Special Issue "Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chang-Hwan Choi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-201-216-5579
Fax: +1-201-216-8315
Interests: micro- and nano-manufacturing; surface engineering; interfacial phenomena; micro- and nano-fluidics
Guest Editor
Dr. Ishan Wathuthanthri

Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, Advanced Technology Labs, 1212 Winterson Road, Linthicum, MD 21090, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +1-410-765-7178
Guest Editor
Dr. Ke Du

College of Chemistry, University of California, 311 Lewis Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +1-510-643-1321

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As scientific quests and engineering applications reach down to micro- and nanometer scales, there is a strong need to fabricate micro- and nanostructures with good regularity and controllability of their patterns, sizes, and shapes. In many applications, furthermore, the micro- and nanostructures are not useful unless they cover a relatively large area (greater than a wafer scale) and the manufacturing cost is within an acceptable range. While several micro- and nanoscale patterning techniques are available, it should be noted that most of the current methods do not cover a large area needed for non-electronic applications. Other non-lithographic methods, such as the use of templates and the direct growth of micro- or nanoscale structures, do not remain effective to provide good regularity over a large area. Nanomaterials are promising building blocks to design novel micro- and nanostructures. However, in such a bottom–up approach, practical applications require precise arrangement of nanomaterials into hierarchical orders to construct desired geometry with controllable shape, location, and direction on a large scale. This Special Issue seeks to highlight original research papers or review articles that report on the current state of the art in micro- and nanopatterning techniques, including both the top–down and bottom–up approaches, which are especially scalable for large-scale applications with precise control of their pattern regularity, size, and shape over a large area.

Prof. Dr. Chang-Hwan Choi
Dr. Ishan Wathuthanthri
Dr. Ke Du
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electron and ion beam lithography
  • Optical and extreme UV lithography
  • Nano-imprint lithography
  • Maskless and high-throughput direct write lithography
  • 3D micro- and nanolithography
  • Mask, template, and stencil fabrication
  • Directed self-assembly
  • Tip-based and scanning probe lithography
  • Large-area nanoscale patterning
  • Simulation and modeling of patterning technologies
  • Lithography for packaging and 3D integration
  • Etching and deposition
  • Nanoparticle and nanotube assembly and placement
  • Advanced pattern transfer concepts

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial The Rise of Scalable Micro/Nanopatterning
Micromachines 2017, 8(9), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8090275
Received: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is the golden age of scalable micro/nanopatterning, as these methods emerge as an answer to produce industrial-scale nano-objects with a focus on economical sustainability and reliability.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Large-Scale Fabrication of Porous Gold Nanowires via Laser Interference Lithography and Dealloying of Gold–Silver Nano-Alloys
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8060168
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we report on an efficient approach to fabricating large-area and uniform planar arrays of highly ordered nanoporous gold nanowires. The approach consists in dealloying Au–Ag alloy nanowires in concentrated nitric acid. The Au–Ag alloy nanowires were obtained by thermal annealing
[...] Read more.
In this work, we report on an efficient approach to fabricating large-area and uniform planar arrays of highly ordered nanoporous gold nanowires. The approach consists in dealloying Au–Ag alloy nanowires in concentrated nitric acid. The Au–Ag alloy nanowires were obtained by thermal annealing at 800 °C for 2 h of Au/Ag stacked nanoribbons prepared by subsequent evaporation of silver and gold through a nanograted photoresist layer serving as a mask for a lift-off process. Laser interference lithography was employed for the nanopatterning of the photoresist layer to create the large-area nanostructured mask. The result shows that for a low Au-to-Ag ratio of 1, the nanowires tend to cracks during the dealloying due to the internal residual stress generated during the dealloying process, whereas the increase of the Au-to-Ag ratio to 3 can overcome the drawback and successfully leads to the obtainment of an array of highly ordered nanoporous gold nanowires. Nanoporous gold nanowires with such well-regulated organization on a wafer-scale planar substrate are of great significance in many applications including sensors and actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessArticle Solvent-Free Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dot Films Utilizing Shape Memory Polymers
Micromachines 2017, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8010018
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with properties that can be tuned by size, shape, and composition are promising for the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. However, utilization of these materials in such devices is hindered by the limited compatibility of established semiconductor
[...] Read more.
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with properties that can be tuned by size, shape, and composition are promising for the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. However, utilization of these materials in such devices is hindered by the limited compatibility of established semiconductor processing techniques. In this context, patterning of QD films formed from colloidal solutions is a critical challenge and alternative methods are currently being developed for the broader adoption of colloidal QDs in functional devices. Here, we present a solvent-free approach to patterning QD films by utilizing a shape memory polymer (SMP). The high pull-off force of the SMP below glass transition temperature (Tg) in conjunction with the conformal contact at elevated temperatures (above Tg) enables large-area, rate-independent, fine patterning while preserving desired properties of QDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessArticle Time-Efficient High-Resolution Large-Area Nano-Patterning of Silicon Dioxide
Micromachines 2017, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8010013
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A nano-patterning approach on silicon dioxide (SiO2) material, which could be used for the selective growth of III-V nanowires in photovoltaic applications, is demonstrated. In this process, a silicon (Si) stamp with nanopillar structures was first fabricated using electron-beam lithography (EBL)
[...] Read more.
A nano-patterning approach on silicon dioxide (SiO2) material, which could be used for the selective growth of III-V nanowires in photovoltaic applications, is demonstrated. In this process, a silicon (Si) stamp with nanopillar structures was first fabricated using electron-beam lithography (EBL) followed by a dry etching process. Afterwards, the Si stamp was employed in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) assisted with a dry etching process to produce nanoholes on the SiO2 layer. The demonstrated approach has advantages such as a high resolution in nanoscale by EBL and good reproducibility by NIL. In addition, high time efficiency can be realized by one-spot electron-beam exposure in the EBL process combined with NIL for mass production. Furthermore, the one-spot exposure enables the scalability of the nanostructures for different application requirements by tuning only the exposure dose. The size variation of the nanostructures resulting from exposure parameters in EBL, the pattern transfer during nanoimprint in NIL, and subsequent etching processes of SiO2 were also studied quantitatively. By this method, a hexagonal arranged hole array in SiO2 with a hole diameter ranging from 45 to 75 nm and a pitch of 600 nm was demonstrated on a four-inch wafer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessCommunication Non-Lithographic Silicon Micromachining Using Inkjet and Chemical Etching
Micromachines 2016, 7(12), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7120222
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We introduce a non-lithographical and vacuum-free method to pattern silicon. The method combines inkjet printing and metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE); we call this method “INKMAC”. A commercial silver ink is printed on top of a silicon surface to create the catalytic patterns
[...] Read more.
We introduce a non-lithographical and vacuum-free method to pattern silicon. The method combines inkjet printing and metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE); we call this method “INKMAC”. A commercial silver ink is printed on top of a silicon surface to create the catalytic patterns for MaCE. The MaCE process leaves behind a set of silicon nanowires in the shape of the inkjet printed micrometer scale pattern. We further show how a potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet etching process can be used to rapidly etch away the nanowires, producing fully opened cavities and channels in the shape of the original printed pattern. We show how the printed lines (width 50–100 µm) can be etched into functional silicon microfluidic channels with different depths (10–40 µm) with aspect ratios close to one. We also used individual droplets (minimum diameter 30 µm) to produce cavities with a depth of 60 µm and an aspect ratio of two. Further, we discuss using the structured silicon substrate as a template for polymer replication to produce superhydrophobic surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessArticle Antireflective SiC Surface Fabricated by Scalable Self-Assembled Nanopatterning
Micromachines 2016, 7(9), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7090152
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An approach for fabricating sub-wavelength antireflective structures on SiC material is demonstrated. A time-efficient scalable nanopatterning method by rapid thermal annealing of thin metal film is applied followed by a dry etching process. Size-dependent optical properties of the antireflective SiC structures have been
[...] Read more.
An approach for fabricating sub-wavelength antireflective structures on SiC material is demonstrated. A time-efficient scalable nanopatterning method by rapid thermal annealing of thin metal film is applied followed by a dry etching process. Size-dependent optical properties of the antireflective SiC structures have been investigated. It is found that the surface reflection of SiC in the visible spectral range is significantly suppressed by applying the antireflective structures. Meanwhile, optical transmission and absorption could be tuned by modifying the feature size of the structure. It is believed that this effective fabrication method of antireflective structures could also be realized on other semiconductor materials or devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Stencil Lithography for Scalable Micro- and Nanomanufacturing
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8040131
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (6213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress of using rigid membranes such as SiNx and Si as stencil masks as well as stacking layers. We also review the current use of flexible membranes including a compliant SiNx membrane with springs, polyimide film, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and photoresist-based membranes as stencil lithography masks to address problems such as blurring and non-planar surface patterning. Moreover, we discuss the dynamic stencil lithography technique, which significantly improves the patterning throughput and speed by moving the stencil over the target substrate during deposition. Lastly, we discuss the future advancement of stencil lithography for a resistless, reusable, scalable, and programmable nanolithography method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8030090
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (10519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. In this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use
[...] Read more.
Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. In this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Scalable Nanomanufacturing—A Review
Micromachines 2017, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8010020
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes the field of scalable nanomanufacturing, its importance and need, its research activities and achievements. The National Science Foundation is taking a leading role in fostering basic research in scalable nanomanufacturing (SNM). From this effort several novel nanomanufacturing approaches have been
[...] Read more.
This article describes the field of scalable nanomanufacturing, its importance and need, its research activities and achievements. The National Science Foundation is taking a leading role in fostering basic research in scalable nanomanufacturing (SNM). From this effort several novel nanomanufacturing approaches have been proposed, studied and demonstrated, including scalable nanopatterning. This paper will discuss SNM research areas in materials, processes and applications, scale-up methods with project examples, and manufacturing challenges that need to be addressed to move nanotechnology discoveries closer to the marketplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Micro/Nano Patterning)
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