Special Issue "Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Biobased and Biodegradable Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Tullio Monetta
Website
Guest Editor
University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Napoli, Italy
Interests: surface modification; electrochemical characterization; corrosion; Cr-free aluminum treatments; titanium nanotubes; magnesium implants; multifunctional coatings; surface engineering of additive manufactured parts; polydopamine coatings
Dr. Annalisa Acquesta
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
Interests: light metallic materials; surface treatments; corrosion resistance; additive manufacturing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Anna Carangelo
Website
Guest Editor
University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Napoli, Italy
Interests: surface modification; electrochemical characterization; corrosion; Cr-free aluminum treatments; titanium nanotubes; magnesium implants; multifunctional coatings; surface engineering of additive manufactured parts; polydopamine coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Osseointegration is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the appropriate conditions, sometimes even using improper materials. In fact, an osseointegrated metallic dental implant, made of iron, was found in Chantambre (France) in the cranium of a 30-year-old man, dated 100-200 years C.E., (Nature, Vol 391, 1 January 1998). However, sometimes osseointegration does not occur due to implant/tissue interface failure. On the other hand, metallic biomaterials can serve as a support to perform other functions that do not require osseointegration. In both cases, the surface chemical composition, texture and shape of items, play an essential role in the success of the medical procedure to which the patient should be subjected.

The research into new metallic alloys, new functional surface modifications and coatings, new texturing and shaping technologies, are, to date, some of the most fertile areas of interest in both the academic and industrial field.

The Special Issue “Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering” aims to publish some of the best research and reviews performed in the area of metallic biomaterials applications and will cover several topics like:

  • Surface modifications for enhanced biological response
  • Surface modification for infection control
  • Biodegradable coatings
  • Bio-functionalization
  • Cold plasma treatments
  • Laser treatments
  • Design of drug delivery systems
  • Additive manufacturing of metallic biomaterials
  • Biodegradable metallic biomaterials
  • New alloys as biomaterials
  • Porous metallic biomaterials
  • Osseointegration
  • Metal/tissue interfaces
  • Computer-aided design of metallic implants and prosthesis
  • Biomechanical design and characterization
  • New trends in metallic biomaterials

Prof. Tullio Monetta
Dr. Annalisa Acquesta
Dr. Anna Carangelo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Titanium
  • Magnesium
  • Biodegradable alloy
  • Nanotopography
  • Biofilm, Cytotoxicity
  • 3D bioprinting
  • Tissue engineering
  • Osseointegration
  • Scaffold
  • Biomimetics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole and Polypyrrole-Indomethacin Coatings on NiCr Alloys Involving Deep Eutectic Solvents
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091130 - 21 Aug 2020
Abstract
There is an increased interest in the use of the deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as electrolytic media for electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers, which could influence their characteristics. Moreover, the polypyrrole layers represent an attractive route for pharmaceutical drug release. The paper presents [...] Read more.
There is an increased interest in the use of the deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as electrolytic media for electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers, which could influence their characteristics. Moreover, the polypyrrole layers represent an attractive route for pharmaceutical drug release. The paper presents several experimental results regarding the electrodeposition of polypyrrole and of polypyrrole-indomethacin coatings on nickel-chromium NiCr alloy substrates widely used in dentistry, involving DES-based electrolytes, namely eutectic mixtures of choline chloride and malonic acid. This type of electrolyte also allowed an enhanced dissolution of indomethacin as compared to aqueous ones. The electropolymerization process has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The obtained indomethacin containing polymeric coatings have been thoroughly characterized involving scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) and indomethacin release studies. Adherent and uniform polypyrrole-indomethacin layers have been obtained on NiCr alloy substrates. The release tests showed that the polypyrrole coatings containing indomethacin may deliver the drug molecules for longer periods of at least 17 days. The maximum released amount was around 99.6% suggesting these layers may act as an active reservoir for indomethacin. Kinetics analysis based on the Korsmeyer–Peppas model suggested the diffusion of the drug out of the polymer layer as the most probable mechanism governing the release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
As-Built EBM and DMLS Ti-6Al-4V Parts: Topography–Corrosion Resistance Relationship in a Simulated Body Fluid
Metals 2020, 10(8), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10081015 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
Machined devices made of titanium or titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies (AM) were proposed to reduce the cost of parts and customise their shape. While several researchers have studied the characterisation of the machined surfaces of [...] Read more.
Machined devices made of titanium or titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies (AM) were proposed to reduce the cost of parts and customise their shape. While several researchers have studied the characterisation of the machined surfaces of AM products, less attention has been focused on the study of the surfaces of as-produced parts. The aim of this study was to compare the surface and bulk properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy products obtained using two types of AM—i.e., electron beam melting and direct metal laser sintering—in comparison to the wrought material and analyse their metallographic, crystallographic, topographic, and electrochemical properties. The metallographic and crystallographic, as well as topographic, analysis showed different microstructures and surface area extensions between the tested specimens. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests highlighted the complex electrochemical behaviour of additively manufactured parts if compared to that of the traditionally fabricated ones. The tests performed on mechanically polished parts underlined similar electrochemical performance between them, even if the additive manufactured ones exhibited a certain instability. Although the as-produced additive manufactured parts present exciting surface shapes, useful in the biomedical field, significant drawbacks remain. A more in-depth study of the device surface modifications, to improve their electrochemical behaviour, is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
New Bactericide Orthodonthic Archwire: NiTi with Silver Nanoparticles
Metals 2020, 10(6), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060702 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
A potential new bactericide treatment for NiTi orthodontic archwires based in the electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on the surface was studied. Twenty-five archwires were treated by electrodeposition, obtaining nanoparticles of silver embedded on the archwire surface. These were evaluated in order to investigate [...] Read more.
A potential new bactericide treatment for NiTi orthodontic archwires based in the electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on the surface was studied. Twenty-five archwires were treated by electrodeposition, obtaining nanoparticles of silver embedded on the archwire surface. These were evaluated in order to investigate the possible changes on the superelastic characteristics (critical temperatures and stresses), the nickel ion release, and the bacteria culture behavior. The chemical composition was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy-microanalysis; the singular temperatures of the martensitic transformation were obtained by a flow calorimeter. Induced martensitic transformation stresses were obtained by mechanical testing apparatus. Nickel ion release was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment using artificial saliva solution at 37 °C. Bacterial tests were studied with the most used oral bacterial strains: Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius. NiTi samples were immersed in bacterial suspensions for 2 h at 37 °C. Adhered bacteria were separated and seeded on agar plates: Tood-Hewitt (TH) and Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) for S. sanguinis and for L.salivarius, respectively. These were then incubated at 37 °C for 1 day and the colonies were analyzed. The results showed that the transformation temperatures and the critical stresses have not statistically significant differences. Likewise, nickel ion release at different immersion times in saliva at 37 °C does not present changes between the original and treated with silver nanoparticles archwires. Bacteria culture results showed that the reduction of the bacteria due to the presence to the nanoparticles of silver is higher than 90%. Consequently, the new treatment with nanoparticles of silver could be a good candidate as bactericidic orthodontic archwire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Porous Titanium Cylinders Obtained by the Freeze-Casting Technique: Influence of Process Parameters on Porosity and Mechanical Behavior
Metals 2020, 10(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020188 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The discrepancy between the stiffness of commercially pure titanium and cortical bone tissue compromises its success as a biomaterial. The use of porous titanium has been widely studied, however, it is still challenging to obtain materials able to replicate the porous structure of [...] Read more.
The discrepancy between the stiffness of commercially pure titanium and cortical bone tissue compromises its success as a biomaterial. The use of porous titanium has been widely studied, however, it is still challenging to obtain materials able to replicate the porous structure of the bones (content, size, morphology and distribution). In this work, the freeze-casting technique is used to manufacture cylinders with elongated porosity, using a home-made and economical device. The relationship between the processing parameters (diameter and material of the mold, temperature gradient), microstructural features and mechanical properties is established and discussed, in terms of ensuring biomechanical and biofunctional balance. The cylinders have a gradient porosity suitable for use in dentistry, presenting higher Young’s modulus at the bottom, near the cold spot and, therefore better mechanical resistance (it would be in contact with a prosthetic crown), while the opposite side, the hot spot, has bigger, elongated pores and walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Various Metallic Surfaces on Cellular and Bacterial Adhesion
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111145 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The effects of Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ag on cellular and bacterial adhesion were investigated in this study. Moreover, the relationships between surface compositions, metal ion release behaviors, and biological responses were examined. As a result, MC3T3-E1 cells and S. aureus were [...] Read more.
The effects of Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ag on cellular and bacterial adhesion were investigated in this study. Moreover, the relationships between surface compositions, metal ion release behaviors, and biological responses were examined. As a result, MC3T3-E1 cells and S. aureus were able to better attach to Ti and Zr rather than the Nb and Ta specimens. For the Ag specimen, the amount of Ag ions released into Hanks’ solution was the largest among all the specimens. Cellular and bacterial adhesion onto the Ag specimen was inhibited compared with the other specimens, because of Ag ion release. Alternatively, Nb and Ta specimens exhibited specific biological responses. Cellular adhesion on Nb and Ta specimens was similar to that on Ti, while bacterial adhesion on Nb and Ta specimens was inhibited compared with that on Ti. This study proved that Nb and Ta inhibited bacterial adhesion and exhibited no harmful effects on cellular adhesion. In addition, these results indicate that the passive layer on Nb and Ta plays a key role in the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement in the Biological Properties of Titanium Surfaces with Low-Temperature Plasma
Metals 2019, 9(9), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090943 - 28 Aug 2019
Abstract
Peri-implantitis has become a common complication, accompanied by soft tissue inflammation. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection is the major cause of inflammation and progressive bone loss in the jaws. The surface property of titanium implants is a key factor in the alteration of osseointegration and [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis has become a common complication, accompanied by soft tissue inflammation. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection is the major cause of inflammation and progressive bone loss in the jaws. The surface property of titanium implants is a key factor in the alteration of osseointegration and P. gingivalis adhesion. However, the interplay between P. gingivalis and the surface properties of implants, subjected to different treatments, is not well described. Therefore, we focused on the surface properties of titanium implants; titanium disks that were autoclaved alone were used as controls. Those that were autoclaved and then subjected to low-temperature plasma (LTP) at 85 W and 13.56 MHz and with 100 mTorr of argon gas at room temperature for 15 min formed the experimental group. LTP-treated disks had smoother surfaces than the control group disks. The physical properties, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), demonstrated the surface composition was changed after LTP treatment. Further, osteoblastic cell proliferation enhancement was observed in the LTP-treated titanium surfaces. The results also revealed relatively less P. gingivalis adhesion to the LTP-treated disks than on the control disks on spectrophotometry and SEM. These findings clarified that P. gingivalis adhesion is reduced in implants subjected to LTP treatment. Thus, LTP treatment of peri-implantitis with the settings used in the present study is an option that needs further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Development in Beta Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091139 - 24 Aug 2020
Abstract
β-type titanium (Ti) alloys have attracted a lot of attention as novel biomedical materials in the past decades due to their low elastic moduli and good biocompatibility. This article provides a broad and extensive review of β-type Ti alloys in terms of alloy [...] Read more.
β-type titanium (Ti) alloys have attracted a lot of attention as novel biomedical materials in the past decades due to their low elastic moduli and good biocompatibility. This article provides a broad and extensive review of β-type Ti alloys in terms of alloy design, preparation methods, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and biocompatibility. After briefly introducing the development of Ti and Ti alloys for biomedical applications, this article reviews the design of β-type Ti alloys from the perspective of the molybdenum equivalency (Moeq) method and DV-Xα molecular orbital method. Based on these methods, a considerable number of β-type Ti alloys are developed. Although β-type Ti alloys have lower elastic moduli compared with other types of Ti alloys, they still possess higher elastic moduli than human bones. Therefore, porous β-type Ti alloys with declined elastic modulus have been developed by some preparation methods, such as powder metallurgy, additive manufacture and so on. As reviewed, β-type Ti alloys have comparable or even better mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and biocompatibility compared with other types of Ti alloys. Hence, β-type Ti alloys are the more suitable materials used as implant materials. However, there are still some problems with β-type Ti alloys, such as biological inertness. As such, summarizing the findings from the current literature, suggestions forβ-type Ti alloys with bioactive coatings are proposed for the future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in the Control of the Degradation Rate of PEO Treated Magnesium and Its Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Metals 2020, 10(7), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070907 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
Mg and Mg alloys have been studied for almost two centuries; nevertheless, commercial biomedical devices are still not available. The main issue that limits their use in the biomedical field is the rapid degradation rate combined with suitable surface properties. Novel approaches need [...] Read more.
Mg and Mg alloys have been studied for almost two centuries; nevertheless, commercial biomedical devices are still not available. The main issue that limits their use in the biomedical field is the rapid degradation rate combined with suitable surface properties. Novel approaches need to be designed for the development of biodegradable Mg-based devices, which could include the use of multifunctional coatings and/or new alloys designed “ad hoc”. The present article reviews on various properties, parameters and improvement methods concerning plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on Mg alloys substrates for biomedical applications. In this regard, (i) optimizing the PEO parameters, (ii) using additives and nanoparticles, (iii) creating combined layers of hard and/or soft particles, (iv) coating the PEO layer with a biodegradable polymer, could be the way to control their degradation rate. The review of recent scientific articles highlights that none of the techniques proposed may be preferred over the others and the need to deepen the studies for allowing the use of Mg-based devices in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Zr and Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Orthopaedic and Dental Device Materials
Metals 2020, 10(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020203 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Conventional orthopaedic and dental device materials are made of metallic materials such as stainless steel (SUS316L), titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr). Those materials have the disadvantage of mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which are also called amorphous alloys, [...] Read more.
Conventional orthopaedic and dental device materials are made of metallic materials such as stainless steel (SUS316L), titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr). Those materials have the disadvantage of mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which are also called amorphous alloys, are metallic materials with metastable glassy states and have a higher strength, higher elasticity, higher failure resistance, and lower Young’s modulus compared with crystalline alloys. There are several types of BMGs. Among them, Zr-based BMGs and Ti-based BMGs have excellent mechanical properties. In addition, they have good corrosion resistance and are promising for orthopaedic and dental device materials. In this review article, in vitro and in vivo studies regarding Zr and Ti-based BMGs applications as biomaterials, especially in orthopaedic and dental device materials, are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
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