Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 52685

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: direct-write nanofabrication; focused electron beam-induced deposition; focused ion beam processing; atomic force microscopy; functional nano-probes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, additive direct-write manufacturing has attracted considerable attention in research and development. The main advantage of such a method is the ability to fabricate complex structures in a single-step, which expands accessibility to non-flat surfaces, morphologically exposed areas, already finished device architectures, or encapsulated packages; accordingly, such direct-write technologies complement situations in which alternative methods approach their intrinsic limitations. While applications on the micro- and meso-scale below are already well established in industrial productions such as roll-to-roll processes, laser sintering, inkjet printing, or imprint lithography, the extension to the real nanoscale is still an ongoing and highly challenging task. Promising candidates with the potential to meet these dimensional requirements are photons, ions, or electrons, as demonstrated by numerous proof-of-principle studies during the last decade. Aside from their technical nature, direct-write approaches enable controlled fabrication of complex, freestanding 3D nano-architectures in a single step, which paves the way for novel applications. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) additive and/or subtractive direct-write technologies for (2) fabrication of 1D–3D nanostructures including their combination to larger structures, (3) modelling fundamental process mechanisms, and (4) applications and/or material properties of such structures that strongly benefit from direct-write fabrication approaches.

Prof. Dr. Harald Plank
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Additive direct-write nanofabrication
  • Subtractive direct-write nanofabrication
  • Process modelling
  • Applications and material properties.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 10729 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Growth Characteristics of Nb- and CoFe-Based Nanostructures by Direct-Write Using Focused Electron Beam-Induced Deposition
by Michael Huth, Fabrizio Porrati, Peter Gruszka and Sven Barth
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010028 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
Focused electron and ion beam-induced deposition (FEBID/FIBID) are direct-write techniques with particular advantages in three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of ferromagnetic or superconducting nanostructures. Recently, two novel precursors, HCo 3 Fe(CO) 12 and Nb(NMe 3 ) 2 (N-t-Bu), were introduced, resulting in fully [...] Read more.
Focused electron and ion beam-induced deposition (FEBID/FIBID) are direct-write techniques with particular advantages in three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of ferromagnetic or superconducting nanostructures. Recently, two novel precursors, HCo 3 Fe(CO) 12 and Nb(NMe 3 ) 2 (N-t-Bu), were introduced, resulting in fully metallic CoFe ferromagnetic alloys by FEBID and superconducting NbC by FIBID, respectively. In order to properly define the writing strategy for the fabrication of 3D structures using these precursors, their temperature-dependent average residence time on the substrate and growing deposit needs to be known. This is a prerequisite for employing the simulation-guided 3D computer aided design (CAD) approach to FEBID/FIBID, which was introduced recently. We fabricated a series of rectangular-shaped deposits by FEBID at different substrate temperatures between 5 ° C and 24 ° C using the precursors and extracted the activation energy for precursor desorption and the pre-exponential factor from the measured heights of the deposits using the continuum growth model of FEBID based on the reaction-diffusion equation for the adsorbed precursor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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15 pages, 2098 KiB  
Communication
Simulation Informed CAD for 3D Nanoprinting
by Jason D. Fowlkes, Robert Winkler, Eva Mutunga, Philip D. Rack and Harald Plank
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010008 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
A promising 3D nanoprinting method, used to deposit nanoscale mesh style objects, is prone to non-linear distortions which limits the complexity and variety of deposit geometries. The method, focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID), uses a nanoscale electron probe for continuous dissociation of surface [...] Read more.
A promising 3D nanoprinting method, used to deposit nanoscale mesh style objects, is prone to non-linear distortions which limits the complexity and variety of deposit geometries. The method, focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID), uses a nanoscale electron probe for continuous dissociation of surface adsorbed precursor molecules which drives highly localized deposition. Three dimensional objects are deposited using a 2D digital scanning pattern—the digital beam speed controls deposition into the third, or out-of-plane dimension. Multiple computer-aided design (CAD) programs exist for FEBID mesh object definition but rely on the definition of nodes and interconnecting linear nanowires. Thus, a method is needed to prevent non-linear/bending nanowires for accurate geometric synthesis. An analytical model is derived based on simulation results, calibrated using real experiments, to ensure linear nanowire deposition to compensate for implicit beam heating that takes place during FEBID. The model subsequently compensates and informs the exposure file containing the pixel-by-pixel scanning instructions, ensuring nanowire linearity by appropriately adjusting the patterning beam speeds. The derivation of the model is presented, based on a critical mass balance revealed by simulations and the strategy used to integrate the physics-based analytical model into an existing 3D nanoprinting CAD program is overviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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14 pages, 6528 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing of Sub-Micron to Sub-mm Metal Structures with Hollow AFM Cantilevers
by Giorgio Ercolano, Cathelijn van Nisselroy, Thibaut Merle, János Vörös, Dmitry Momotenko, Wabe W. Koelmans and Tomaso Zambelli
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010006 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 20464
Abstract
We describe our force-controlled 3D printing method for layer-by-layer additive micromanufacturing (µAM) of metal microstructures. Hollow atomic force microscopy cantilevers are utilized to locally dispense metal ions in a standard 3-electrode electrochemical cell, enabling a confined electroplating reaction. The deflection feedback signal enables [...] Read more.
We describe our force-controlled 3D printing method for layer-by-layer additive micromanufacturing (µAM) of metal microstructures. Hollow atomic force microscopy cantilevers are utilized to locally dispense metal ions in a standard 3-electrode electrochemical cell, enabling a confined electroplating reaction. The deflection feedback signal enables the live monitoring of the voxel growth and the consequent automation of the printing protocol in a layer-by-layer fashion for the fabrication of arbitrary-shaped geometries. In a second step, we investigated the effect of the free parameters (aperture diameter, applied pressure, and applied plating potential) on the voxel size, which enabled us to tune the voxel dimensions on-the-fly, as well as to produce objects spanning at least two orders of magnitude in each direction. As a concrete example, we printed two different replicas of Michelangelo’s David. Copper was used as metal, but the process can in principle be extended to all metals that are macroscopically electroplated in a standard way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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Review

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47 pages, 14363 KiB  
Review
Mechanical Properties of 3D Nanostructures Obtained by Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition: A Review
by Ivo Utke, Johann Michler, Robert Winkler and Harald Plank
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040397 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5016
Abstract
This article reviews the state-of-the -art of mechanical material properties and measurement methods of nanostructures obtained by two nanoscale additive manufacturing methods: gas-assisted focused electron and focused ion beam-induced deposition using volatile organic and organometallic precursors. Gas-assisted focused electron and ion beam-induced deposition-based [...] Read more.
This article reviews the state-of-the -art of mechanical material properties and measurement methods of nanostructures obtained by two nanoscale additive manufacturing methods: gas-assisted focused electron and focused ion beam-induced deposition using volatile organic and organometallic precursors. Gas-assisted focused electron and ion beam-induced deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies enable the direct-write fabrication of complex 3D nanostructures with feature dimensions below 50 nm, pore-free and nanometer-smooth high-fidelity surfaces, and an increasing flexibility in choice of materials via novel precursors. We discuss the principles, possibilities, and literature proven examples related to the mechanical properties of such 3D nanoobjects. Most materials fabricated via these approaches reveal a metal matrix composition with metallic nanograins embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. By that, specific material functionalities, such as magnetic, electrical, or optical can be largely independently tuned with respect to mechanical properties governed mostly by the matrix. The carbonaceous matrix can be precisely tuned via electron and/or ion beam irradiation with respect to the carbon network, carbon hybridization, and volatile element content and thus take mechanical properties ranging from polymeric-like over amorphous-like toward diamond-like behavior. Such metal matrix nanostructures open up entirely new applications, which exploit their full potential in combination with the unique 3D additive manufacturing capabilities at the nanoscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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31 pages, 8516 KiB  
Review
Focused Electron Beam-Based 3D Nanoprinting for Scanning Probe Microscopy: A Review
by Harald Plank, Robert Winkler, Christian H. Schwalb, Johanna Hütner, Jason D. Fowlkes, Philip D. Rack, Ivo Utke and Michael Huth
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010048 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 6907
Abstract
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become an essential surface characterization technique in research and development. By concept, SPM performance crucially depends on the quality of the nano-probe element, in particular, the apex radius. Now, with the development of advanced SPM modes beyond morphology [...] Read more.
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become an essential surface characterization technique in research and development. By concept, SPM performance crucially depends on the quality of the nano-probe element, in particular, the apex radius. Now, with the development of advanced SPM modes beyond morphology mapping, new challenges have emerged regarding the design, morphology, function, and reliability of nano-probes. To tackle these challenges, versatile fabrication methods for precise nano-fabrication are needed. Aside from well-established technologies for SPM nano-probe fabrication, focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID) has become increasingly relevant in recent years, with the demonstration of controlled 3D nanoscale deposition and tailored deposit chemistry. Moreover, FEBID is compatible with practically any given surface morphology. In this review article, we introduce the technology, with a focus on the most relevant demands (shapes, feature size, materials and functionalities, substrate demands, and scalability), discuss the opportunities and challenges, and rationalize how those can be useful for advanced SPM applications. As will be shown, FEBID is an ideal tool for fabrication/modification and rapid prototyping of SPM-tipswith the potential to scale up industrially relevant manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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19 pages, 3230 KiB  
Review
Additive Nano-Lithography with Focused Soft X-rays: Basics, Challenges, and Opportunities
by Andreas Späth
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120834 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4203
Abstract
Focused soft X-ray beam induced deposition (FXBID) is a novel technique for direct-write nanofabrication of metallic nanostructures from metal organic precursor gases. It combines the established concepts of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) and X-ray lithography (XRL). The present setup is based [...] Read more.
Focused soft X-ray beam induced deposition (FXBID) is a novel technique for direct-write nanofabrication of metallic nanostructures from metal organic precursor gases. It combines the established concepts of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) and X-ray lithography (XRL). The present setup is based on a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) equipped with a gas flow cell to provide metal organic precursor molecules towards the intended deposition zone. Fundamentals of X-ray microscopy instrumentation and X-ray radiation chemistry relevant for FXBID development are presented in a comprehensive form. Recently published proof-of-concept studies on initial experiments on FXBID nanolithography are reviewed for an overview on current progress and proposed advances of nanofabrication performance. Potential applications and advantages of FXBID are discussed with respect to competing electron/ion based techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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17 pages, 31229 KiB  
Review
Functional Metallic Microcomponents via Liquid-Phase Multiphoton Direct Laser Writing: A Review
by Erik Hagen Waller, Stefan Dix, Jonas Gutsche, Artur Widera and Georg von Freymann
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120827 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4798
Abstract
We present an overview of functional metallic microstructures fabricated via direct laser writing out of the liquid phase. Metallic microstructures often are key components in diverse applications such as, e.g., microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Since the metallic component’s functionality mostly depends on other components, [...] Read more.
We present an overview of functional metallic microstructures fabricated via direct laser writing out of the liquid phase. Metallic microstructures often are key components in diverse applications such as, e.g., microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Since the metallic component’s functionality mostly depends on other components, a technology that enables on-chip fabrication of these metal structures is highly desirable. Direct laser writing via multiphoton absorption is such a fabrication method. In the past, it has mostly been used to fabricate multidimensional polymeric structures. However, during the last few years different groups have put effort into the development of novel photosensitive materials that enable fabrication of metallic—especially gold and silver—microstructures. The results of these efforts are summarized in this review and show that direct laser fabrication of metallic microstructures has reached the level of applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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14 pages, 4690 KiB  
Review
Comparison between Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition at Room Temperature and under Cryogenic Conditions
by José María De Teresa, Pablo Orús, Rosa Córdoba and Patrick Philipp
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120799 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4825
Abstract
In this contribution, we compare the performance of Focused Electron Beam-induced Deposition (FEBID) and Focused Ion Beam-induced Deposition (FIBID) at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions (the prefix “Cryo” is used here for cryogenic). Under cryogenic conditions, the precursor material condensates on the [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we compare the performance of Focused Electron Beam-induced Deposition (FEBID) and Focused Ion Beam-induced Deposition (FIBID) at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions (the prefix “Cryo” is used here for cryogenic). Under cryogenic conditions, the precursor material condensates on the substrate, forming a layer that is several nm thick. Its subsequent exposure to a focused electron or ion beam and posterior heating to 50 °C reveals the deposit. Due to the extremely low charge dose required, Cryo-FEBID and Cryo-FIBID are found to excel in terms of growth rate, which is typically a few hundred/thousand times higher than room-temperature deposition. Cryo-FIBID using the W(CO)6 precursor has demonstrated the growth of metallic deposits, with resistivity not far from the corresponding deposits grown at room temperature. This paves the way for its application in circuit edit and the fast and direct growth of micro/nano-electrical contacts with decreased ion damage. The last part of the contribution is dedicated to the comparison of these techniques with other charge-based lithography techniques in terms of the charge dose required and process complexity. The comparison indicates that Cryo-FIBID is very competitive and shows great potential for future lithography developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
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