Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2019) | Viewed by 28932

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electromechanical, Systems and Metal Engineering, Ghent University, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: thermal and thermo-mechanical processing of metallic materials; advanced high strength steels (AHSS); ultrafast heating, thermal cycling, microstructural characterization including texture -SEM, EBSD (TKD, TEM, XRD); processing-structure-property relationship in metallic materials; damage and fracture in AHSS, rails and bearings
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Metal Science and Technology Group, Ghent University, EEMMeCS Department, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: texture control in metal sheet production; crystallographic aspects of metal science; microstructure; scanning electron microscopy; EBSD; electrical steels; advanced high strength steels; aluminium sheet; recrystallization; plastic deformation; structure-properties relations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optimization of the microstructure and texture in metals continues to be a significant challenge for industry and academia. This is even more important nowadays when social issues, such as global warming and metal scarcity, are key concerns of current far-reaching policy decisions. An effective way to address these issues is the development of advanced alloys with excellent combinations of properties—weight, strength and ductility. The main objective of this Special Issue of Metals is to facilitate more intense developments in this field of research, and to disseminate these recent developments to industry.

Among the main subjects of interest for this Special Issue are papers focused on: (i) methods for microstructure and texture control in advanced high strength steels, pipeline steels, aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys, (ii) new (non-conventional) technological approaches for  production of these alloys that will lead to improved mechanical, technological and functional properties, (iii) metal alloy research and developments that relate to texture and anisotropy after conventional and non- conventional treatments; and (iv) application of advanced characterization techniques  for the characterization of damage and fracture.

We truly believe that this issue of Metals will, not only favor networking and international collaboration, but will also help the metals research community to formulate new challenging directions in this exciting field of science and technology.

Prof. Dr. Roumen H. Petrov
Prof. Dr. Leo A.I. Kestens
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Innovative technologies
  • Sheet production
  • Steels
  • Al, Mg, Ti alloys
  • Microstructure
  • Texture
  • Mechanical properties
  • Anisotropy
  • Microstructural aspects of damage and fracture
  • SEM, EBSD, TKD, TEM

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

12 pages, 6321 KiB  
Article
Electron Microscopy Investigations of А356 Alloy Modified with Nanoparticles
by Rositza Dimitrova, Roumen Petrov, Pavel Kuzmanov, Аngel Velikov and Valentin Manolov
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121294 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Two types of A356 alloy castings in initial and modified with nanoparticles condition produced by gravitational casting were studied. Samples, as-cut from the castings, were subjected to light optical microscopy (LM), thermal analyses, Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) [...] Read more.
Two types of A356 alloy castings in initial and modified with nanoparticles condition produced by gravitational casting were studied. Samples, as-cut from the castings, were subjected to light optical microscopy (LM), thermal analyses, Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) analyses. Results, obtained by EBSD, confirmed that there is grain refinement in samples from castings with added nanoparticles compared to the initial ones. STEM analysis shows agglomerates of nanoparticles in examined foils. Nanoparticles’ position in the microstructure confirms the hypothesis that they act as nucleating sites during the alloy solidification, which is the reason for observed fine-grained microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5461 KiB  
Article
Secondary Recrystallization Goss Texture Development in a Binary Fe81Ga19 Sheet Induced by Inherent Grain Boundary Mobility
by Zhenghua He, Yuhui Sha, Ning Shan, Yongkuang Gao, Fan Lei, Fang Zhang and Liang Zuo
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121254 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
Secondary recrystallization Goss texture was efficiently achieved in rolled, binary Fe81Ga19 alloy sheets without the traditional dependence on inhibitors and the surface energy effect. The development of abnormal grain growth (AGG) of Goss grains was analyzed by quasi-situ electron backscatter [...] Read more.
Secondary recrystallization Goss texture was efficiently achieved in rolled, binary Fe81Ga19 alloy sheets without the traditional dependence on inhibitors and the surface energy effect. The development of abnormal grain growth (AGG) of Goss grains was analyzed by quasi-situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The special primary recrystallization texture with strong {112}–{111}<110> and weak Goss texture provides the inherent pinning effect for normal grain growth by a large number of low angle grain boundaries (<15°) and very high angle grain boundaries (>45°) according to the calculation of misorientation angle distribution. The evolution of grain orientation and grain boundary characteristic indicates that the higher fraction of high energy grain boundaries (20–45°) around primary Goss grains supplies a relative advantage in grain boundary mobility from 950 °C to 1000 °C. The secondary recrystallization in binary Fe81Ga19 alloy is realized in terms of the controllable grain boundary mobility difference between Goss and matrix grains, coupled with the orientation and misorientation angle distribution of adjacent matrix grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

8 pages, 1991 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Different 100Cr6 Material States Using Particle-Oriented Peening
by Anastasiya Toenjes, Nicole Wielki, Daniel Meyer and Axel von Hehl
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101056 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
As part of a novel method for evolutionary material development, particle-oriented peening is used in this work to characterize 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) microparticles that were heat-treated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The plastic deformation of the samples in particle-oriented peening [...] Read more.
As part of a novel method for evolutionary material development, particle-oriented peening is used in this work to characterize 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) microparticles that were heat-treated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The plastic deformation of the samples in particle-oriented peening is correlated with the microstructural properties considering different heat-treatment variations. While the heating rate was kept constant (10 K/min) for all heat treatments, different heating temperatures (500 °C, 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1100 °C) were realized, held for 20 min and then cooled down at a rate of 50 K/min. Thereby, microstructural states with different (mechanical) properties are generated. For validation, microsections of the particles were analyzed and additional universal microhardness measurements (UMH) were performed. It could be shown that the quickly assessable plastic deformation descriptor reacts sensitively to the changes in the hardness due to the heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 16482 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Ultra-Fast Heating on the Microstructure, Grain Size and Texture Evolution of a Commercial Low-C, Medium-Mn DP Steel
by Alexandros Banis, Eliseo Hernandez Duran, Vitaliy Bliznuk, Ilchat Sabirov, Roumen H. Petrov and Spyros Papaefthymiou
Metals 2019, 9(8), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080877 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4284
Abstract
The effect of ultra-fast heating on the microstructures of steel has been thoroughly studied over the last year as it imposes a suitable alternative for the production of ultra high strength steel grades. Rapid reheating followed by quenching leads to fine-grained mixed microstructures. [...] Read more.
The effect of ultra-fast heating on the microstructures of steel has been thoroughly studied over the last year as it imposes a suitable alternative for the production of ultra high strength steel grades. Rapid reheating followed by quenching leads to fine-grained mixed microstructures. This way the desirable strength/ductility ratio can be achieved while the use of costly alloying elements is significantly reduced. The current work focuses on the effect of ultra-fast heating on commercial dual phase grades for use in the automotive industry. Here, a cold-rolled, low-carbon, medium-manganese steel was treated with a rapid heating rate of 780 °C/s to an intercritical peak temperature (760 °C), followed by subsequent quenching. For comparison, a conventionally heated sample was studied with a heating rate of 10 °C/s. The initial microstructure of both sets of samples consisted of ferrite, pearlite and martensite. It is found that the very short heating time impedes the dissolution of cementite and leads to an interface-controlled α → γ transformation. The undissolved cementite affects the grain size of the parent austenite grains and of the microstructural constituents after quenching. The final microstructure consists of ferrite and martensite in a 4/1 ratio, undissolved cementite and traces of austenite while the presence of bainite is possible. Finally, it is shown that the texture is not strongly affected during ultra-fast heating, and the recovery and recrystallization of ferrite are taking place simultaneously with the α → γ transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 31483 KiB  
Article
Influence of Microstructure on Mechanical Properties of Bainitic Steels in Railway Applications
by Omid Hajizad, Ankit Kumar, Zili Li, Roumen H. Petrov, Jilt Sietsma and Rolf Dollevoet
Metals 2019, 9(7), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070778 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7570
Abstract
Wheel–rail contact creates high stresses in both rails and wheels, which can lead to different damage, such as plastic deformation, wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). It is important to use high-quality steels that are resistant to these damages. Mechanical properties and failure [...] Read more.
Wheel–rail contact creates high stresses in both rails and wheels, which can lead to different damage, such as plastic deformation, wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). It is important to use high-quality steels that are resistant to these damages. Mechanical properties and failure of steels are determined by various microstructural features, such as grain size, phase fraction, as well as spatial distribution and morphology of these phases in the microstructure. To quantify the mechanical behavior of bainitic rail steels, uniaxial tensile experiments and hardness measurements were performed. In order to characterize the influence of microstructure on the mechanical behavior, various microscopy techniques, such as light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), were used. Three bainitic grades industrially known as B360, B1400 plus and Cr-Bainitic together with commonly used R350HT pearlitic grade were studied. Influence of isothermal bainitic heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the bainitic grades was investigated and compared with B360, B1400 plus, Cr-Bainitic and R350HT in as-received (AR) condition from the industry. The results show that the carbide-free bainitic steel (B360) after an isothermal heat treatment offers the best mechanical performance among these steels due to a very fine, carbide-free bainitic microstructure consisting of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite laths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 9347 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultra-Fast Heat Treatment on the Subsequent Formation of Mixed Martensitic/Bainitic Microstructure with Carbides in a CrMo Medium Carbon Steel
by Spyros Papaefthymiou, Alexandros Banis, Marianthi Bouzouni and Roumen H. Petrov
Metals 2019, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030312 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4142
Abstract
The current work focuses on complex multiphase microstructures gained in CrMo medium carbon steel after ultra-fast heat treatment, consisting of heating with heating rate of 300 °C/s, 2 s soaking at peak temperature and subsequent quenching. In order to better understand the microstructure [...] Read more.
The current work focuses on complex multiphase microstructures gained in CrMo medium carbon steel after ultra-fast heat treatment, consisting of heating with heating rate of 300 °C/s, 2 s soaking at peak temperature and subsequent quenching. In order to better understand the microstructure evolution and the phenomena that take place during rapid heating, an ultra-fast heated sample was analyzed and compared with a conventionally treated sample with a heating rate of 10 °C/s and 360 s soaking. The initial microstructure of both samples consisted of ferrite and spheroidized cementite. The conventional heat treatment results in a fully martensitic microstructure as expected. On the other hand, the ultra-fast heated sample shows significant heterogeneity in the final microstructure. This is a result of insufficient time for cementite dissolution, carbon diffusion and chemical composition homogenization at the austenitization temperature. Its final microstructure consists of undissolved spheroidized cementite, nano-carbides and martensite laths in a ferritic matrix. Based on EBSD and TEM analysis, traces of bainitic ferrite are indicated. The grains and laths sizes observed offer proof that a diffusionless, massive transformation takes place for the austenite formation and growth instead of a diffusion-controlled transformation that occurs on a conventional heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 6881 KiB  
Article
Texture Control of Pure Titanium Sheet by the Surface Effect during Phase Transformation
by Kai Li, Ping Yang, Feng-e Cui and Weimin Mao
Metals 2018, 8(5), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050358 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4023
Abstract
The texture evolution of cold rolled pure titanium through different annealing parameters was investigated and different processes for various textures controls were proposed for further industrial application. Columnar grains with strong {11–20}//RD (rolling direction) texture was produced through cold rolling and a cooling-controlled [...] Read more.
The texture evolution of cold rolled pure titanium through different annealing parameters was investigated and different processes for various textures controls were proposed for further industrial application. Columnar grains with strong {11–20}//RD (rolling direction) texture was produced through cold rolling and a cooling-controlled annealing at 1100 °C with the Ar atmosphere. The preferred nucleation on the surface and the lowest strain energy of variant pairs during grain growth caused the formation of columnar grains and variant selection. Texture inheritance was discovered both in the cold-rolled and warm rolled-pure titanium sheets following 1000 °C annealing. The stored energy during cold rolling was the main reason causing the texture inheritance. Basal texture could be produced through warm rolling and subsequent annealing. The 30°-rotated around RD from basal texture could be preserved through both recrystallized annealing and transformed annealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop