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Focused Electron Beam-Based 3D Nanoprinting for Scanning Probe Microscopy: A Review
Open AccessReview

Mechanical Properties of 3D Nanostructures Obtained by Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition: A Review

1
Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-3602 Thun, Switzerland
2
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Direct-Write Fabrication of 3D Nano-Probes (DEFINE), Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
3
Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
4
Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040397
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
This article reviews the state-of-the -art of mechanical material properties and measurement methods of nanostructures obtained by two nanoscale additive manufacturing methods: gas-assisted focused electron and focused ion beam-induced deposition using volatile organic and organometallic precursors. Gas-assisted focused electron and ion beam-induced deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies enable the direct-write fabrication of complex 3D nanostructures with feature dimensions below 50 nm, pore-free and nanometer-smooth high-fidelity surfaces, and an increasing flexibility in choice of materials via novel precursors. We discuss the principles, possibilities, and literature proven examples related to the mechanical properties of such 3D nanoobjects. Most materials fabricated via these approaches reveal a metal matrix composition with metallic nanograins embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. By that, specific material functionalities, such as magnetic, electrical, or optical can be largely independently tuned with respect to mechanical properties governed mostly by the matrix. The carbonaceous matrix can be precisely tuned via electron and/or ion beam irradiation with respect to the carbon network, carbon hybridization, and volatile element content and thus take mechanical properties ranging from polymeric-like over amorphous-like toward diamond-like behavior. Such metal matrix nanostructures open up entirely new applications, which exploit their full potential in combination with the unique 3D additive manufacturing capabilities at the nanoscale. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoscale additive manufacturing; gas-assisted electron and ion-induced deposition; focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID); focused ion beam-induced deposition (FIBID); mechanical properties; Young’s modulus; hardness; yield strength; fracture strength; quality factor; density; nanogranular material; metal matrix material; carbon; polymer; glassy carbon; graphitic carbon; amorphous hydrogenated carbon; diamond-like carbon nanoscale additive manufacturing; gas-assisted electron and ion-induced deposition; focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID); focused ion beam-induced deposition (FIBID); mechanical properties; Young’s modulus; hardness; yield strength; fracture strength; quality factor; density; nanogranular material; metal matrix material; carbon; polymer; glassy carbon; graphitic carbon; amorphous hydrogenated carbon; diamond-like carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Utke, I.; Michler, J.; Winkler, R.; Plank, H. Mechanical Properties of 3D Nanostructures Obtained by Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition: A Review. Micromachines 2020, 11, 397.

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