Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D1: Semiconductor Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 33230

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics & Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Interests: infrared sensing; nano and microstruture IR devices; medical diagnostics using infrared; plasmonic enhancements; novel materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infrared (IR) technologies—from Herschel’s initial experiment in the 1800s, to thermal detector development in the 1900s, followed by defense focused developments using HgCdTe—have now incorporated a myriad of novel materials for a wide variety of applications in numerous high-impact fields. These include astronomy applications, composition identifications; toxic gas and explosive detection; medical diagnostics; and industrial, commercial, imaging and security applications. Various types of semiconductor-based (including quantum well, dot, ring, wire, dot in well, hetero and/or homo junction, Type II super lattice, and Schottky) IR (photon) detectors, based on various materials (type IV, III-V, and II-VI), have been developed to satisfy these needs. Now, room temperature detectors operating over a wide wavelength range from near IR to terahertz are available in various forms, including focal plane array cameras. Recent advances include performance enhancements by using surface Plasmon and ultrafast, high-sensitive 2-D materials for infrared sensing. Specialized detectors with features such as multiband, selectable wavelength, polarization sensitive, high operating temperature, and high performance (including but not limited to very low dark currents) are also being developed.

This Special Issue highlights the advances in these various types of infrared detectors based on various material systems.

Prof. Dr. A. G. Unil Perera
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Infrared Materials
  • Detectors
  • Micro Sensor Arrays and Applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications
by A. G. Unil Perera
Micromachines 2021, 12(9), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12091069 - 2 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Infrared radiation (IR) was accidentally discovered in 1800 by the astronomer Sir William Herschel [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)

Research

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14 pages, 6381 KiB  
Article
Thermoelectrically-Cooled InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice Detectors as an Alternative to HgCdTe in a Real-Time Mid-Infrared Backscattering Spectroscopy System
by Raphael Müller, Marko Haertelt, Jasmin Niemasz, Klaus Schwarz, Volker Daumer, Yuri V. Flores, Ralf Ostendorf and Robert Rehm
Micromachines 2020, 11(12), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121124 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3335
Abstract
We report on the development of thermoelectrically cooled (TE-cooled) InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) single element infrared (IR) photodetectors and exemplify their applicability for real-time IR spectroscopy in the mid-infrared in a possible application. As the European Union’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) threatens [...] Read more.
We report on the development of thermoelectrically cooled (TE-cooled) InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) single element infrared (IR) photodetectors and exemplify their applicability for real-time IR spectroscopy in the mid-infrared in a possible application. As the European Union’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) threatens the usage of the state-of-the-art detector material mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), RoHS-compatible alternatives to MCT have to be established for IR detection. We use bandgap engineered InAs/GaSb T2SLs to tailor the temperature-dependent bandgap energy for detection throughout the required spectral range. Molecular beam epitaxy of superlattice samples is performed on GaAs substrates with a metamorphic GaAsSb buffer layer. Photolithographic processing yields laterally-operated T2SL photodetectors. Integrated in a TE-cooled IR detector module, such T2SL photodetectors can be an alternative to MCT photodetectors for spectroscopy applications. Here, we exemplify this by exchanging a commercially available MCT-based IR detector module with our T2SL-based IR detector module in a real-time mid-infrared backscattering spectroscopy system for substance identification. The key detector requirements imposed by the spectroscopy system are a MHz-bandwidth, a broad spectral response, and a high signal-to-noise ratio, all of which are covered by the reported T2SL-based IR detector module. Hence, in this paper, we demonstrate the versatility of TE-cooled InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetectors and their applicability in an IR spectroscopy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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6 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Manganite Heterojunction Photodetector with Broad Spectral Response Range from 200 nm to 2 μm
by Ru Chen, Zhiqing Lu and Kun Zhao
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020129 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the broad spectral photocurrent properties of the La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/Si (LCMO/Si) heterojunction from 200 nm to 2.0 μm, as the temperature increases from 95 to 300 K. We observed the junction’s uniform responsivity in [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the broad spectral photocurrent properties of the La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/Si (LCMO/Si) heterojunction from 200 nm to 2.0 μm, as the temperature increases from 95 to 300 K. We observed the junction’s uniform responsivity in the visible range and five absorption peaks at 940 nm, 1180 nm, 1380 nm, 1580 nm, and 1900 nm wavelengths. The temperature showed effective affection to the photocurrents at absorption peaks and the transition point occurred at 216 K, which was also displayed in the temperature dependence of junction resistance. On the basis of the results, we propose a possible model involving the quantum size effect at the junction interface as the mechanism. This understanding of the infrared photodetection properties of oxide heterostructures should open a route for devising future microelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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8 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
InAs/InAsSb Strained-Layer Superlattice Mid-Wavelength Infrared Detector for High-Temperature Operation
by Gamini Ariyawansa, Joshua Duran, Charles Reyner and John Scheihing
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120806 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4017
Abstract
This paper reports an InAs/InAsSb strained-layer superlattice (SLS) mid-wavelength infrared detector and a focal plane array particularly suited for high-temperature operation. Utilizing the nBn architecture, the detector structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy and consists of a 5.5 µm thick [...] Read more.
This paper reports an InAs/InAsSb strained-layer superlattice (SLS) mid-wavelength infrared detector and a focal plane array particularly suited for high-temperature operation. Utilizing the nBn architecture, the detector structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy and consists of a 5.5 µm thick n-type SLS as the infrared-absorbing element. Through detailed characterization, it was found that the detector exhibits a cut-off wavelength of 5.5 um, a peak external quantum efficiency (without anti-reflection coating) of 56%, and a dark current of 3.4 × 10−4 A/cm2, which is a factor of 9 times Rule 07, at 160 K temperature. It was also found that the quantum efficiency increases with temperature and reaches ~56% at 140 K, which is probably due to the diffusion length being shorter than the absorber thickness at temperatures below 140 K. A 320 × 256 focal plane array was also fabricated and tested, revealing noise equivalent temperature difference of ~10 mK at 80 K with f/2.3 optics and 3 ms integration time. The overall performance indicates that these SLS detectors have the potential to reach the performance comparable to InSb detectors at temperatures higher than 80 K, enabling high-temperature operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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9 pages, 2140 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Simulation of Forcing the Limits of Thermal Sensing for Microbolometers in CMOS–MEMS Technology
by Hasan Göktaş and Fikri Serdar Gökhan
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110733 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Room-temperature highly sensitive microbolometers are becoming very attractive in infrared (IR) sensing with the increase in demand for the internet of things (IOT), night vision, and medical imaging. Different techniques, such as building extremely small-scale devices (nanotubes, etc.) or using 2D materials, showed [...] Read more.
Room-temperature highly sensitive microbolometers are becoming very attractive in infrared (IR) sensing with the increase in demand for the internet of things (IOT), night vision, and medical imaging. Different techniques, such as building extremely small-scale devices (nanotubes, etc.) or using 2D materials, showed promising results in terms of high sensitivity with the cost of challenges in fabrication and low-noise readout circuit. Here, we propose a new and simple technique on the application of joule heating on a clamped–clamped beam without adding any complexity. It provides much better uniformity in temperature distribution in comparison to conventional joule heating, and this results in higher thermal stresses on fixed ends. This consequently brings around 60.5× improvement in the overall temperature sensitivity according to both theory and COMSOL (multiphysics solver). The sensitivity increased with the increase in the stiffness constant, and it was calculated as 134 N/m for a device with a 60.5× improvement. A considerable amount of decrease in the operation temperature (36× below 383 K and 47× below 428 K) was achieved via a new technique. That’s why the proposed solution can be used either to build highly reliable long-term devices or to increase the thermal sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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Review

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17 pages, 1936 KiB  
Review
InAs/InAsSb Type-II Strained-Layer Superlattice Infrared Photodetectors
by David Z. Ting, Sir B. Rafol, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Alexander Soibel, Sam A. Keo, Anita M. Fisher, Brian J. Pepper, Cory J. Hill and Sarath D. Gunapala
Micromachines 2020, 11(11), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11110958 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5146
Abstract
The InAs/InAsSb (Gallium-free) type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) has emerged in the last decade as a viable infrared detector material with a continuously adjustable band gap capable of accommodating detector cutoff wavelengths ranging from 4 to 15 µm and beyond. When coupled with the [...] Read more.
The InAs/InAsSb (Gallium-free) type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) has emerged in the last decade as a viable infrared detector material with a continuously adjustable band gap capable of accommodating detector cutoff wavelengths ranging from 4 to 15 µm and beyond. When coupled with the unipolar barrier infrared detector architecture, the InAs/InAsSb T2SLS mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) focal plane array (FPA) has demonstrated a significantly higher operating temperature than InSb FPA, a major incumbent technology. In this brief review paper, we describe the emergence of the InAs/InAsSb T2SLS infrared photodetector technology, point out its advantages and disadvantages, and survey its recent development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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24 pages, 1571 KiB  
Review
Overview of Ultrasound Detection Technologies for Photoacoustic Imaging
by Rayyan Manwar, Karl Kratkiewicz and Kamran Avanaki
Micromachines 2020, 11(7), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11070692 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 81 | Viewed by 9779
Abstract
Ultrasound detection is one of the major components of photoacoustic imaging systems. Advancement in ultrasound transducer technology has a significant impact on the translation of photoacoustic imaging to the clinic. Here, we present an overview on various ultrasound transducer technologies including conventional piezoelectric [...] Read more.
Ultrasound detection is one of the major components of photoacoustic imaging systems. Advancement in ultrasound transducer technology has a significant impact on the translation of photoacoustic imaging to the clinic. Here, we present an overview on various ultrasound transducer technologies including conventional piezoelectric and micromachined transducers, as well as optical ultrasound detection technology. We explain the core components of each technology, their working principle, and describe their manufacturing process. We then quantitatively compare their performance when they are used in the receive mode of a photoacoustic imaging system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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16 pages, 2225 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress on Extended Wavelength and Split-Off Band Heterostructure Infrared Detectors
by Hemendra Ghimire, P. V. V. Jayaweera, Divya Somvanshi, Yanfeng Lao and A. G. Unil Perera
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11060547 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3479
Abstract
The use of multilayer semiconductor heterojunction structures has shown promise in infrared detector applications. Several heterostructures with innovative compositional and architectural designs have been displayed on emerging infrared technologies. In this review, we aim to illustrate the principles of heterostructure detectors for infrared [...] Read more.
The use of multilayer semiconductor heterojunction structures has shown promise in infrared detector applications. Several heterostructures with innovative compositional and architectural designs have been displayed on emerging infrared technologies. In this review, we aim to illustrate the principles of heterostructure detectors for infrared detection and explore the recent progress on the development of detectors with the split-off band and threshold wavelength extension mechanism. This review article includes an understanding of the compositional and the architectural design of split-off band detectors and to prepare a database of their performances for the wavelength extension mechanism. Preparing a unique database of the compositional or architectural design of structures, their performance, and penetrating the basics of infrared detection mechanisms can lead to significant improvements in the quality of research. The brief outlook of the fundamentals of the infrared detection technique with its appropriateness and limitations for better performance is also provided. The results of the long-term study presented in this review article would be of considerable assistance to those who are focused on the heterostructure infrared detector development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Infrared Devices and Applications)
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