Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metal and Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 8006

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Joining and Welding Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan
Interests: wire arc additive manufacturing; hybrid laser and arc welding; metal metallurgy; arc and molten pool simulation; residual stress simulation; TiAl alloy
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China
Interests: metal metallurgy and residual stress of WAAM; arc welding and cladding; deformation and fracture; numerical simulations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) uses an electric arc as the heat source, such as gas metal arc, tungsten inert gas arc and plasma arc, to build up a metal component through the deposition of wire materials layer-by-layer. WAAM is a promising alternative for fabricating complicated components made of expensive materials such as high strength steel, titanium alloys, nickel alloys and intermetallic alloys.

During the WAAM process, the arc and molten pool behaviors determine the processing stability, and the thermal cycling of the layers have great influences on the residual stress distribution, deformation and metallurgy of the metal component.

In this Special Issue, we welcome articles which focus on the computational fluid dynamics simulation of the arc and molten pool, finite element simulation of the residual stress, metal metallurgy and deformation and fracture in WAAM of metal and alloys.

Dr. Dongsheng Wu
Dr. Lei Hu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wire arc additive manufacturing
  • arc and molten pool simulation
  • residual stress simulation
  • metal metallurgy
  • deformation and fracture

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4540 KiB  
Article
WAAM Technique: Process Parameters Affecting the Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Low-Carbon Steel
by Van-Thuc Nguyen, Pham Son Minh, Tran Minh The Uyen, Thanh Trung Do, Han Vuong Thi Ngoc, Minh-Tai Le and Van Thanh Tien Nguyen
Metals 2023, 13(5), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050873 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
This study surveys the influences of travel speed, voltage, and intensity on the characteristics of low-carbon steel samples generated by the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) technique. The results indicated that the WAAM samples have isotropy grain shape, with grain size number values [...] Read more.
This study surveys the influences of travel speed, voltage, and intensity on the characteristics of low-carbon steel samples generated by the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) technique. The results indicated that the WAAM samples have isotropy grain shape, with grain size number values varying from about 8 to 12. Interestingly, the WAAM sample achieves better mechanical properties with a higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value and higher elongation at break value than the original wire. The UTS value of the WAAM sample is 21–40% higher than the original steel wire. The WAAM sample with a travel rate of 350 mm·min−1, a voltage of 24 V, and an electrical intensity of 120 A reaches the highest UTS value of 694 MPa. The WAAM sample with a travel rate of 400 mm·min−1, a voltage of 22 V, and an electrical intensity of 170 A gains the lowest UTS value of 599 MPa. Moreover, the elongation values oscillate around 41–57%, two or three times higher than the original steel wire. SEM microstructure reveals a ductile fracture surface with dimples of the samples after the tensile test, indicating the toughness of the samples. The fracture surface also shows the equiaxial shape and grain size of the WAAM samples. According to Taguchi analyses, the travel rate factor greatly impacts grain size. The voltage factor has the highest effect on the UTS value. The intensity factor has the most significant impact on the elongation value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metal and Alloys)
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22 pages, 7403 KiB  
Article
Active and Passive Thermal Management in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
by Vishwanath Nagallapati, Vivek Kumar Khare, Abhay Sharma and Suryakumar Simhambhatla
Metals 2023, 13(4), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040682 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
This article presents innovative approaches for managing residual stresses and distortion in additive manufacturing (AM) of metal components (baseplate material: EN8; filler wire material: ER70S-6). The experiments are conducted with two approaches for thermal management—passive and active. The passive approach of experiments is [...] Read more.
This article presents innovative approaches for managing residual stresses and distortion in additive manufacturing (AM) of metal components (baseplate material: EN8; filler wire material: ER70S-6). The experiments are conducted with two approaches for thermal management—passive and active. The passive approach of experiments is performed by varying the selected process parameters to study their effect on residual stresses and distortion. The chosen parameters are current, torch speed, geometry, continuous or a delay in the deposition, and cooling arrangement. Based on the understanding gained from the passive approach, the active approach of thermal management was implemented by insulating the substrate with and without adaptive current and heating the substrate. The experimental results were corroborated with the simulation to understand the process better. A comparative study for hardness was made based on the T8/5 extracted from the simulation. These experiments and simulations endorse passive and active thermal management as effective tools that can alter the distortion and residual stress pattern and the mechanical properties of an AM component. The investigation concludes that the process parameters that lead to higher heat input vis-à-vis an increase in current or a decrease in speed increase the distortion. On the other hand, the parameters that affect the rate of heat distribution vis-à-vis torch speed and geometry affect the residual stresses. When current, traverse speed and a/b ratio were kept the same, active thermal management with a heated base reduced distortion from 1.226 mm to 0.431 mm, a 65% reduction compared to passive thermal management. Additionally, the maximum residual stress was reduced from 492.31 MPa to 250.68 MPa, with residual stresses decreasing from 418.57 MPa to 372 MPa. Overall, active thermal management resulted in a 63% reduction in distortion, lowering it from 1.35 mm to 0.50 mm using external heating. The components that are difficult to complete because of the in-process distortion are expected to be manufactured with thermal management, e.g., heating the substrate is an effective measure to manage the in-process distortion. Thermal management techniques depend on geometry; for instance, a concave surface, because of self-heating, reduces the cooling rate and has relatively less variation in hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metal and Alloys)
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Review

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24 pages, 3667 KiB  
Review
Literature Review on Thermomechanical Modelling and Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
by Fakada Dabalo Gurmesa and Hirpa Gelgele Lemu
Metals 2023, 13(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030526 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
The wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is a 3D metal-printing technique that builds components by depositing beads of molten metal wire pool in a layer-by-layer style. Even though manufactured parts commonly suffer from defects, the search to minimize defects in the product [...] Read more.
The wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is a 3D metal-printing technique that builds components by depositing beads of molten metal wire pool in a layer-by-layer style. Even though manufactured parts commonly suffer from defects, the search to minimize defects in the product is a continuing process, for instance, using modeling techniques. In areas where thermal energy is involved, thermomechanical modeling is one of the methods used to determine the input thermal load and its effect on the products. In the WAAM fabrication process, the thermal load is the most significant cause of residual stress due to the extension and shrinkage of the molten pool. This review article explores the thermomechanical effect and stress existing in WAAM-fabricated parts due to the thermal cycles and other parameters in the process. It focuses on thermomechanical modeling and analysis of residual stress, which has interdependence with the thermal cycle, mechanical response, and residual stress in the process during printing. This review also explores some methods for measuring and minimizing the residual stress during and after the printing process. Residual stress and distortion associated with many input and process parameters that are in complement to thermal cycles in the process are discussed. This review study concludes that the thermal dependency of material characterization and process integration for WAAM to produce structurally sound and defect-free parts remain central issues for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metal and Alloys)
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