arsenault
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, United States
Interests: host–pathogen interaction; gut health; kinome; cellular signaling; agriculture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The significant impact that infectious microbes have on animal and human health has been well-known and studied for hundreds of years. More recently, research has shown that there is intricate cross-talk between microbes (both beneficial and pathogenic) and the host, and just how sophisticated microbes are at interacting with the host and host immune system. We are continually discovering new ways that microbes influence the host; examples include direct immunological activation, redirection of metabolism, production of host-specific kinases altering cellular signal transduction, or the production of exosomes carrying genetic material to other cells. This host–microbe interaction can span effects as intricate as parasites altering the behavior of mice for uptake into cats to species of Mycobacterium subverting the immune system to grow inside macrophages. In addition, interest and research into the host microbiota’s seemingly innumerable effects on host health have exploded, but the direct cross-talk between the microbiota and the host is still understudied. The evolutionary dance that microbes and their animal hosts are engaged in, and how this biological arms race is run, is of critical importance to understanding microbe effects. I invite you to submit manuscripts to this Special Issue entitled “Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease.” This edition has been established to highlight your work on the interplay of microbes and host, in its variety of facets.

Dr. Ryan J. Arsenault
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Microbe
  • Pathogen
  • Microbiota
  • Microbiome
  • Animal
  • Immunity
  • Host response
  • gut health
  • molecular response

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Revisiting Ehrlichia ruminantium Replication Cycle Using Proteomics: The Host and the Bacterium Perspectives
Microorganisms 2021, 9(6), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061144 - 26 May 2021
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Abstract
The Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causal agent of the fatal tick-borne disease Heartwater, induces severe damage to the vascular endothelium in ruminants. Nevertheless, E. ruminantium-induced pathobiology remains largely unknown. Our work paves the way for understanding this phenomenon by using quantitative [...] Read more.
The Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causal agent of the fatal tick-borne disease Heartwater, induces severe damage to the vascular endothelium in ruminants. Nevertheless, E. ruminantium-induced pathobiology remains largely unknown. Our work paves the way for understanding this phenomenon by using quantitative proteomic analyses (2D-DIGE-MS/MS, 1DE-nanoLC-MS/MS and biotin-nanoUPLC-MS/MS) of host bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAE) during the in vitro bacterium intracellular replication cycle. We detect 265 bacterial proteins (including virulence factors), at all time-points of the E. ruminantium replication cycle, highlighting a dynamic bacterium–host interaction. We show that E. ruminantium infection modulates the expression of 433 host proteins: 98 being over-expressed, 161 under-expressed, 140 detected only in infected BAE cells and 34 exclusively detected in non-infected cells. Cystoscape integrated data analysis shows that these proteins lead to major changes in host cell immune responses, host cell metabolism and vesicle trafficking, with a clear involvement of inflammation-related proteins in this process. Our findings led to the first model of E. ruminantium infection in host cells in vitro, and we highlight potential biomarkers of E. ruminantium infection in endothelial cells (such as ROCK1, TMEM16K, Albumin and PTPN1), which may be important to further combat Heartwater, namely by developing non-antibiotic-based strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Metagenomic Analysis of the Respiratory Microbiome of a Broiler Flock from Hatching to Processing
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040721 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Elucidating the complex microbial interactions in biological environments requires the identification and characterization of not only the bacterial component but also the eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage, and fungi. In a proof of concept experiment, next generation sequencing approaches, accompanied by the development of novel [...] Read more.
Elucidating the complex microbial interactions in biological environments requires the identification and characterization of not only the bacterial component but also the eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage, and fungi. In a proof of concept experiment, next generation sequencing approaches, accompanied by the development of novel computational and bioinformatics tools, were utilized to examine the evolution of the microbial ecology of the avian trachea during the growth of a healthy commercial broiler flock. The flock was sampled weekly, beginning at placement and concluding at 49 days, the day before processing. Metagenomic sequencing of DNA and RNA was utilized to examine the bacteria, virus, bacteriophage, and fungal components during flock growth. The utility of using a metagenomic approach to study the avian respiratory virome was confirmed by detecting the dysbiosis in the avian respiratory virome of broiler chickens diagnosed with infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the ecology of the avian respiratory microbiome and demonstrates the feasibility for the use of this approach in future investigations of avian respiratory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
A Mouse Model Suggests That Heart Failure and Its Common Comorbidity Sleep Fragmentation Have No Synergistic Impacts on the Gut Microbiome
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030641 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Heart failure (HF) is a common condition associated with a high rate of hospitalizations and adverse outcomes. HF is characterized by impairments of either the cardiac ventricular filling, ejection of blood capacity or both. Sleep fragmentation (SF) involves a series of short sleep [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF) is a common condition associated with a high rate of hospitalizations and adverse outcomes. HF is characterized by impairments of either the cardiac ventricular filling, ejection of blood capacity or both. Sleep fragmentation (SF) involves a series of short sleep interruptions that lead to fatigue and contribute to cognitive impairments and dementia. Both conditions are known to be associated with increased inflammation and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. In the present study, mice were distributed into four groups, and subjected for four weeks to either HF, SF, both HF and SF, or left unperturbed as controls. We used 16S metabarcoding to assess fecal microbiome composition before and after the experiments. Evidence for distinct alterations in several bacterial groups and an overall decrease in alpha diversity emerged in HF and SF treatment groups. Combined HF and SF conditions, however, showed no synergism, and observed changes were not always additive, suggesting preliminarily that some of the individual effects of either HF or SF cancel each other out when applied concomitantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Role of Commensal Microbes in the γ-Ray Irradiation-Induced Physiological Changes in Drosophila melanogaster
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010031 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Ionizing radiation induces biological/physiological changes and affects commensal microbes, but few studies have examined the relationship between the physiological changes induced by irradiation and commensal microbes. This study investigated the role of commensal microbes in the γ-ray irradiation-induced physiological changes in Drosophila melanogaster [...] Read more.
Ionizing radiation induces biological/physiological changes and affects commensal microbes, but few studies have examined the relationship between the physiological changes induced by irradiation and commensal microbes. This study investigated the role of commensal microbes in the γ-ray irradiation-induced physiological changes in Drosophila melanogaster. The bacterial load was increased in 5 Gy irradiated flies, but irradiation decreased the number of operational taxonomic units. The mean lifespan of conventional flies showed no significant change by irradiation, whereas that of axenic flies was negatively correlated with the radiation dose. γ-Ray irradiation did not change the average number of eggs in both conventional and axenic flies. Locomotion of conventional flies was decreased after 5 Gy radiation exposure, whereas no significant change in locomotion activity was detected in axenic flies after irradiation. γ-Ray irradiation increased the generation of reactive oxygen species in both conventional and axenic flies, but the increase was higher in axenic flies. Similarly, the amounts of mitochondria were increased in irradiated axenic flies but not in conventional flies. These results suggest that axenic flies are more sensitive in their mitochondrial responses to radiation than conventional flies, and increased sensitivity leads to a reduced lifespan and other physiological changes in axenic flies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Investigating Both Mucosal Immunity and Microbiota in Response to Gut Enteritis in Yellowtail Kingfish
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091267 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The mucosal surfaces of fish play numerous roles including, but not limited to, protection against pathogens, nutrient digestion and absorption, excretion of nitrogenous wastes and osmotic regulation. During infection or disease, these surfaces act as the first line of defense, where the mucosal [...] Read more.
The mucosal surfaces of fish play numerous roles including, but not limited to, protection against pathogens, nutrient digestion and absorption, excretion of nitrogenous wastes and osmotic regulation. During infection or disease, these surfaces act as the first line of defense, where the mucosal immune system interacts closely with the associated microbiota to maintain homeostasis. This study evaluated microbial changes across the gut and skin mucosal surfaces in yellowtail kingfish displaying signs of gut inflammation, as well as explored the host gene expression in these tissues in order to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of these conditions. For this, we obtained and analyzed 16S rDNA and transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequence data from the gut and skin mucosa of fish exhibiting different health states (i.e., healthy fish and fish at the early and late stages of enteritis). Both the gut and skin microbiota were perturbed by the disease. More specifically, the gastrointestinal microbiota of diseased fish was dominated by an uncultured Mycoplasmataceae sp., and fish at the early stage of the disease showed a significant loss of diversity in the skin. Using transcriptomics, we found that only a few genes were significantly differentially expressed in the gut. In contrast, gene expression in the skin differed widely between health states, in particular in the fish at the late stage of the disease. These changes were associated with several metabolic pathways that were differentially expressed and reflected a weakened host. Altogether, this study highlights the sensitivity of the skin mucosal surface in response to gut inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Bacteriomic Profiling of Branchial Lesions Induced by Neoparamoeba perurans Challenge Reveals Commensal Dysbiosis and an Association with Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in AGD-Affected Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081189 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Amoebic gill disease is a parasitic condition that commonly affects marine farmed Atlantic salmon. The causative agent, Neoparamoeba perurans, induces a marked proliferation of the gill mucosa and focal superficial necrosis upon branchial lesions. The effect that amoebic branchialitis has upon gill [...] Read more.
Amoebic gill disease is a parasitic condition that commonly affects marine farmed Atlantic salmon. The causative agent, Neoparamoeba perurans, induces a marked proliferation of the gill mucosa and focal superficial necrosis upon branchial lesions. The effect that amoebic branchialitis has upon gill associated commensal bacteria is unknown. A 16S rRNA sequencing approach was employed to profile changes in bacterial community composition, within amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected and non-affected gill tissue. The bacterial diversity of biopsies with and without diseased tissue was significantly lower in the AGD-affected fish compared to uninfected fish. Furthermore, within the AGD-affected tissue, lesions appeared to contain a significantly higher abundance of the Flavobacterium, Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi compared to adjunct unaffected tissues. Quantitative PCR specific to both N. perurans and T. dicentrarchi was used to further examine the co-abundance of these known fish pathogens. A moderate positive correlation between these pathogens was observed. Taken together, the present study sheds new light on the complex interaction between the host, parasite and bacterial communities during AGD progression. The role that T. dicentrarchi may play in this complex relationship requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
The Differential Phosphorylation-Dependent Signaling and Glucose Immunometabolic Responses Induced during Infection by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in Chicken Macrophage-like cells
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071041 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Salmonella is a burden to the poultry, health, and food safety industries, resulting in illnesses, food contamination, and recalls. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes isolated from poultry. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Heidelberg ( [...] Read more.
Salmonella is a burden to the poultry, health, and food safety industries, resulting in illnesses, food contamination, and recalls. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes isolated from poultry. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg), which is becoming as prevalent as S. Enteritidis, is one of the five most isolated serotypes. Although S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg are almost genetically identical, they both are capable of inducing different immune and metabolic responses in host cells to successfully establish an infection. Therefore, using the kinome peptide array, we demonstrated that S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg infections induced differential phosphorylation of peptides on Rho proteins, caspases, toll-like receptors, and other proteins involved in metabolic- and immune-related signaling of HD11 chicken macrophages. Metabolic flux assays measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) demonstrated that S. Enteritidis at 30 min postinfection (p.i.) increased glucose metabolism, while S. Heidelberg at 30 min p.i. decreased glucose metabolism. S. Enteritidis is more invasive than S. Heidelberg. These results show different immunometabolic responses of HD11 macrophages to S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Mycobacterium tuberculosis YrbE3A Promotes Host Innate Immune Response by Targeting NF-κB/JNK Signaling
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040584 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered a successful pathogen with multiple strategies to undermine host immunity. The YrbE3A is encoded by Rv1964 within the RD15 region present in the genome of Mtb, but missing in M. bovis, M. bovis BCG (Pasteur) strain, and [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered a successful pathogen with multiple strategies to undermine host immunity. The YrbE3A is encoded by Rv1964 within the RD15 region present in the genome of Mtb, but missing in M. bovis, M. bovis BCG (Pasteur) strain, and M. smegmatis (Ms). However, little is known about its function. In this study, the YrbE3A gene was cloned into pMV261 and expressed in Ms and BCG, while the strains with the vector served as the controls. The YrbE3A was expressed on the mycobacterial membrane, and the purified protein could stimulate RAW264.7 cells to produce IL-6. Furthermore, the effect of the recombinant strains on cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 was confirmed, which varied with the host strains. Ms_YrbE3A increased significantly higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6 than did Ms_vec, while BCG_YrbE3A enhanced higher TNF-α than BCG_vec. The pathways associated with NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38/JNK, other than Erk1/2, regulated this process. In addition, mice were infected with Ms_YrbE3A and Ms-vec and were kinetically examined. Compared to Ms-vec, Ms_YrbE3A induced more serious inflammatory damage, higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6, higher numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in a time-dependent way, but lower lung bacterial load in lung. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of Mtb pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Host Innate Immune Response of Geese Infected with Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020224 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Since 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses have circulated in waterfowls and caused human infections in China, posing significant threats to the poultry industry and the public health. However, the genetics, pathogenicity and innate immune response of H5N6 HPAIVs in geese [...] Read more.
Since 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses have circulated in waterfowls and caused human infections in China, posing significant threats to the poultry industry and the public health. However, the genetics, pathogenicity and innate immune response of H5N6 HPAIVs in geese remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the genetic characteristic of the two H5N6 viruses (GS38 and DK09) isolated from apparently healthy domestic goose and duck in live poultry markets (LPMs) of Southern China in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HA genes of the two H5N6 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4 and were clustered into the MIX-like group. The MIX-like group viruses have circulated in regions such as China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The NA genes of the two H5N6 viruses were classified into the Eurasian sublineage. The internal genes including PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS of the two H5N6 viruses derived from the MIX-like. Therefore, our results suggested that the two H5N6 viruses were reassortants of the H5N1 and H6N6 viruses and likely derived from the same ancestor. Additionally, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmission of the two H5N6 viruses in domestic geese. Results showed that both the two viruses caused serious clinical symptoms in all inoculated geese and led to high mortality in these birds. Both the two viruses were transmitted efficiently to contact geese and caused lethal infection in these birds. Furthermore, we found that mRNA of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), interferons (IFNs), and stimulated genes (ISGs) exhibited different levels of activation in the lungs and spleens of the two H5N6 viruses-inoculated geese though did not protect these birds from H5N6 HPAIVs infection. Our results suggested that the clade 2.3.4.4 waterfowl-origin H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from LPMs of Southern China could cause high mortality in geese and innate immune-related genes were involved in the geese innate immune response to H5N6 HPAIVs infection. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the evolution, pathogenic variations of these viruses and enhance virological surveillance of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 HPAIVs in waterfowls in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Upregulation of Cytokines and Differentiation of Th17 and Treg by Dendritic Cells: Central Role of Prostaglandin E2 Induced by Mycobacterium bovis
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020195 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes bovine and human tuberculosis. Dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses by promoting antigen-specific T-cell activation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-COX signaling is an important mediator of inflammation [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes bovine and human tuberculosis. Dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses by promoting antigen-specific T-cell activation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-COX signaling is an important mediator of inflammation and immunity and might be involved in the pathogenesis of M. bovis infection. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the character of PGE2 in the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells induced by infected dendritic cells (DCs). Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were pre-infected with M. bovis and its attenuated strain M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Then, the infected DCs were co-cultured with naïve CD4+ T cells with or without the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and protein detection showed that PGE2/COX-2 signaling was activated, shown by the upregulation of PGE2 production as well as COX-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES1) transcription in DCs specifically induced by M. bovis and BCG infection. The further co-culture of infected DCs with naïve CD4+ T cells enhanced the generation of inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-23, while indomethacin suppressed their production. Following this, the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cell subsets was significantly induced by the infected DCs rather than uninfected DCs. Meanwhile, M. bovis infection stimulated significantly higher levels of IL-17 and IL-23 and the differentiation of Treg and Th17 cell subsets, while BCG infection led to higher levels of TNF-α and IL-12, but lower proportions of Treg and Th17 cells. In mice, M. bovis infection generated more bacterial load and severe abnormalities in spleens and lungs, as well as higher levels of COX-2, mPGE2 expression, Treg and Th17 cell subsets than BCG infection. In conclusion, PGE2/COX-2 signaling was activated in DCs by M. bovis infection and regulated differentiation of Treg and Th17 cell subsets through the crosstalk between DCs and naive T cells under the cytokine atmosphere of IL-17 and IL-23, which might contribute to M. bovis pathogenesis in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Stringent Selection of Knobby Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes during Cytoadhesion at Febrile Temperature
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020174 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Changes in the erythrocyte membrane induced by Plasmodium falciparum invasion allow cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelium, which can lead to severe complications. Binding to endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) is mainly mediated by members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane [...] Read more.
Changes in the erythrocyte membrane induced by Plasmodium falciparum invasion allow cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelium, which can lead to severe complications. Binding to endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) is mainly mediated by members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, encoded by var genes. Malaria infection causes several common symptoms, with fever being the most apparent. In this study, the effects of febrile conditions on cytoadhesion of predominately knobless erythrocytes infected with the laboratory isolate IT4 to chondroitin-4-sulfate A (CSA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and CD36 were investigated. IEs enriched for binding to CSA at 40 °C exhibited significantly increased binding capacity relative to parasites enriched at 37 °C. This interaction was due to increased var2csa expression and trafficking of the corresponding PfEMP1 to the IE surface as well as to a selection of knobby IEs. Furthermore, the enrichment of IEs to ICAM-1 at 40 °C also led to selection of knobby IEs over knobless IEs, whereas enrichment on CD36 did not lead to a selection. In summary, these findings demonstrate that knobs are crucial for parasitic survival in the host, especially during fever episodes, and thus, that selection pressure on the formation of knobs could be controlled by the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Oral Microbiota Composition and Antimicrobial Antibody Response in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120636 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa, and it has been recently associated with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. To study this link further, we investigated microbial shifts during RAS manifestation at an ulcer site, in its surroundings, [...] Read more.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of the oral mucosa, and it has been recently associated with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. To study this link further, we investigated microbial shifts during RAS manifestation at an ulcer site, in its surroundings, and at an unaffected site, compared with healed mucosa in RAS patients and healthy controls. We sampled microbes from five distinct sites in the oral cavity. The one site with the most pronounced differences in microbial alpha and beta diversity between RAS patients and healthy controls was the lower labial mucosa. Detailed analysis of this particular oral site revealed strict association of the genus Selenomonas with healed mucosa of RAS patients, whereas the class Clostridia and genera Lachnoanaerobaculum, Cardiobacterium, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium were associated with the presence of an active ulcer. Furthermore, active ulcers were dominated by Malassezia, which were negatively correlated with Streptococcus and Haemophilus and positively correlated with Porphyromonas species. In addition, RAS patients showed increased serum levels of IgG against Mogibacterium timidum compared with healthy controls. Our study demonstrates that the composition of bacteria and fungi colonizing healthy oral mucosa is changed in active RAS ulcers, and that this alteration persists to some extent even after the ulcer is healed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Entamoeba histolytica—Gut Microbiota Interaction: More Than Meets the Eye
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030581 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases, the infection is asymptomatic but when symptomatic, the infection can cause dysentery and invasive extraintestinal complications. In the gut, E. histolytica feeds on bacteria. Increasing evidences support the [...] Read more.
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases, the infection is asymptomatic but when symptomatic, the infection can cause dysentery and invasive extraintestinal complications. In the gut, E. histolytica feeds on bacteria. Increasing evidences support the role of the gut microbiota in the development of the disease. In this review we will discuss the consequences of E. histolytica infection on the gut microbiota. We will also discuss new evidences about the role of gut microbiota in regulating the resistance of the parasite to oxidative stress and its virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Review
Mycoplasmas–Host Interaction: Mechanisms of Inflammation and Association with Cellular Transformation
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091351 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating prokaryotes. Located everywhere in nature, they are widespread as parasites of humans, mammals, reptiles, fish, arthropods, and plants. They usually exhibiting organ and tissue specificity. Mycoplasmas belong to the class named Mollicutes (mollis = soft and [...] Read more.
Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating prokaryotes. Located everywhere in nature, they are widespread as parasites of humans, mammals, reptiles, fish, arthropods, and plants. They usually exhibiting organ and tissue specificity. Mycoplasmas belong to the class named Mollicutes (mollis = soft and cutis = skin, in Latin), and their small size and absence of a cell wall contribute to distinguish them from other bacteria. Mycoplasma species are found both outside the cells as membrane surface parasites and inside the cells, where they become intracellular residents as “silent parasites”. In humans, some Mycoplasma species are found as commensal inhabitants, while others have a significant impact on the cellular metabolism and physiology. Mollicutes lack typical bacterial PAMPs (e.g., lipoteichoic acid, flagellin, and some lipopolysaccharides) and consequently the exact molecular mechanisms of Mycoplasmas’ recognition by the cells of the immune system is the subjects of several researches for its pathogenic implications. It is well known that several strains of Mycoplasma suppress the transcriptional activity of p53, resulting in reduced apoptosis of damaged cells. In addition, some Mycoplasmas were reported to have oncogenic potential since they demonstrated not just accumulation of abnormalities but also phenotypic changes of the cells. Aim of this review is to provide an update of the current literature that implicates Mycoplasmas in triggering inflammation and altering critical cellular pathways, thus providing a better insight into potential mechanisms of cellular transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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Review
Lung Microbiome Participation in Local Immune Response Regulation in Respiratory Diseases
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071059 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
The lung microbiome composition has critical implications in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized the understanding of pulmonary physiology and pathology. Currently, it is clear that the lung is not a sterile place; therefore, the investigation [...] Read more.
The lung microbiome composition has critical implications in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized the understanding of pulmonary physiology and pathology. Currently, it is clear that the lung is not a sterile place; therefore, the investigation of the participation of the pulmonary microbiome in the presentation, severity, and prognosis of multiple pathologies, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and interstitial lung diseases, contributes to a better understanding of the pathophysiology. Dysregulation of microbiota components in the microbiome–host interaction is associated with multiple lung pathologies, severity, and prognosis, making microbiome study a useful tool for the identification of potential therapeutic strategies. This review integrates the findings regarding the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response pathways according to the microbiome, including microbial patterns that could be characteristic of certain diseases. Further studies are required to verify whether the microbial profile and its metabolites can be used as biomarkers of disease progression or poor prognosis and to identify new therapeutic targets that restore lung dysbiosis safely and effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Microbe Interactions in Animal/Human Health and Disease)
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