Special Issue "TRIP Steels"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Mateo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: high strength steels; stainless steels; titanium alloys; additive manufacturing; fatigue; failure analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Joan Josep Roa Rovira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technical University of Catalonia – Barcelona East School of Engineering Center for Research in Structural Integrity, Micromechanics and Reliability of Engineering Materials, CIEFMA
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering Avda. Eduard Maristany, 10-14 08019 Barcelona (Spain)
Interests: mechanical characterization; micro and nanometric length scale; plastic deformation mechanisms; fracture, damage; in-situ testing; ceramic materials; metallic materials; composite materials, nanoindentation; advanced characterization techniques; atomic force microscopy; electron backscattered difraction; focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

TRIP steels are one of the most attractive materials developed in the last few decades by the steel industry. They are part of the AHSS family (Advanced High-Strength Steels), steels of which the yield strength is higher than 550 MPa, but often with a limited ductility. Nevertheless, TRIP steels also exhibit high ductility. In fact, the acronym “TRIP” stands for Transformation Induced Plasticity because an enhanced formability comes from the transformation of retained austenite to martensite during plastic deformation.

Because of this improved formability, TRIP steels can be used to produce more complicated parts than other AHSS and they offer, with thinner panel thickness, superior mechanical response. Moreover, their high energy absorption capacity and fatigue strength make them particularly suitable for safety parts, such as bumper bars, impact beams, B-pillars and reinforcements. Therefore, these advanced steels allow automotive designers to optimize weight and structural performance.

In this Special Issue, an open access forum is provided for publishing original papers that investigate on various aspects of alloy steels, including both research papers and reviews, informing readers on the latest ongoing research and development activities, on the current state-of-the-art, and also on prior history.

The Special Issue will include (but will not be limited to) the following topics: Influence of alloying elements, comprising standard and innovative grades; microstructures and their development, including phase equilibrium and transformations, thermo-mechanical stability, and heat treatments; mechanical performance, with strength, toughness, impact, and fatigue behavior; formability, covering rolling, stamping, and welding.

Prof. Antonio Mateo
Dr. Joan Josep Roa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Austenite
  • Martensite
  • Phase transformation
  • Metastability
  • Plasticity
  • Strength
  • Heat treatments
  • Crashworthiness

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Retained Austenite and Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welding Nuggets of Low-Alloy TRIP Steels
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101064 - 30 Sep 2019
Abstract
The combination of high strength and formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels is interesting for the automotive industry. However, the poor weldability limits its industrial application. This paper shows the results of six low-alloy TRIP steels with different chemical composition which were [...] Read more.
The combination of high strength and formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels is interesting for the automotive industry. However, the poor weldability limits its industrial application. This paper shows the results of six low-alloy TRIP steels with different chemical composition which were studied in order to correlate retained austenite (RA) and non-metallic inclusions (NMI) with their resistance spot welded zones to their joints’ final mechanical properties. RA volume fractions were quantified by X-ray microdiffraction (µSXRD) while the magnetic saturation technique was used to quantify NMI contents. Microstructural characterization and NMI of the base metals and spot welds were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Weld nuggets macrostructures were identified using optical microscopy (OM). The lap-shear tensile test was used to determine the final mechanical properties of the welded joints. It was found that NMI content in the fusion zone (FZ) was higher than those in the base metal and heat affected zone (HAZ). Whereas, traces of RA were found in the HAZ of highly alloyed TRIP steels. Lap-shear tensile test results showed that mechanical properties of spot welds were affected by NMI contents, but in a major way by the decomposition of RA in the FZ and HAZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nb and V Microalloyed TRIP-Assisted Steels
Metals 2019, 9(8), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080887 - 14 Aug 2019
Abstract
The intercritical annealing and isothermal bainitic processing response was studied for three Nb and V microalloyed Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP)-assisted 980 MPa grade steels. Their mechanical and microstructural properties were compared to industrially produced TRIP 800 steel. Depending on the isothermal holding temperature and [...] Read more.
The intercritical annealing and isothermal bainitic processing response was studied for three Nb and V microalloyed Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP)-assisted 980 MPa grade steels. Their mechanical and microstructural properties were compared to industrially produced TRIP 800 steel. Depending on the isothermal holding temperature and microalloying, the experimental steels reached properties comparable to the reference steel. The retained austenite content did not show direct correlation to elongation properties. Niobium was found to be more effective microalloying element than vanadium in increasing the elongation properties, which were investigated by measuring true fracture strain from tensile test specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Heating Rate on Formation of Globular and Acicular Austenite during Reversion from Martensite
Metals 2019, 9(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020266 - 24 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of heating rate on the formation of acicular and globular austenite during reversion from martensite in Fe–2Mn–1.5Si–0.3C alloy have been investigated. It was found that a low heating rate enhanced the formation of acicular austenite, while a high heating rate favored [...] Read more.
The effects of heating rate on the formation of acicular and globular austenite during reversion from martensite in Fe–2Mn–1.5Si–0.3C alloy have been investigated. It was found that a low heating rate enhanced the formation of acicular austenite, while a high heating rate favored the formation of globular austenite. The growth of acicular γ was accompanied by the partitioning of Mn and Si, while the growth of globular γ was partitionless. DICTRA simulation revealed that there was a transition in growth mode from partitioning to partitionless for the globular austenite with an increase in temperature at high heating rate. High heating rates promoted a reversion that occurred at high temperatures, which made the partitionless growth of globular austenite occur more easily. On the other hand, the severer Mn enrichment into austenite at low heating rate caused Mn depletion in the martensite matrix, which decelerated the reversion kinetics in the later stage and suppressed the formation of globular austenite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Transmission of Plasticity Through Grain Boundaries in a Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel
Metals 2019, 9(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020234 - 15 Feb 2019
Abstract
Austenitic metastable stainless steels have outstanding mechanical properties. Their mechanical behavior comes from the combination of different deformation mechanisms, including phase transformation. The present work aims to investigate the main deformation mechanisms through the grain boundary under monotonic and cyclic tests at the [...] Read more.
Austenitic metastable stainless steels have outstanding mechanical properties. Their mechanical behavior comes from the combination of different deformation mechanisms, including phase transformation. The present work aims to investigate the main deformation mechanisms through the grain boundary under monotonic and cyclic tests at the micro- and sub-micrometric length scales by using the nanoindentation technique. Within this context, this topic is relevant as damage evolution at grain boundaries is controlled by slip transfer, and the slip band-grain boundary intersections are preferred crack nucleation sites. Furthermore, in the case of metastable stainless steels, the interaction between martensitic phase and grain boundaries may have important consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Heat Treatment on Morphology, Texture, and Mechanical Properties of a MnSiAl Multiphase Steel with TRIP Behavior
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121021 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effect that the microstructure exerts on the Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon and on the mechanical properties in a multiphase steel was studied. Samples of an initially cold-rolled ferrite–pearlite steel underwent different intercritical annealing treatments at 750 °C until equal fractions of austenite/ferrite [...] Read more.
The effect that the microstructure exerts on the Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon and on the mechanical properties in a multiphase steel was studied. Samples of an initially cold-rolled ferrite–pearlite steel underwent different intercritical annealing treatments at 750 °C until equal fractions of austenite/ferrite were reached; the intercritical treatment was followed by isothermal bainitic treatments before cooling the samples to room temperature. Samples in the first treatment were heated directly to the intercritical temperature, whereas other samples were heated to either 900 °C or 1100 °C to obtain a fully homogenized, single-phase austenitic microstructure before performing the intercritical treatment. The high-temperature homogenization of austenite resulted in a decrease in its stability, so a considerable austenite fraction transformed into martensite by cooling to room temperature after the bainitic heat treatment. Most of the retained austenite transformed during the tensile tests, and, consequently, the previously homogenized steels showed the highest Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS). In turn, the steel with a ferritic–pearlitic initial microstructure exhibited higher ductility than the other steels and texture components that favor forming processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Stability of Retained Austenite and Properties of A Multi-Phase Low Alloy Steel
Metals 2018, 8(10), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100807 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this work, we elucidate the effects of tempering on the microstructure and properties in a low carbon low alloy steel, with particular emphasis on the thermal stability of retained austenite during high-temperature tempering at 500–700 °C for 1 h. Volume fraction of [...] Read more.
In this work, we elucidate the effects of tempering on the microstructure and properties in a low carbon low alloy steel, with particular emphasis on the thermal stability of retained austenite during high-temperature tempering at 500–700 °C for 1 h. Volume fraction of ~14% of retained austenite was obtained in the studied steel by two-step intercritical heat treatment. Results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that retained austenite had high thermal stability when tempering at 500 and 600 °C for 1 h. The volume fraction was ~11–12%, the length and width remained ~0.77 and 0.21 μm, and concentration of Mn and Ni in retained austenite remained ~6.2–6.6 and ~1.6 wt %, respectively. However, when tempering at 700 °C for 1 h, the volume fraction of retained austenite was decreased largely to ~8%. The underlying reason could be attributed to the growth of austenite during high-temperature holding, leading to a depletion of alloy contents and a decrease in stability. Moreover, for samples tempered at 700 °C for 1 h, retained austenite rapidly transformed into martensite at a strain of 2–10%, and a dramatic increase in work hardening was observed. This indicated that the mechanical stability of retained austenite decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIP Steels)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen diffusion characteristics in TRIP C-Mn-Si and C-Mn-Si-Al steels

Authors: Jaroslav Sojka, Petra Váňová, Taťána Kulová, Maria Sozańska

 

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