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Open AccessReview

Focused Electron Beam-Based 3D Nanoprinting for Scanning Probe Microscopy: A Review

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Christian Doppler Laboratory for Direct–Write Fabrication of 3D Nano–Probes (DEFINE), Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, 8010 Graz, Austria
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GETec Microscopy GmbH, 1220 Vienna, Austria
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Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
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Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
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Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures Laboratory, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun, Switzerland
8
Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010048
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become an essential surface characterization technique in research and development. By concept, SPM performance crucially depends on the quality of the nano-probe element, in particular, the apex radius. Now, with the development of advanced SPM modes beyond morphology mapping, new challenges have emerged regarding the design, morphology, function, and reliability of nano-probes. To tackle these challenges, versatile fabrication methods for precise nano-fabrication are needed. Aside from well-established technologies for SPM nano-probe fabrication, focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID) has become increasingly relevant in recent years, with the demonstration of controlled 3D nanoscale deposition and tailored deposit chemistry. Moreover, FEBID is compatible with practically any given surface morphology. In this review article, we introduce the technology, with a focus on the most relevant demands (shapes, feature size, materials and functionalities, substrate demands, and scalability), discuss the opportunities and challenges, and rationalize how those can be useful for advanced SPM applications. As will be shown, FEBID is an ideal tool for fabrication/modification and rapid prototyping of SPM-tipswith the potential to scale up industrially relevant manufacturing. View Full-Text
Keywords: scanning probe microscopy; atomic force microscopy; tip fabrication; nano-printing; focused electron beam-induced deposition; 3D printing; nano-fabrication; additive manufacturing scanning probe microscopy; atomic force microscopy; tip fabrication; nano-printing; focused electron beam-induced deposition; 3D printing; nano-fabrication; additive manufacturing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plank, H.; Winkler, R.; Schwalb, C.H.; Hütner, J.; Fowlkes, J.D.; Rack, P.D.; Utke, I.; Huth, M. Focused Electron Beam-Based 3D Nanoprinting for Scanning Probe Microscopy: A Review. Micromachines 2020, 11, 48.

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