Special Issue "Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Computation and Simulation on Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 4980

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jing Guo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology and Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083,China
Interests: Electro-Slag Remelting (ESR); new techniques; clean steelmaking; the secondary phase particle characterization and control
Dr. Wenlong Zhan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114000, Liaoning, China
Interests: COREX melter gasifier; blast furnace ironmaking; pulverized coal injection
Prof. Dr. Changling Zhuang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Material and Metallurgy, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
Interests: crack sensitivity; TWIP steels; solidification process ; high manganese steel; Electro-Slag Remelting (ESR); inclusions; clean steelmaking; the secondary phase particle characterization and control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue is focused on the recent progress of thermodynamics and kinetics in metallurgical processes, including theoretical and/or experimental work. We also encourage authors to submit review papers of their team regarding thermodynamics and kinetics. Topics addressed in this Special Issue may include, but are not limited to:

  1. Raw material preparation
  2. Ironmaking process
  3. Steelmaking process
  4. Refining process
  5. Casting process
  6. Non-ferrous Metallurgical process
  7. Activity and its application
  8. Physical properties of slag and melts

Prof. Dr. Jing Guo
Dr. Wenlong Zhan
Prof. Dr. Changling Zhuang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • raw material preparation
  • ironmaking process
  • steelmaking process
  • refining process
  • casting process
  • non-ferrous Metallurgical process
  • activity and its application
  • physical properties of slag and melts

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Analysis on Ancient Bloomery Ironmaking Technology: The Earliest Ironmaking Evidence in the Central Plains of China Was Taken as the Research Object
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081307 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 237
Abstract
The slag found in Hengdong Jiangxian County, Shanxi Province has been recognized by archaeologists as the earliest evidence of bloomery ironmaking in China. The slag was characterized and analyzed by chemical titration, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning [...] Read more.
The slag found in Hengdong Jiangxian County, Shanxi Province has been recognized by archaeologists as the earliest evidence of bloomery ironmaking in China. The slag was characterized and analyzed by chemical titration, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and tescan integrated mineral analysis (TIMA). The smelting technology in ancient China was explored, combined with thermodynamic theory. The results of chemical titration shown that the total Fe was as high as 64.18%, which means that it was very difficult to produce iron on a large scale with the ancient bloomery ironmaking technology, consuming a lot of iron ore while producing very little iron. The distribution of FeO was relatively dispersed, while that of Fe2O3 particles was concentrated and large. The source of Fe2O3 in the slag can be roughly identified as the oxidized metallic iron, which could not be separated in the slag in the past. Tescan integrated mineral analysis (TIMA) images show that Fayalite and Wustite are the main phase forms in smelting slag. The existence of fayalite proves that the temperature of a slag system should reach the condition of liquid phase formation during the smelting process. Based on the characterization results, the metallurgical conditions of the slag at that time are inferred by FactSage7.1. The theoretical smelting temperature was between 1150 °C and 1200 °C. The fayalite and aluminosilicate in the slag had obvious displacement and inhomogeneity, which pointed to the forging temperature ranging from 1050 °C to 1100 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigation of the Reaction Kinetics of a Sinter-Reduction Process in the Thermal Reserve Zone of a Blast Furnace Using a Modified Sectioning Method
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081259 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
With the development of large-scale and high-performing blast furnaces, it is necessary to extensively study the reaction characteristics and related kinetic parameters of sinters in their heat reserve area. Under reducing atmosphere conditions, the reduction of iron oxide in sinter is closely related [...] Read more.
With the development of large-scale and high-performing blast furnaces, it is necessary to extensively study the reaction characteristics and related kinetic parameters of sinters in their heat reserve area. Under reducing atmosphere conditions, the reduction of iron oxide in sinter is closely related to the gasification reaction of coke. Based on a simulation experiment, the transition point from chemical reactions to diffusion and the related kinetic parameters were determined through a sectioning method. The results showed that increasing the proportion of low-grade coke increased the chemical-reaction rate, but it slightly decreased the mass-transfer and diffusion rates. An increase in the coke particle size increased the chemical-reaction, mass-transfer, and diffusion rates. However, an increase in the CO2 volume fraction in gas reduced the chemical-reaction, diffusion, and mass-transfer rates. The mixing ratio of coke and sinters increased the chemical-reaction rate, but it decreased the mass-transfer and diffusion rates. The rate constant of the chemical reactions in the early stage was three orders of magnitude higher than that of the diffusion and mass-transfer coefficients, and the fitting degree was obviously better than that of the molecular diffusion in the later stage. Based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the interference of the chemical reactions with the diffusion and mass transfer in the near-equilibrium region was tentatively established, the method of controlling coke diffusion and mass transfer in the later reaction stage was given and related kinetic parameters were corrected, and further improvement of the modified sectioning method was completed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Study of Thermodynamic for Low-Reactive CaO-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Li2O Mold Flux Based on the Model of Ion and Molecular Coexistence Theory
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071099 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
A thermodynamic model was proposed to calculate the activity of components in low-reactive CaO-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Li2O mold flux, which was chosen to improve the castability of high Al steel, based on the ion and molecular [...] Read more.
A thermodynamic model was proposed to calculate the activity of components in low-reactive CaO-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Li2O mold flux, which was chosen to improve the castability of high Al steel, based on the ion and molecular coexistence theory. The model was indirectly validated, and the effects of the mass ratio of Al2O3/SiO2, contents of CaF2 and Li2O on the reactivity of components were discussed. The results reveal that the reactivity of mold flux attenuated with the increase in the mass ratio of Al2O3/SiO2. The decrease in reactivity was insignificant as the mass ratio was over 3.5. The steel–slag reaction experiment confirmed that the reactivity of mold flux is weakened when the content of SiO2 below 8 wt%. The reactivity of mold flux increased nearly linearly with the increase in CaF2 content, indicating that the proportion of CaF2 should be kept to a minimum in the flux. In addition, the compositional regions involving around 6 wt% Li2O should be avoided to develop low-reactive mold flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Titanium Removal from Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Melts Using High-Basicity Index Slag and Carbon Dioxide Injection
Metals 2022, 12(6), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12061004 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
In this study, novel slags with a high basicity index were used to refine silicon melts with carbon dioxide injection to effectively remove Ti from metallurgical-grade silicon. Different compositions of the initial slag were used, and silicon samples were obtained during the refining. [...] Read more.
In this study, novel slags with a high basicity index were used to refine silicon melts with carbon dioxide injection to effectively remove Ti from metallurgical-grade silicon. Different compositions of the initial slag were used, and silicon samples were obtained during the refining. The results indicate that the Ti-removal rate initially increased with an increase in the basicity index, and it decreased after the basicity index exceeded 1.4. During the refining, silicon emulsification was observed at the slag–silicon interface, which was restricted by the increased basicity index of slags. Impurities that were concentrated in silicon droplets near the slag–silicon interfaces were oxidized, wetted by slags, and transferred to the slag phase. After 15 min of refining, up to 59 wt% of Ti in silicon could be removed and the Ti-concentrating phase in the slag contained 2.05 wt% of Ti. The results of this study provide a reference for low-cost Ti removal from metallurgical-grade silicon using a refining method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Equilibrium Phase Relations for a SiO2-Al2O3-FeOx System at 1300 °C and 1400 °C in Air
Metals 2022, 12(6), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12060926 - 27 May 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
A long-term fundamental study for the construction of the thermodynamic database of a metallurgical slag system has been proposed. In the present work, the equilibrium phase relations for the key ternary SiO2-Al2O3-FeOx system at 1300 °C [...] Read more.
A long-term fundamental study for the construction of the thermodynamic database of a metallurgical slag system has been proposed. In the present work, the equilibrium phase relations for the key ternary SiO2-Al2O3-FeOx system at 1300 °C and 1400 °C in air were experimentally determined by the equilibrium-quenching technique, followed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer analysis. The oxidation states of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were confirmed at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, from both XPS detection and FactSage calculation. Within the high-SiO2 composition range, the solid phases of silica, mullite, magnetite and ferric oxide were confirmed as the equilibrium phases. Based on the equilibrium compositions, the 1300 °C and 1400 °C isotherms were projected onto a SiO2-Al2O3-FeOx quasi-ternary phase diagram; however, obvious discrepancies with about a 20 °C difference were confirmed from further comparison with the predictions given by FactSage, indicating that more efforts are needed for the updating of the current thermodynamic database relating to metallurgical slag oxide systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Study of the Crystallization Properties of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Glass Phase in Sinter
Metals 2022, 12(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12060915 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The glass phase is one of the binding phases in high-basicity sinter, which is mainly formed during a high-temperature cooling process while cannot crystallize in time. The phase still involves the “structure” information of the binding phase’s liquid phase in the sinter. In [...] Read more.
The glass phase is one of the binding phases in high-basicity sinter, which is mainly formed during a high-temperature cooling process while cannot crystallize in time. The phase still involves the “structure” information of the binding phase’s liquid phase in the sinter. In addition, the generation of glassy phases can seriously deteriorate the metallurgical properties of sintered ore. However, the formation mechanism and crystallization process of glass phases are still unclear. In this work, the glass phase and the crystallized samples of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of alkalinity (R) and Al2O3 on crystallization and the relationship between crystallization and structure are discussed. The results showed that the chemical composition significantly influences the crystallization of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 glass. Decreasing basicity (R = 0.8–1.2, the mass ratio of CaO and SiO2) favors the crystallization of the glass phase, while increasing the content of Al2O3 (9–12%) can inhibit the crystallization of the glass phase. In addition, the crystallization order of the 45mass%CaO-45mass%SiO2-10mass%Al2O3 sample is CaSiO3 → CaAl2O4. Raman spectroscopic analysis showed that increase of slag basicity promoted the aggregation degree (Q3/Q2), resulting in deterioration of the glass phase crystallization. and that the glass phase crystallization deteriorated as the aggregation degree increased. However, increasing the Al2O3 content has little effect on the agglomeration degree but does promote the formation of SiO4 tetrahedra (Q0), which results in the deterioration of glass-phase crystallization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Sulfur Content on Copper Recovery in the Reduction Smelting Process
Metals 2022, 12(5), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12050857 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
This work discussed the advantages of reducing copper in molten copper slag with low S content. FactSage calculated the distribution of copper at equilibrium under different sulfur contents. The effect of sulfur content on copper recovery under different oxygen partial pressures in 1400 [...] Read more.
This work discussed the advantages of reducing copper in molten copper slag with low S content. FactSage calculated the distribution of copper at equilibrium under different sulfur contents. The effect of sulfur content on copper recovery under different oxygen partial pressures in 1400 °C was pointed out. The effect of sulfur content on copper recovery in the actual reduction process was explored through experimental research. Under the condition of low sulfur, the recovery ratio of copper and the stability of the experiment have an ideal result in fixed C/O in the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic Study on Vanadium Extraction Process in Basic Oxygen Furnance: Modeling Based on Gibbs’ Free Energy Minimization
Metals 2022, 12(4), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040612 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 566
Abstract
Vanadium extraction process demands low residual vanadium and carbon loss, and variations of dissolved elements in hot metal must be determined to achieve it. A three parts dynamic model that applies the concept of Gibbs’ free energy minimization at the slag–metal interface is [...] Read more.
Vanadium extraction process demands low residual vanadium and carbon loss, and variations of dissolved elements in hot metal must be determined to achieve it. A three parts dynamic model that applies the concept of Gibbs’ free energy minimization at the slag–metal interface is proposed. Modeling simulation results shows good uniformity with plant experimental data, and the presented model can describe the vanadium extraction process in BOF qualitatively well. The effects of coolant addition and oxygen flow rate have been studied by modeling. The lack of coolant will reduce (FeO) content and elevate the molten bath temperature, which are harmful to deep vanadium removal with less carbon loss in semi-steel. The excessive oxygen flow rate has little effect on residual [V], and there is more carbon loss because of higher (FeO) content and molten bath temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics of Molten Steel in the Tundish with Channel Induction Heating
Metals 2021, 11(12), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11121937 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
In the continuous process, fluid flow is an important physical phenomena in the tundish, as it affects the process of heat transfer, bubble motion and inclusion collision-coalescence and grow up. This paper undertakes a detailed numerical investigation of fluid flow characteristics in the [...] Read more.
In the continuous process, fluid flow is an important physical phenomena in the tundish, as it affects the process of heat transfer, bubble motion and inclusion collision-coalescence and grow up. This paper undertakes a detailed numerical investigation of fluid flow characteristics in the tundish with and without induction heating. The individual unit method and the volume subtraction model are applied to analyze the flow characteristics. A quantitative evaluation method of flow characteristics is proposed to investigate the flow characteristics. In the tundish with and without induction heating, firstly, the main flow behavior of molten steel is mixed flow in the receiving chamber; secondly, the main flow behavior of molten steel is plug flow in the channel; lastly, the main flow pattern is mixed flow, and the minor flow pattern is plug flow in the discharging chamber. The method of the volume subtraction model is an effective way to analyze the flow characteristics in the tundish with channel induction heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
New Analyzing Approaches for In Situ Interdiffusion Experiments to Determine Concentration-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients in Liquid Al–Au
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111772 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
Interdiffusion coefficients are key parameters for the solidification process of liquid alloys. However, the determination of interdiffusion coefficients in liquid metals at high temperatures is a challenging and extensive task, due to a variety of potential systematic errors. In recent years we have [...] Read more.
Interdiffusion coefficients are key parameters for the solidification process of liquid alloys. However, the determination of interdiffusion coefficients in liquid metals at high temperatures is a challenging and extensive task, due to a variety of potential systematic errors. In recent years we have developed an X-ray in situ shear cell method for the measurement of interdiffusion coefficients in binary metallic melts. This technique enables the monitoring of the experiment in order to exclude fatal errors. Utilizing X-ray contrast, the method also provides a time-resolved concentration distribution. Such an in situ data set contains significantly more information than ex situ evaluated experiments. Available analyzing strategies do not fully exploit this potential yet. We present three new analyzing approaches that are able to retrieve a concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient from only one in situ data set. In that way, larger concentration differences become accessible for an experiment, which considerably decreases efforts. Using simulations, the approaches are checked for robustness. Furthermore, the approaches are run on real in situ data from a binary (0 to 9 at% Au-content) Al–Au alloy at 1000 °C which results in a concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient within the measured concentration range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Metallurgical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop