Special Issue "Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marc Madou
Website
Guest Editor
Depmartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Department, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Integrated Nanofabrication Facility (INRF), University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA
Interests: nano sensors; carbon nanowires; suspended nanowires; carbon MEMS; carbon NEMS; dielectrophoresis; glassy carbon; carbon electrochemistry; interdigitated electrode arrays
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last two decades, three types of micro-fluidic approaches have become very popular research topics: droplet fluidics, paper fluidics, and centrifugal fluidics. In this Special Issue, we address the remaining issues to be resolved, so as to achieve a greater acceptance by the industry of the centrifugal platform (and also of compact–disc or CD microfluidics). Medical diagnostics on a CD hold much potential, especially with regard to the more rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. As a part of the shift towards de-centralized and low-cost healthcare, microfluidic platforms aim to move medical diagnostics out of the laboratory and into the point-of-care (POC). With this Special Issue, we aim to tackle the most difficult POC situations, such as remote villages in India and Africa (i.e., extreme POC). POC today still often implies that DI water, low humidity, steady power supply, air conditioning, and a dust-free environment are available. In this pioneering issue, we discuss how we might handle medical diagnostics in the absence of all these factors. Contributions from industry and academia highlight interesting new applications and new research directions, respectively, that might enable this lofty goal.

Prof. Dr. Marc Madou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microfluidics
  • centrifugal
  • compact disc
  • medical diagnostics
  • point of care (POC)

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Rapid Micromixer for Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050089 - 10 May 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative mixing technology for centrifugal microfluidic platforms actuated using a specially designed flyball governor. The multilayer microfluidic disc was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding process with a soft lithography technique. The operational principle is based on the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative mixing technology for centrifugal microfluidic platforms actuated using a specially designed flyball governor. The multilayer microfluidic disc was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding process with a soft lithography technique. The operational principle is based on the interaction between the elastic covering membrane and an actuator pin installed on the flyball governor system. The flyball governor was used as the transducer to convert the rotary motion into a reciprocating linear motion of the pin pressing against the covering membrane of the mixer chamber. When the rotation speed of the microfluidic disc was periodically altered, the mixing chamber was compressed and released accordingly. In this way, enhanced active mixing can be achieved with much better efficiency in comparison with diffusive mixing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Photochemical Synthesis and Versatile Functionalization Method of a Robust Porous Poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate) Monolith Dedicated to Radiochemical Separation in a Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform
Micromachines 2016, 7(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7030045 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. An ion-exchange support with respect to the in situ light-addressable process of elaboration is specifically designed to be incorporated as a radiochemical sample preparation module in centrifugal [...] Read more.
The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. An ion-exchange support with respect to the in situ light-addressable process of elaboration is specifically designed to be incorporated as a radiochemical sample preparation module in centrifugal microsystem devices. This paper presents a systematic study of the synthesis of the polymeric porous monolith poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate) used as a solid-phase support and the versatile and robust photografting process of the monolith based on thiol-ene click chemistry. The polymerization reaction is investigated, varying the formulation of the polymerisable mixture. The robustness of the stationary phase was tested in concentrated nitric acid. Thanks to their unique “easy-to-use” features, centrifugal microfluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the downscaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment, and low cost of maintenance). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Allergy Testing and Drug Screening on an ITO-Coated Lab-on-a-Disc
Micromachines 2016, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7030038 - 27 Feb 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
A lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) is a centrifugal microfluidic set-up based on centrifugal force without using micro-pumps to drive reagents and cells to various chambers through channels and valves for reactions. A LOAD coated with conductive transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) for thermal control was [...] Read more.
A lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) is a centrifugal microfluidic set-up based on centrifugal force without using micro-pumps to drive reagents and cells to various chambers through channels and valves for reactions. A LOAD coated with conductive transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) for thermal control was developed to screen allergy-blocking agents. When the acridine orange (AO)-loaded KU-812 human basophilic cells were activated in the LOAD by stimuli, AO trapped in the cytoplasmic granules was released externally as an allergic mediator mimetic to report degranulation. This response was monitored by fluorescence when the released AO in supernatant had been transferred, with a higher spinning speed, from the reaction chamber to detection chamber in the LOAD where AO reacted with exogenous DNA. We report here the principles of the system and an improved LOAD set-up with the ITO-coated glass resistive microheater to run assays at 37 °C. By using this platform, we demonstrate here for the first time that triptolide, an active ingredient from the Chinese medicine herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., was able to suppress the fMLP-mediated degranulation in basophils. This serves as an example how LOADs can be used to screen agents to alleviate symptoms of allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Height Resolution of Antibody Spots Measured by Spinning-Disk Interferometry on the BioCD
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7020031 - 17 Feb 2016
Abstract
Spinning-disc interferometry (SDI) is a high-speed laser scanning approach to surface metrology that uses common-path interferometry to measure protein spots on a BioCD disk. The measurement sensitivity depends on the scanning pitch and on the time-base. Based on high-resolution laser scanning images of [...] Read more.
Spinning-disc interferometry (SDI) is a high-speed laser scanning approach to surface metrology that uses common-path interferometry to measure protein spots on a BioCD disk. The measurement sensitivity depends on the scanning pitch and on the time-base. Based on high-resolution laser scanning images of printed antibody spots, we quantify the protein sensitivity as a function of the scan parameters. For smoothly printed antibody spots scanned with a transverse spatial resolution of 1 μm, the surface height precision for a single 100 μm diameter protein spot is approximately 1 pm. This detection sensitivity sets the fundamental limit of detection for label-free BioCD biosensors performing immunoassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Cell Encapsulation for Multiplexing Diagnostic Assays Using Novel Centrifugal Microfluidic Emulsification and Separation Platform
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7020017 - 25 Jan 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
In the present paper, we report a novel centrifugal microfluidic platform for emulsification and separation. Our design enables encapsulation and incubation of multiple types of cells by droplets, which can be generated at controlled high rotation speed modifying the transition between dripping-to-jetting regimes. [...] Read more.
In the present paper, we report a novel centrifugal microfluidic platform for emulsification and separation. Our design enables encapsulation and incubation of multiple types of cells by droplets, which can be generated at controlled high rotation speed modifying the transition between dripping-to-jetting regimes. The droplets can be separated from continuous phase using facile bifurcated junction design. A three dimensional (3D) model was established to investigate the formation and sedimentation of droplets using the centrifugal microfluidic platform by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The simulation results were compared to the reported experiments in terms of droplet shape and size to validate the accuracy of the model. The influence of the grid resolution was investigated and quantified. The physics associated with droplet formation and sedimentation is governed by the Bond number and Rossby number, respectively. Our investigation provides insight into the design criteria that can be used to establish centrifugal microfluidic platforms tailored to potential applications, such as multiplexing diagnostic assays, due to the unique capabilities of the device in handling multiple types of cells and biosamples with high throughput. This work can inspire new development of cell encapsulation and separation applications by centrifugal microfluidic technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Detection of Salmonella enterica in Food Using a Compact Disc-Shaped Device
Micromachines 2016, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7010010 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rapid detection of food-borne pathogens is essential to public health and the food industry. Although the conventional culture method is highly sensitive, it takes at least a few days to detect food-borne pathogens. Even though polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect food-borne pathogens [...] Read more.
Rapid detection of food-borne pathogens is essential to public health and the food industry. Although the conventional culture method is highly sensitive, it takes at least a few days to detect food-borne pathogens. Even though polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect food-borne pathogens in a few hours, it is more expensive and unsatisfactorily sensitive relative to the culture method. We have developed a method to rapidly detect Salmonella enterica by using a compact disc (CD)-shaped device that can reduce reagent consumption in conventional PCR. The detection method, which combines culture and PCR, is more rapid than the conventional culture method and is more sensitive and cheaper than PCR. In this study, we also examined a sample preparation method that involved collecting bacterial cells from food. The bacteria collected from chicken meat spiked with S. enterica were mixed with PCR reagents, and PCR was performed on the device. At a low concentration of S. enterica, the collected S. enterica was cultured before PCR for sensitive detection. After cultivation for 4 h, S. enterica at 1.7 × 104 colony-forming units (CFUs)·g−1 was detected within 8 h, which included the time needed for sample preparation and detection. Furthermore, the detection of 30 CFUs·g−1 of S. enterica was possible within 12 h including 8 h for cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Observation and Manipulation of a Capillary Jet in a Centrifuge-Based Droplet Shooting Device
Micromachines 2015, 6(10), 1526-1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6101436 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
We report observation and manipulation of a capillary jet under ultra-high centrifugal gravity in a proposed capillary-based fluidic device for the synthesis of microparticles in a centrifugal tube called Centrifuge-Based Droplet Shooting Device (CDSD). Using a high-speed camera, we directly observed the dripping [...] Read more.
We report observation and manipulation of a capillary jet under ultra-high centrifugal gravity in a proposed capillary-based fluidic device for the synthesis of microparticles in a centrifugal tube called Centrifuge-Based Droplet Shooting Device (CDSD). Using a high-speed camera, we directly observed the dripping to jetting transition of a viscous capillary jet of water and Sodium alginate solution generated from a glass capillary-orifice of a diameter of O (100) m under centrifugal gravity ranging from 190 to 450 g. A non-dimensional analysis shows that the mechanism of the dripping-jetting transition in the CDSD may follow that previously reported for a dripping faucet under standard gravity. We also fabricated calcium alginate microparticles by gelating droplets of sodium alginate solution obtained in the break-up of the capillary jet in the jetting regime and demonstrated fabrication of microbeads-on-a-string structures. We confirmed that the jetting regime of the capillary jet could be used to fabricate smaller particles than that of the dripping regime. The results show that the CDSD would be a more useful device to fabricate various polymeric structures and understand the physics of fluid jets under ultra-high gravity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The GenePOC Platform, a Rational Solution for Extreme Point-of-Care Testing
Micromachines 2016, 7(6), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7060094 - 24 May 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Extreme point-of-care (POC) testing for infections, as performed (endured) in low-resource settings, developing countries, tropical areas, or in conditions following emergency crises or natural disasters, must be undertaken under environmental, logistic, and societal conditions which impose a significant deal of stress on local [...] Read more.
Extreme point-of-care (POC) testing for infections, as performed (endured) in low-resource settings, developing countries, tropical areas, or in conditions following emergency crises or natural disasters, must be undertaken under environmental, logistic, and societal conditions which impose a significant deal of stress on local human populations and healthcare providers. For disease diagnostics or management, simple and robust biomedical equipment and reagents are required and needed. This chapter aims to overview some of these stresses (requirements) and intends to describe some of the solutions already engineered at the heart of centripetal (centrifugal) microfluidic platforms such as that of GenePOC Inc. to enable rapid, robust, and reproducible nucleic acid-based diagnostics of infectious diseases, to better control the morbidity and mortality of infections and the expanding threat posed by antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessReview
Challenges in the Use of Compact Disc-Based Centrifugal Microfluidics for Healthcare Diagnostics at the Extreme Point of Care
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040052 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Since its inception, Compact Disc (CD)-based centrifugal microfluidic technology has drawn a great deal of interest within research communities due to its potential use in biomedical applications. The technology has been referred to by different names, including compact-disc microfluidics, lab-on-a-disk, lab-on-a-CD and bio-disk. [...] Read more.
Since its inception, Compact Disc (CD)-based centrifugal microfluidic technology has drawn a great deal of interest within research communities due to its potential use in biomedical applications. The technology has been referred to by different names, including compact-disc microfluidics, lab-on-a-disk, lab-on-a-CD and bio-disk. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in CD-based centrifugal microfluidics devices and attempts to identify the challenges that, if solved, would enable their use in the extreme point of care. Sample actuation, manufacturing, reagent storage and implementation, target multiplexing, bio-particle detection, required hardware and system disposal, and sustainability are the topics of focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessReview
Challenges and Opportunities of Centrifugal Microfluidics for Extreme Point-of-Care Testing
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7020032 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
The advantages offered by centrifugal microfluidic systems have encouraged its rapid adaptation in the fields of in vitro diagnostics, clinical chemistry, immunoassays, and nucleic acid tests. Centrifugal microfluidic devices are currently used in both clinical and point-of-care settings. Recent studies have shown that [...] Read more.
The advantages offered by centrifugal microfluidic systems have encouraged its rapid adaptation in the fields of in vitro diagnostics, clinical chemistry, immunoassays, and nucleic acid tests. Centrifugal microfluidic devices are currently used in both clinical and point-of-care settings. Recent studies have shown that this new diagnostic platform could be potentially used in extreme point-of-care settings like remote villages in the Indian subcontinent and in Africa. Several technological inventions have decentralized diagnostics in developing countries; however, very few microfluidic technologies have been successful in meeting the demand. By identifying the finest difference between the point-of-care testing and extreme point-of-care infrastructure, this review captures the evolving diagnostic needs of developing countries paired with infrastructural challenges with technological hurdles to healthcare delivery in extreme point-of-care settings. In particular, the requirements for making centrifugal diagnostic devices viable in developing countries are discussed based on a detailed analysis of the demands in different clinical settings including the distinctive needs of extreme point-of-care settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7020026 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 49
Abstract
Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to [...] Read more.
Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i) unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii) systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessReview
CD-Based Microfluidics for Primary Care in Extreme Point-of-Care Settings
Micromachines 2016, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7020022 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 42
Abstract
We review the utility of centrifugal microfluidic technologies applied to point-of-care diagnosis in extremely under-resourced environments. The various challenges faced in these settings are showcased, using areas in India and Africa as examples. Measures for the ability of integrated devices to effectively address [...] Read more.
We review the utility of centrifugal microfluidic technologies applied to point-of-care diagnosis in extremely under-resourced environments. The various challenges faced in these settings are showcased, using areas in India and Africa as examples. Measures for the ability of integrated devices to effectively address point-of-care challenges are highlighted, and centrifugal, often termed CD-based microfluidic technologies, technologies are presented as a promising platform to address these challenges. We describe the advantages of centrifugal liquid handling, as well as the ability of a standard CD player to perform a number of common laboratory tests, fulfilling the role of an integrated lab-on-a-CD. Innovative centrifugal approaches for point-of-care in extremely resource-poor settings are highlighted, including sensing and detection strategies, smart power sources and biomimetic inspiration for environmental control. The evolution of centrifugal microfluidics, along with examples of commercial and advanced prototype centrifugal microfluidic systems, is presented, illustrating the success of deployment at the point-of-care. A close fit of emerging centrifugal systems to address a critical panel of tests for under-resourced clinic settings, formulated by medical experts, is demonstrated. This emphasizes the potential of centrifugal microfluidic technologies to be applied effectively to extremely challenging point-of-care scenarios and in playing a role in improving primary care in resource-limited settings across the developing world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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