Special Issue "Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication "

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Harald Plank
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
Tel. +43-316-873-8821
Interests: direct-write nanofabrication; focused electron beam-induced deposition; focused ion beam processing; atomic force microscopy; functional nano-probes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, additive direct-write manufacturing has attracted considerable attention in research and development. The main advantage of such a method is the ability to fabricate complex structures in a single-step, which expands accessibility to non-flat surfaces, morphologically exposed areas, already finished device architectures, or encapsulated packages; accordingly, such direct-write technologies complement situations in which alternative methods approach their intrinsic limitations. While applications on the micro- and meso-scale below are already well established in industrial productions such as roll-to-roll processes, laser sintering, inkjet printing, or imprint lithography, the extension to the real nanoscale is still an ongoing and highly challenging task. Promising candidates with the potential to meet these dimensional requirements are photons, ions, or electrons, as demonstrated by numerous proof-of-principle studies during the last decade. Aside from their technical nature, direct-write approaches enable controlled fabrication of complex, freestanding 3D nano-architectures in a single step, which paves the way for novel applications. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) additive and/or subtractive direct-write technologies for (2) fabrication of 1D–3D nanostructures including their combination to larger structures, (3) modelling fundamental process mechanisms, and (4) applications and/or material properties of such structures that strongly benefit from direct-write fabrication approaches.

Prof. Dr. Harald Plank
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additive direct-write nanofabrication
  • Subtractive direct-write nanofabrication
  • Process modelling
  • Applications and material properties.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Additive Nano-Lithography with Focused Soft X-rays: Basics, Challenges, and Opportunities
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120834 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
Focused soft X-ray beam induced deposition (FXBID) is a novel technique for direct-write nanofabrication of metallic nanostructures from metal organic precursor gases. It combines the established concepts of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) and X-ray lithography (XRL). The present setup is based [...] Read more.
Focused soft X-ray beam induced deposition (FXBID) is a novel technique for direct-write nanofabrication of metallic nanostructures from metal organic precursor gases. It combines the established concepts of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) and X-ray lithography (XRL). The present setup is based on a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) equipped with a gas flow cell to provide metal organic precursor molecules towards the intended deposition zone. Fundamentals of X-ray microscopy instrumentation and X-ray radiation chemistry relevant for FXBID development are presented in a comprehensive form. Recently published proof-of-concept studies on initial experiments on FXBID nanolithography are reviewed for an overview on current progress and proposed advances of nanofabrication performance. Potential applications and advantages of FXBID are discussed with respect to competing electron/ion based techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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Open AccessReview
Functional Metallic Microcomponents via Liquid-Phase Multiphoton Direct Laser Writing: A Review
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120827 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
We present an overview of functional metallic microstructures fabricated via direct laser writing out of the liquid phase. Metallic microstructures often are key components in diverse applications such as, e.g., microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Since the metallic component’s functionality mostly depends on other components, [...] Read more.
We present an overview of functional metallic microstructures fabricated via direct laser writing out of the liquid phase. Metallic microstructures often are key components in diverse applications such as, e.g., microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Since the metallic component’s functionality mostly depends on other components, a technology that enables on-chip fabrication of these metal structures is highly desirable. Direct laser writing via multiphoton absorption is such a fabrication method. In the past, it has mostly been used to fabricate multidimensional polymeric structures. However, during the last few years different groups have put effort into the development of novel photosensitive materials that enable fabrication of metallic—especially gold and silver—microstructures. The results of these efforts are summarized in this review and show that direct laser fabrication of metallic microstructures has reached the level of applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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Open AccessReview
Comparison between Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition at Room Temperature and under Cryogenic Conditions
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120799 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this contribution, we compare the performance of Focused Electron Beam-induced Deposition (FEBID) and Focused Ion Beam-induced Deposition (FIBID) at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions (the prefix “Cryo” is used here for cryogenic). Under cryogenic conditions, the precursor material condensates on the [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we compare the performance of Focused Electron Beam-induced Deposition (FEBID) and Focused Ion Beam-induced Deposition (FIBID) at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions (the prefix “Cryo” is used here for cryogenic). Under cryogenic conditions, the precursor material condensates on the substrate, forming a layer that is several nm thick. Its subsequent exposure to a focused electron or ion beam and posterior heating to 50 °C reveals the deposit. Due to the extremely low charge dose required, Cryo-FEBID and Cryo-FIBID are found to excel in terms of growth rate, which is typically a few hundred/thousand times higher than room-temperature deposition. Cryo-FIBID using the W(CO)6 precursor has demonstrated the growth of metallic deposits, with resistivity not far from the corresponding deposits grown at room temperature. This paves the way for its application in circuit edit and the fast and direct growth of micro/nano-electrical contacts with decreased ion damage. The last part of the contribution is dedicated to the comparison of these techniques with other charge-based lithography techniques in terms of the charge dose required and process complexity. The comparison indicates that Cryo-FIBID is very competitive and shows great potential for future lithography developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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