Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Welding and Joining".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 16081

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: light-weight structures and green materials in shipbuilding; innovative methods for fatigue prediction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: fatigue; marine structures; welded joints; digital image correlation; infrared thermography; finite element analysis; explosion welding; composites; shipbuilding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Welding represents the main junction technique for marine structure applications, ranging from ship to offshore welded structures.

Different challenges such as protection from corrosion, self-weight reduction, and higher static and fatigue strengths are more often required for many applications, such as offshore and oil and gas structures, introducing the need to use different metals.

When dealing with the junctions between different materials, several problems can arise with traditional welding processes in terms of overall strength; thus, adhesives are often used for their connection. The recent literature on adhesive application in the maritime sector has shown substantial potential.

Currently, particular attention is being paid to dissimilar welding, which may produce several improvements such as self-weight reduction, protection from corrosion, and higher static and fatigue strengths.

It is well known that welds are critical areas that need dedicated study. This is because the static and fatigue failure of marine welded structures is an exceptionally localized process, relying on multiple parameters such as corrosion, local geometry, loading conditions, and material properties.

Investigation methodologies vary from numerical (FEM for the identification of the joints’ structure and for the prediction of their mechanical behavior) to experimental investigations (e.g., static and fatigue tests and non-destructive techniques for microstructure and defect detection).

The aim of the Special Issue “Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications” is to publish high-quality contributions, which should provide original ideas and new approaches, with a clear indication of the advances with respect to existing results.

Topics addressed in this Special Issue may include, but are not limited to:

  • Innovative methods for fatigue prediction of welded and adhesive joints;
  • Experimental techniques for fatigue analysis;
  • Fatigue design of ship and offshore welded structures;
  • Large-scale tests on marine and offshore structural details;
  • Analysis of fatigue failure in welded and adhesive joints;
  • Corrosion tests on marine and offshore welded joints.

This Special Issue is also a chance to debate on the future perspectives of welded and adhesive joints used in marine environments.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Crupi
Dr. Pasqualino Corigliano
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Fatigue of welded and adhesive joints
  • Marine structures
  • Offshore structures
  • Shipbuilding
  • Dissimilar welded joints
  • Hybrid joints
  • Finite element analysis
  • Experimental techniques

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2676 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Different Zones in an Overmatched Welded Joint Made with D32 Marine Structural Steel
by Wei Song, Zheng Man, Jie Xu, Xiaoxi Wang, Chengqiang Liu, Guangtao Zhou and Filippo Berto
Metals 2023, 13(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030535 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Applying fracture mechanics theory to heterogeneous welded joints might lead to an uncertain assessment of fatigue crack propagation behavior and, consequently, an inaccurate estimation of the cyclic loading capacity and fatigue life of welded structures. Combining experimental testing and analytical equations of the [...] Read more.
Applying fracture mechanics theory to heterogeneous welded joints might lead to an uncertain assessment of fatigue crack propagation behavior and, consequently, an inaccurate estimation of the cyclic loading capacity and fatigue life of welded structures. Combining experimental testing and analytical equations of the marine overmatched welded joints of D32 marine structural steel provided a view of the influence of strength heterogeneity on fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior under constant cyclic loading. FCG testing was conducted using compact tension specimens under different stress ratios. The effect of residual stress on the FCG behaviors of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) and fusion zones (FZs) of the compact tension (CT) specimens was examined in the overmatched welded joints. Subsequently, the welding residual stresses were removed by post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) to focus the FCGR assessment on the microstructural effect. The results indicated that the FCG rates (FCGRs) of the FZ and HAZ materials obviously varied in as-welded and stress-relieved states. The existence of residual stress in the overmatched welded joints led to a decrease in FCG rates and prolonged the fatigue crack propagation life for the FZs and HAZs. Moreover, the FCGR increased in the base metal (BM), HAZ, and FZ with the increase in the stress ratio. The FCG curves of these materials were fitted to correct the stress ratios using the NASGRO equation. Finally, an analytical analysis of the FCGR based on the NASGRO equation revealed the relationship between different stress ratios for different materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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23 pages, 7740 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approach for the Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Dissimilar Welded Joints
by Simone Carone, Pasqualino Corigliano, Gabriella Epasto, Vincenzo Moramarco, Giulia Palomba, Giovanni Pappalettera and Caterina Casavola
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122039 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
This study aims to propose a thorough experimental methodology to assess the mechanical quality of dissimilar joints. This comprehensive approach investigates the fatigue behavior by exploiting the thermographic method, accompanying and correlating the results with information obtained from extensive measurements of residual stresses [...] Read more.
This study aims to propose a thorough experimental methodology to assess the mechanical quality of dissimilar joints. This comprehensive approach investigates the fatigue behavior by exploiting the thermographic method, accompanying and correlating the results with information obtained from extensive measurements of residual stresses and detailed evaluation of fracture surfaces. The integration of the information obtained by this hybrid approach allows for a deeper understanding in terms of fatigue behavior even in complicated situations as those represented by dissimilar welded joints. A complex laser-welded Ti6Al4V/Inconel 625 dissimilar joint, obtained using intermediate inserts of Vanadium and AISI 304, was considered as case study. The residual stresses, both longitudinal and transverse to the weld beads, were measured on surface by means of X-ray diffraction, whereas, for in-depth measurements, the multiple-cut contour method was implemented to determine full 2D maps of longitudinal residual stresses with the first cut, and transverse stresses in the Vanadium insert with the second cut. In the investigation of longitudinal residual stresses, the area mostly affected by harmful tensile residual stresses is the weld between the stainless steel and Vanadium, where the maximum value of about 560 MPa is reached; the analysis of transverse residual stresses highlighted a maximum value of 350 MPa at the core of the Vanadium insert. The fatigue behavior of the joints was investigated along with a detailed analysis of the fractured surfaces by scanning electron and confocal microscopes. The analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that the failure modes are mainly related to the occurrence of defects on the crack path, especially at stress range higher than 200 MPa, for which a large number of pores cluster were detected. Nevertheless, the crack initiation is usually on the side of Vanadium. When the crack path deviates on the stainless-steel region, the fracture mode is brittle due to high residual stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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19 pages, 5947 KiB  
Article
Fracture Mechanics Modeling of Fatigue Behaviors of Adhesive-Bonded Aluminum Alloy Components
by Yuning Zhang, Pingsha Dong and Xianjun Pei
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081298 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Adhesive-bonding has become increasingly adopted for multi-material lightweight applications (e.g., automotive structures). There is a growing interest in understanding the fatigue behaviors in this type of joint for supporting structural durability modeling in practice. In this paper, an analytical fracture mechanics modeling procedure [...] Read more.
Adhesive-bonding has become increasingly adopted for multi-material lightweight applications (e.g., automotive structures). There is a growing interest in understanding the fatigue behaviors in this type of joint for supporting structural durability modeling in practice. In this paper, an analytical fracture mechanics modeling procedure is presented in the context of a generalized sandwich specimen. Its closed form stress intensity factor solutions were then derived and applied for the correlating fatigue test data obtained from the lap-shear and coach-peel test specimens with demonstrated effectiveness. Some important implications of these analytical solutions on joint design are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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12 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Macroscopic Shear Strength of Tightened-Bonded Joints from the Intrinsic High-Pressure Properties of Anaerobic Adhesives
by Davide Castagnetti, Pasqualino Corigliano, Calogero Barone, Vincenzo Crupi, Eugenio Dragoni and Eugenio Guglielmino
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071141 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
This scientific study aims to validate the applicability of a micromechanical model for predicting the static shear strength of hybrid interfaces that are pressure-reinforced and bonded with anaerobic adhesives. To identify the parameters for the micromechanical model, a systematic experimental test plan involving [...] Read more.
This scientific study aims to validate the applicability of a micromechanical model for predicting the static shear strength of hybrid interfaces that are pressure-reinforced and bonded with anaerobic adhesives. To identify the parameters for the micromechanical model, a systematic experimental test plan involving high-strength steel butt specimens bonded with anaerobic adhesive in a finite thickness was performed. The experimental investigation was based on torque tests, which provided the shear strength of two anaerobic adhesives subjected to different values of contact pressure, ranging from 0 up to 1000 MPa. Based on the intrinsic high-pressure properties of the finite-layer adhesives, the formerly developed micromechanical model of hybrid interfaces satisfactorily predicted the macroscopic strength of tightened-bonded joints taken from the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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16 pages, 8855 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanical Performance of Dissimilar Butt Joints between Low Ni Medium-Mn and Ni-Cr Austenitic Stainless Steels Processed by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
by I. Reda Ibrahim, Mahmoud Khedr, Tamer S. Mahmoud, Hamed A. Abdel-Aleem and Atef Hamada
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091439 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3867
Abstract
In the present work, dissimilar butt joints between a low-Ni, medium-Mn austenitic stainless steel, M-Mn SS, and a Ni-Cr austenitic stainless steel, Ni-Cr SS, were processed by utilizing the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique at different heat inputs. A filler metal of [...] Read more.
In the present work, dissimilar butt joints between a low-Ni, medium-Mn austenitic stainless steel, M-Mn SS, and a Ni-Cr austenitic stainless steel, Ni-Cr SS, were processed by utilizing the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique at different heat inputs. A filler metal of ER308 was employed in the welding process. The filler yields 480 MPa, which is equivalent to the yield strength of M-Mn SS. The microstructural analysis and mechanical performance (i.e., tensile strength and hardness properties) of the concerned joints were studied by using an optical microscope and uniaxial tensile tests, respectively. The results revealed that a duplex structure from austenite matrix and delta ferrite is promoted in the fusion zone (FZ) of the dissimilar joints processed with low and high energy inputs (0.486 kJ/mm and 0.558 kJ/mm). The FZ of the specimens welded at high heat input exhibited the lowest hardness value (151.2 HV) in comparison to heat affected zone (HAZ) (166.3 HV). Moreover, the joints exhibited a low tensile strength of 610 MPa. The achieved strength is significantly lower than the strengths of the base metals (BMs) M-Mn SS and Ni-Cr SS. This is mainly attributed to the inhomogeneous dendritic structure of the FZ with Cr-carbides precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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Review

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32 pages, 9477 KiB  
Review
Review of Fatigue Assessment Approaches for Welded Marine Joints and Structures
by Pasqualino Corigliano and Vincenzo Crupi
Metals 2022, 12(6), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12061010 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5672
Abstract
Welded joints are widely used in many sectors and represent the main joining technique also in the marine industry. The welded joints are sites of high stress concentrations and are subject to severe conditions for the marine environment. The design of marine welded [...] Read more.
Welded joints are widely used in many sectors and represent the main joining technique also in the marine industry. The welded joints are sites of high stress concentrations and are subject to severe conditions for the marine environment. The design of marine welded joints has to consider the effects from wave loads, ship motions and loading/unloading operations and corrosion effects. The aim of this scientific work is to discuss about the state of the art of the standards and the approaches for predicting the fatigue life of welded joints used for the marine industry. Several approaches are examined in order to provide an overview and highlight the advantages and limitations of each method. Furthermore, recent advances in welding of dissimilar metals and autonomous welding are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welded and Adhesive Joints for Marine Applications)
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