Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology and Biomedicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 35655

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Guest Editor
Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, West Creek Road, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia
Interests: microfluidics; nanofluidics; micro/nanomachining technologies; micro/nanoscale science; instrumentation for biomedical applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce a new Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022”. In recent years, we have cooperated with some excellent scholars/scientific groups and published several very important high-level works, which have already been cited according to the data of Web of Science. We aim to introduce a new insight into science development or cutting-edge technology related to micromachines in the physics field, which will make a great contribution to the community.

This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from excellent scholars around the world. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome. The papers will be published, free of charge, with full open access after peer review to benefit both authors and readers.

You are welcome to send short proposals for submissions of Feature Papers to our Editorial Office ([email protected]) before submission. They will be evaluated by Editors at first. Please note that selected full papers will still be subjected to a thorough and rigorous peer review.

We look forward to receiving your excellent work.

Prof. Dr. Nam-Trung Nguyen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Rapid Production of Nanoscale Liposomes Using a 3D-Printed Reactor-In-A-Centrifuge: Formulation, Characterisation, and Super-Resolution Imaging
by Yongqing He, Davide De Grandi, Stanley Chandradoss, Gareth LuTheryn, Gianluca Cidonio, Ricardo Nunes Bastos, Valerio Pereno and Dario Carugo
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091763 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Nanoscale liposomes have been extensively researched and employed clinically for the delivery of biologically active compounds, including chemotherapy drugs and vaccines, offering improved pharmacokinetic behaviour and therapeutic outcomes. Traditional laboratory-scale production methods often suffer from limited control over liposome properties (e.g., size and [...] Read more.
Nanoscale liposomes have been extensively researched and employed clinically for the delivery of biologically active compounds, including chemotherapy drugs and vaccines, offering improved pharmacokinetic behaviour and therapeutic outcomes. Traditional laboratory-scale production methods often suffer from limited control over liposome properties (e.g., size and lamellarity) and rely on laborious multistep procedures, which may limit pre-clinical research developments and innovation in this area. The widespread adoption of alternative, more controllable microfluidic-based methods is often hindered by complexities and costs associated with device manufacturing and operation, as well as the short device lifetime and the relatively low liposome production rates in some cases. In this study, we demonstrated the production of liposomes comprising therapeutically relevant lipid formulations, using a cost-effective 3D-printed reactor-in-a-centrifuge (RIAC) device. By adjusting formulation- and production-related parameters, including the concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG), temperature, centrifugation time and speed, and lipid concentration, the mean size of the produced liposomes could be tuned in the range of 140 to 200 nm. By combining selected experimental parameters, the method was capable of producing liposomes with a therapeutically relevant mean size of ~174 nm with narrow size distribution (polydispersity index, PDI ~0.1) at a production rate of >8 mg/min. The flow-through method proposed in this study has potential to become an effective and versatile laboratory-scale approach to simplify the synthesis of therapeutic liposomal formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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16 pages, 2530 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Functional Group Concentration of N, N-Dimethylacrylamide-based Polymeric Coatings and Probe Immobilization for DNA and Protein Microarray Applications
by Laura Sola, Laura Abdel Mallak, Francesco Damin, Alessandro Mussida, Dario Brambilla and Marcella Chiari
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020302 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
We report here a deep investigation into the effect of the concentration of a polymeric coating’s functional groups on probe density immobilization with the aim of establishing the optimal formulation to be implemented in specific microarray applications. It is widely known that the [...] Read more.
We report here a deep investigation into the effect of the concentration of a polymeric coating’s functional groups on probe density immobilization with the aim of establishing the optimal formulation to be implemented in specific microarray applications. It is widely known that the ideal performance of a microarray strictly depends on the way probes are tethered to the surface since it influences the way they interact with the complementary target. The N, N-dimethylacrylamide-based polymeric coating introduced by our research group in 2004 has already proven to offer great flexibility for the customization of surface properties; here, we demonstrate that it also represents the perfect scaffold for the modulation of probe grafting. With this aim in mind, polymers with increasing concentrations of N-acryloyloxysuccinimide (NAS) were synthesized and the coating procedure optimized accordingly. These were then tested not only in DNA microarray assays, but also using protein probes (with different MWs) to establish which formulation improves the assay performance in specific applications. The flexibility of this polymeric platform allowed us also to investigate a different immobilization chemistry—specifically, click chemistry reactions, thanks to the insertion of azide groups into the polymer chains—and to evaluate possible differences generated by this modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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14 pages, 3591 KiB  
Article
A Biodegradable Bioactive Glass-Based Hydration Sensor for Biomedical Applications
by Amina Gharbi, Ahmed Yahia Kallel, Olfa Kanoun, Wissem Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, Christopher H. Contag, Iulian Antoniac, Nabil Derbel and Nureddin Ashammakhi
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010226 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Monitoring changes in edema-associated intracranial pressure that complicates trauma or surgery would lead to improved outcomes. Implantable pressure sensors have been explored, but these sensors require post-surgical removal, leading to the risk of injury to brain tissue. The use of biodegradable implantable sensors [...] Read more.
Monitoring changes in edema-associated intracranial pressure that complicates trauma or surgery would lead to improved outcomes. Implantable pressure sensors have been explored, but these sensors require post-surgical removal, leading to the risk of injury to brain tissue. The use of biodegradable implantable sensors would help to eliminate this risk. Here, we demonstrate a bioactive glass (BaG)-based hydration sensor. Fluorine (CaF2) containing BaG (BaG-F) was produced by adding 5, 10 or 20 wt.% of CaF2 to a BaG matrix using a melting manufacturing technique. The structure, morphology and electrical properties of the resulting constructs were evaluated to understand the physical and electrical behaviors of this BaG-based sensor. Synthesis process for the production of the BaG-F-based sensor was validated by assessing the structural and electrical properties. The structure was observed to be amorphous and dense, the porosity decreased and grain size increased with increasing CaF2 content in the BaG matrix. We demonstrated that this BaG-F chemical composition is highly sensitive to hydration, and that the electrical sensitivity (resistive–capacitive) is induced by hydration and reversed by dehydration. These properties make BaG-F suitable for use as a humidity sensor to monitor brain edema and, consequently, provide an alert for increased intracranial pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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11 pages, 9049 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Enhancement of Chondrogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Bolt-Clamped Langevin Transducers
by Jinhyuk Kim, Hyuncheol Bae, Hyuk-Soo Han and Jungwoo Lee
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010202 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
We recently investigated the design and fabrication of Langevin-type transducers for therapeutic ultrasound. Effect of ultrasonic energy arising from the transducer on biological tissue was examined. In this study, the transducer was set to radiate acoustic energy to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for [...] Read more.
We recently investigated the design and fabrication of Langevin-type transducers for therapeutic ultrasound. Effect of ultrasonic energy arising from the transducer on biological tissue was examined. In this study, the transducer was set to radiate acoustic energy to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for inducing differentiation into cartilage tissue. The average chondrogenic ratio in area was 20.82% in the control group, for which no external stimulation was given. Shear stress was applied to MSCs as the contrast group, which resulted in 42.66% on average with a 25.92% minimum rate; acoustic pressure from the flat tip causing transient cavitation enhanced chondrogenesis up to 52.96%. For the round tip excited by 20 Vpp, the maximum differentiation value of 69.43% was found, since it delivered relatively high acoustic pressure to MSCs. Hence, the results from this study indicate that ultrasound pressure at the kPa level can enhance MSC chondrogenesis compared to the tens of kHz range by Langevin transducers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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14 pages, 3153 KiB  
Article
A Refined Hot Melt Printing Technique with Real-Time CT Imaging Capability
by Kirsty Muldoon, Zeeshan Ahmad, Yu-Chuan Su, Fan-Gang Tseng, Xing Chen, James A. D. McLaughlin and Ming-Wei Chang
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101794 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Personalised drug delivery systems with the ability to offer real-time imaging and control release are an advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This allows for a tailored drug dosage specific to the patient with a release profile that offers the optimum therapeutic effect. [...] Read more.
Personalised drug delivery systems with the ability to offer real-time imaging and control release are an advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This allows for a tailored drug dosage specific to the patient with a release profile that offers the optimum therapeutic effect. Coupling this application with medical imaging capabilities, real-time contrast can be viewed to display the interaction with the host. Current approaches towards such novelty produce a drug burst release profile and contrasting agents associated with side effects as a result of poor encapsulation of these components. In this study, a 3D-printed drug delivery matrix with real-time imaging is engineered. Polycaprolactone (PCL) forms the bulk structure and encapsulates tetracycline hydrochloride (TH), an antibiotic drug and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONP, Fe3O4), a superparamagnetic contrasting agent. Hot melt extrusion (HME) coupled with fused deposition modelling (FDM) is utilised to promote the encapsulation of TH and IONP. The effect of additives on the formation of micropores (10–20 µm) on the 3D-printed surface was investigated. The high-resolution process demonstrated successful encapsulation of both bioactive and nano components to present promising applications in drug delivery systems, medical imaging and targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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16 pages, 5236 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Separation of Long DNA in Deterministic Lateral Displacement Arrays
by Oskar E. Ström, Jason P. Beech and Jonas O. Tegenfeldt
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101754 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Length-based separation of DNA remains as relevant today as when gel electrophoresis was introduced almost 100 years ago. While new, long-read genomics technologies have revolutionised accessibility to powerful genomic data, the preparation of samples has not proceeded at the same pace, with sample [...] Read more.
Length-based separation of DNA remains as relevant today as when gel electrophoresis was introduced almost 100 years ago. While new, long-read genomics technologies have revolutionised accessibility to powerful genomic data, the preparation of samples has not proceeded at the same pace, with sample preparation often constituting a considerable bottleneck, both in time and difficulty. Microfluidics holds great potential for automated, sample-to-answer analysis via the integration of preparatory and analytical steps, but for this to be fully realised, more versatile, powerful and integrable unit operations, such as separation, are essential. We demonstrate the displacement and separation of DNA with a throughput that is one to five orders of magnitude greater than other microfluidic techniques. Using a device with a small footprint (23 mm × 0.5 mm), and with feature sizes in the micrometre range, it is considerably easier to fabricate than parallelized nano-array-based approaches. We show the separation of 48.5 kbp and 166 kbp DNA strands achieving a significantly improved throughput of 760 ng/h, compared to previous work and the separation of low concentrations of 48.5 kbp DNA molecules from a massive background of sub 10 kbp fragments. We show that the extension of DNA molecules at high flow velocities, generally believed to make the length-based separation of long DNA difficult, does not place the ultimate limitation on our method. Instead, we explore the effects of polymer rotations and intermolecular interactions at extremely high DNA concentrations and postulate that these may have both negative and positive influences on the separation depending on the detailed experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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10 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Nucleic Acid Detection with Ion Concentration Polarization Microfluidic Chip for Reduced Cycle Numbers of Polymerase Chain Reaction
by Chengzhuang Yu, Shijie Dai, Shanshan Li, Junwei Li, Hezhi Hu, Jiyu Meng, Chunyang Wei and Jie Jayne Wu
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091394 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Nucleic acid detection is widely used in disease diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring and many other research fields. The continuous development of rapid and sensitive new methods to detective nucleic acid is very important for practical application. In this study, we developed a [...] Read more.
Nucleic acid detection is widely used in disease diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring and many other research fields. The continuous development of rapid and sensitive new methods to detective nucleic acid is very important for practical application. In this study, we developed a rapid nucleic-acid detection method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with electrokinetic preconcentration based on ion concentration polarization (ICP). Using a Nafion film, the proposed ICP microfluidic chip is utilized to enrich the nucleic acid molecules amplified by PCR thermal cycles. To demonstrate the capability of the microfluidic device and the hybrid nucleic-acid detection method, we present an animal-derived component detection experiment for meat product identification applications. With the reduced cycle numbers of 24 cycles, the detection can be completed in about 35 min. The experimental results show that this work can provide a microfluidic device and straightforward method for rapid detection of nucleic acids with reduced cycle numbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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15 pages, 3489 KiB  
Article
Pressure-Driven Perfusion System to Control, Multiplex and Recirculate Cell Culture Medium for Organs-on-Chips
by Mees N. S. de Graaf, Aisen Vivas, Andries D. van der Meer, Christine L. Mummery and Valeria V. Orlova
Micromachines 2022, 13(8), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13081359 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
Organ-on-chip (OoC) devices are increasingly used to mimic the tissue microenvironment of cells in intact organs. This includes microchannels to mimic, for example, fluidic flow through blood vessels. Present methods for controlling microfluidic flow in these systems rely on gravity, rocker systems or [...] Read more.
Organ-on-chip (OoC) devices are increasingly used to mimic the tissue microenvironment of cells in intact organs. This includes microchannels to mimic, for example, fluidic flow through blood vessels. Present methods for controlling microfluidic flow in these systems rely on gravity, rocker systems or external pressure pumps. For many purposes, pressure pumps give the most consistent flow profiles, but they are not well-suited for high throughput as might be required for testing drug responses. Here, we describe a method which allows for multiplexing of microfluidic channels in OoC devices plus the accompanying custom software necessary to run the system. Moreover, we show the approach is also suitable for recirculation of culture medium, an essential cost consideration when expensive culture reagents are used and are not “spent” through uptake by the cells during transient unidirectional flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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15 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Microfluidics for High Pressure: Integration on GaAs Acoustic Biosensors with a Leakage-Free PDMS Based on Bonding Technology
by Saber Hammami, Aleksandr Oseev, Sylwester Bargiel, Rabah Zeggari, Céline Elie-Caille and Thérèse Leblois
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050755 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Microfluidics integration of acoustic biosensors is an actively developing field. Despite significant progress in “passive” microfluidic technology, integration with microacoustic devices is still in its research state. The major challenge is bonding polymers with monocrystalline piezoelectrics to seal microfluidic biosensors. In this contribution, [...] Read more.
Microfluidics integration of acoustic biosensors is an actively developing field. Despite significant progress in “passive” microfluidic technology, integration with microacoustic devices is still in its research state. The major challenge is bonding polymers with monocrystalline piezoelectrics to seal microfluidic biosensors. In this contribution, we specifically address the challenge of microfluidics integration on gallium arsenide (GaAs) acoustic biosensors. We have developed a robust plasma-assisted bonding technology, allowing strong connections between PDMS microfluidic chip and GaAs/SiO2 at low temperatures (70 °C). Mechanical and fluidic performances of fabricated device were studied. The bonding surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurement and ATR-FTIR, AFM, and SEM analysis. The bonding strength was characterized using a tensile machine and pressure/leakage tests. The study showed that the sealed chips were able to achieve a limit of high bonding strength of 2.01 MPa. The adhesion of PDMS to GaAs was significantly improved by use of SiO2 intermediate layer, permitting the bonded chip to withstand at least 8.5 bar of burst pressure. The developed bonding approach can be a valuable solution for microfluidics integration in several types of MEMS devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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24 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Early Notice Pointer, an IoT-like Platform for Point-of-Care Feet and Body Balance Screening
by Florina Silvia Iliescu, Ling Tim Hong, Jin Ming Jaden Toh, Mirela Petruta Suchea, Octavian Narcis Ionescu and Ciprian Iliescu
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050682 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Improper foot biomechanics associated with uneven bodyweight distribution contribute to impaired balance and fall risks. There is a need to complete the panel of commercially available devices for the self-measurement of BMI, fat, muscle, bone, weight, and hydration with one that measures weight-shifting [...] Read more.
Improper foot biomechanics associated with uneven bodyweight distribution contribute to impaired balance and fall risks. There is a need to complete the panel of commercially available devices for the self-measurement of BMI, fat, muscle, bone, weight, and hydration with one that measures weight-shifting at home as a pre-specialist assessment system. This paper reports the development of the Early Notice Pointer (ENP), a user-friendly screening device based on weighing scale technology. The ENP is designed to be used at home to provide a graphic indication and customised and evidence-based foot and posture triage. The device electronically detects and maps the bodyweight and distinct load distributions on the main areas of the feet: forefoot and rearfoot. The developed platform also presents features that assess the user’s balance, and the results are displayed as a simple numerical report and map. The technology supports data display on mobile phones and accommodates multiple measurements for monitoring. Therefore, the evaluation could be done at non-specialist and professional levels. The system has been tested to validate its accuracy, precision, and consistency. A parallel study to describe the frequency of arch types and metatarsal pressure in young adults (1034 healthy subjects) was conducted to explain the importance of self-monitoring at home for better prevention of foot arch- and posture-related conditions. The results showed the potential of the newly created platform as a screening device ready to be wirelessly connected with mobile phones and the internet for remote and personalised identification and monitoring of foot- and body balance-related conditions. The real-time interpretation of the reported physiological parameters opens new avenues toward IoT-like on-body monitoring of human physiological signals through easy-to-use devices on flexible substrates for specific versatility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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9 pages, 15597 KiB  
Article
DNA Sequencing from Subcritical Concentration of Cell-Free DNA Extracted from Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Platform
by Anand Baby Alias, Hong-Yuan Huang, Yi-Wen Wang, Kai-Ti Lin, Pei-Jhen Lu, Tzu-Hui Wu, Pei-Shin Jiang, Chien-An Chen and Da-Jeng Yao
Micromachines 2022, 13(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13040507 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Electro-Wetting-On-Dielectric (EWOD) based digital operations have demonstrated outstanding potential in actuating and manipulating liquid droplets. Here, we adapted the EWOD for extracting femtogram quantities of cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) from 1 μL of KSOM mouse embryo culture medium. Our group extracted the femtogram quantity [...] Read more.
Electro-Wetting-On-Dielectric (EWOD) based digital operations have demonstrated outstanding potential in actuating and manipulating liquid droplets. Here, we adapted the EWOD for extracting femtogram quantities of cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) from 1 μL of KSOM mouse embryo culture medium. Our group extracted the femtogram quantity of cf-DNA from 1 μL of mouse embryo culture medium in our previous work. Here, we initially explain a modification from our previous extraction protocol, which improves the extraction percentage to 36.74%. Though the modified extraction protocol improves the extraction percentage from our previously reported work, the quantity is still in the femtogram range. The cf-DNA in femtogram quantity is in subcritical/subthreshold concentration for any further analysis, such as sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, we need a minimum of picogram/nanogram DNA quantities for further analysis. We demonstrated a ground-breaking mechanism of this subcritical concentration of cf-DNA amplification to the nanogram range and performed DNA sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is used as a sequence similarity search program to confirm the identity percentage between query and subject. More than 97% of nucleotide identities between query and subject sequences have been obtained from the sequencing result. Hence, we can use the methodology to amplify the subcritical concentration of extracted DNA for further analytics. Moreover, as we extract the cf-DNA from the embryo culture medium, the natural growth of the embryo has not been disrupted. This entire mechanism will pave a new path towards the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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Review

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30 pages, 6312 KiB  
Review
3D Printed Models in Cardiovascular Disease: An Exciting Future to Deliver Personalized Medicine
by Zhonghua Sun and Cleo Wee
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101575 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
3D printing has shown great promise in medical applications with increased reports in the literature. Patient-specific 3D printed heart and vascular models replicate normal anatomy and pathology with high accuracy and demonstrate superior advantages over the standard image visualizations for improving understanding of [...] Read more.
3D printing has shown great promise in medical applications with increased reports in the literature. Patient-specific 3D printed heart and vascular models replicate normal anatomy and pathology with high accuracy and demonstrate superior advantages over the standard image visualizations for improving understanding of complex cardiovascular structures, providing guidance for surgical planning and simulation of interventional procedures, as well as enhancing doctor-to-patient communication. 3D printed models can also be used to optimize CT scanning protocols for radiation dose reduction. This review article provides an overview of the current status of using 3D printing technology in cardiovascular disease. Limitations and barriers to applying 3D printing in clinical practice are emphasized while future directions are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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30 pages, 5873 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Microfluidic Bonding
by Kiran Giri and Chia-Wen Tsao
Micromachines 2022, 13(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13030486 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 7631
Abstract
Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary technology with applications in various fields, such as biomedical, energy, chemicals and environment. Thermoplastic is one of the most prominent materials for polymer microfluidics. Properties such as good mechanical rigidity, organic solvent resistivity, acid/base resistivity, and low water absorbance [...] Read more.
Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary technology with applications in various fields, such as biomedical, energy, chemicals and environment. Thermoplastic is one of the most prominent materials for polymer microfluidics. Properties such as good mechanical rigidity, organic solvent resistivity, acid/base resistivity, and low water absorbance make thermoplastics suitable for various microfluidic applications. However, bonding of thermoplastics has always been challenging because of a wide range of bonding methods and requirements. This review paper summarizes the current bonding processes being practiced for the fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidic devices, and provides a comparison between the different bonding strategies to assist researchers in finding appropriate bonding methods for microfluidic device assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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Other

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13 pages, 2953 KiB  
Study Protocol
T Cells Chemotaxis Migration Studies with a Multi-Channel Microfluidic Device
by Yang Liu, Xiaoou Ren, Jiandong Wu, John A. Wilkins and Francis Lin
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101567 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Immune surveillance is dependent on lymphocyte migration and targeted recruitment. This can involve different modes of cell motility ranging from random walk to highly directional environment-guided migration driven by chemotaxis. This study protocol describes a flow-based microfluidic device to perform quantitative multiplex cell [...] Read more.
Immune surveillance is dependent on lymphocyte migration and targeted recruitment. This can involve different modes of cell motility ranging from random walk to highly directional environment-guided migration driven by chemotaxis. This study protocol describes a flow-based microfluidic device to perform quantitative multiplex cell migration assays with the potential to investigate in real time the migratory response of T cells at the population or single-cell level. The device also allows for subsequent in situ fixation and direct fluorescence analysis of the cells in the microchannel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in Biology and Biomedicine 2022)
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