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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Additive Manufacturing of Sub-Micron to Sub-mm Metal Structures with Hollow AFM Cantilevers

1
Exaddon AG, Sägereistrasse 25, 8152 Glattbrugg, Switzerland
2
Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010006
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Dimensional Direct-Write Nanofabrication )
We describe our force-controlled 3D printing method for layer-by-layer additive micromanufacturing (µAM) of metal microstructures. Hollow atomic force microscopy cantilevers are utilized to locally dispense metal ions in a standard 3-electrode electrochemical cell, enabling a confined electroplating reaction. The deflection feedback signal enables the live monitoring of the voxel growth and the consequent automation of the printing protocol in a layer-by-layer fashion for the fabrication of arbitrary-shaped geometries. In a second step, we investigated the effect of the free parameters (aperture diameter, applied pressure, and applied plating potential) on the voxel size, which enabled us to tune the voxel dimensions on-the-fly, as well as to produce objects spanning at least two orders of magnitude in each direction. As a concrete example, we printed two different replicas of Michelangelo’s David. Copper was used as metal, but the process can in principle be extended to all metals that are macroscopically electroplated in a standard way. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive micromanufacturing; electrochemical microprinting; copper microcoils; FluidFM; David additive micromanufacturing; electrochemical microprinting; copper microcoils; FluidFM; David
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ercolano, G.; van Nisselroy, C.; Merle, T.; Vörös, J.; Momotenko, D.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zambelli, T. Additive Manufacturing of Sub-Micron to Sub-mm Metal Structures with Hollow AFM Cantilevers. Micromachines 2020, 11, 6.

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