# Literature Review on Thermomechanical Modelling and Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}is actively used in the interpass cooling. The temperature in the building rises as the thermal mass increases with energy input. To track thermal gradients and ensure proper thermal management, non-contact thermal monitoring, that is, thermal imaging, can be used [23,24]. Heat input accumulation during layer deposition causes high RS in WAAM components. The results of RS developed in the products are defects such as delamination, cracks, distortion, and low fatigue life [25].

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Thermomechanical Modeling of the WAAM Process

#### 3.1. Thermal Modeling

#### 3.2. Mechanical Modeling

## 4. Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in WAAM Components

#### 4.1. Method of Measuring Residual Stress during and after Processing

#### 4.2. Method of Minimizing Residual Stress and Distortion

- (1)
- (2)
- (3)
- dwell time after layer deposition [124];
- (4)
- machining between intermittent layers [108]; and
- (5)
- laser shock peening [114].

## 5. Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Thermal cycle analysis of the WAAM process (Reprinted with permission from ref. [28]. Copyright 2019 Elsevier, License Number-5462710771792).

**Figure 3.**Illustration of (

**a**) parameters of heat source volume with double ellipsoidal shape and (

**b**) heat source movements and activation approach of mesh elements in the simulations (Reprinted from ref. [11]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier, in accordance with CC BY license, open access).

**Figure 4.**The relationship between defects and materials in WAAM processes (Reprinted with permission from ref. [13]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier, License Number-5479380307471).

**Figure 5.**Categories of residual stress measurement methods (Reprinted with permission from ref. [104]. Copyright 2011. Elsevier, License Number-5481390488471).

**Figure 6.**SEM fracture morphologies of specimens before and after LSP. (

**a**–

**d**) before LSP, and (

**e**–

**h**) after LSP. (Reprinted with permission from ref. [114]. Copyright 2018. Elsevier, License Number-5479380909594).

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Illustration of the combination of a rolling step sequentially with layer deposition and minimizing RS in the WAAM process (Reprinted with permission from ref. [121]. Copyright 2018. Elsevier, in accordance with CC BY license, Open access); and (

**b**) Schematic illustration of rolling on printing and with clamps equipment (Reprinted with permission from ref. [122]. Copyright 2013. Elsevier, License Number-5493060104979).

**Figure 8.**(

**a**) The archetype of the proposed cooling system and (

**b**) the geometric parameters of the jet-impingement model (Reprinted with permission from ref. [124]. Copyright 2018. Elsevier, License Number-5493050332263).

**Figure 9.**Collection of post-processing methods after WAAM (Reprinted with permission from ref. [48]. Copyright 2022. Elsevier, License Number-5493060104979).

Arc Welding | Focus Area | Specific Area of the Study | Citation (Year) |
---|---|---|---|

EBM | Microstructure, macrostructure, and mechanical properties | Effect of heat input in WAAM process | [62] (2021) |

GMAW | Geometric accuracy, productivity, and microstructure | Geometry regulation of thermoelectric cooling-aided bead in WAAM of thin-walled structures | [63] (2018) |

CMT and C-GMAW mode | Microstructure transformations and mechanical properties | Thermal effect on evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties in WAAM components | [64] (2022) |

GT-WAAM | Influences of heat accumulation, surface oxidation, and bead geometries in building direction | Heat accumulation effects on the arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior in WAAM | [56] (2017) |

GMA-AM | Multi-track depositions for different processing conditions for defect formation | Improving fluid flow and heat transfer model of WAAM | [61] (2021) |

GT-WAAM | Heat accumulation effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of AM products | Heat impact on microstructure deposited and mechanical properties by WAAM | [15] (2018) |

GMAW and PAW | Analysis of wall geometry, metallography, and mechanical properties. | Heat input effect on WAAM of Invar: microstructure and mechanical properties | [26] (2022) |

GMAW-CMT | Assumption of thermomechanical analysis | Method of computing temperature and RS in WAAM component | [31] (2020) |

S/N | Methods | Parameters | Effect on Printed Parts | References |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Clamping form (on edge and corner in the transverse and longitudinal direction) | Edges and corner clamping form force; longitudinal and transverse clamping form force | Reduce defects (RS and distortion) | [111,122] |

2 | Laser shock peening | Shallow thickness and size of microscopic voids | Ductile fracture existed in the specimen after LSP | [114,127] |

3 | Post-deposition heat treatments | Process parameters (travel speed, arc length, wire feed, current, and voltage) with single- and multi-weld beads. | Reduces anisotropy, increases elongation, mixed sub grain is visible | [124,128] |

4 | Post-process heat treatment | Temperature, material design, and other parameters | Grain refinement and improvement of material strength minimize residual stress, control hardness | [13,117] |

5 | Interpass Rolling | Temperature and the volume of the weld pool | Minimizes microstructural anisotropy via plastic deformation of the deposit; grain refinement; uniform layer height; increase in wall width; enhances the mechanical properties | [5,76,117,118] |

6 | Thermal monitoring | Distance of welding torch and parent material, temperature of the molten pool, weld pool area, and wavelength | Uniform microstructure, improved material properties, and reduced defects of parts | [24,39,129] |

7 | Active interpass cooling | Travel speed, cooling gas flow rate, and cooling time | Improved microhardness and mechanical strength, more fine-grained, more grain boundary high-density dislocations, and attain isotropic property | [71,130,131,132] |

8 | Vertical and pinch rolling processes | Rolling depth, curvature depth of the roller, roller shape, transverse displacement, rolling direction, and roller thickness | Refines the grains, minimizes voids, and enhances the mechanical properties | [36,54,72] |

9 | Interpass cold rolling | Deposited layer thickness, radius of roller, loads | Brings more homogeneous, large columnar grains; improves mechanical properties | [13,115] |

Feedstock Materials | Methods | Results and Explanation | Reference |
---|---|---|---|

Carbon steel | Numerical approach: ABAQUS software 2019 | An increasing number of deposited layers increases the peak temperature. Preheating a substrate increases the peak temperature of the first layer and decreases its average cooling speed. The thermal behavior of deposited layers is mainly affected by the travel speed | [12] |

AZ31-magnesium and G4Si1 (1.5130) for stainless steel materials. | FE software MSC Marc 2017 and experimental tests | Examined distortions, temperature fields, and mechanical properties. A uniform wall geometry can be formed using a continuous welding path with same temperature distribution | [53,134] |

316 L stainless steel and Iron Aluminide (Fe_{3}Al) | Neutron diffraction and numerical analysis | Temperature and RS fields were computed at each time stage and more reliable RS results were obtained from the acquired neutron diffraction | [31,103,135] |

Stainless steels 308LSi and 304 | Thermomechanical coupling analysis model | RS in both structures and their relationship with the deposition height and shape were simulated; measured RS validated with simulation | [136] |

A36 steel | DFLUX in ABAQUS analysis and experimental test | Both thermal and mechanical models were validated with the experimental data | [137] |

Stainless steel alloy 304L | FEA software ABAQUS 2017 | Influences of roller design, rolling load, and friction coefficient on plastic strain and RS distributions were analyzed and elucidated | [138] |

Ti-6Al-4V | Experimental test (Neutron diffraction) and FEA | Contour method of RS measurements and micro-hardness measurements were in good agreement away from the baseplate. The results indicate that a measurement-based convection model is requisite to produce accurate simulation results. Built the single-bead walls with different process situations; RS was significantly minimized after substrate removing | [2,30,106,139,140,141] |

ER70S-6 commonly used welding wire | X-ray and neutron diffraction | The warpage and hardness have a direct relation with measured RS | [50] |

Aluminum, silicon, and copper | Laser opto-ultrasonic dual-detection approach | Detected compositions of elemental, defects of structural, and RS in Al-alloy components during WAAM processes. LOUD detection holds the promise of becoming an effective testing method for WAAM processes to ensure quality control and process feedback | [142] |

Aluminum and its alloys | Taguchi method and ANNOVA analysis: three process parameters: wire feed rate, gas flow rate, and welding speed | The correlations between the process variables and response variables were developed using the multiple regression method. Shows fine-grained microstructure and how it improves the properties of the modeled wall. | [143,144] |

AA6061, Aluminum | Neutron diffraction | RS measurements show tensile stresses (up to 130 MPa) in the built parts and compressive stresses (up to -80 MPa) in the substrate. Less copper in solid solution with aluminum, showing greater precipitation and so, potentially paying to improve the strength of the material. | [145,146] |

Stainless steel | Numerical modeling software such as MSC Marc 2019/Mentat | The outcome of this research is to develop an effective procedure to analyze the distortion and RS of WAAM of stainless steel. | [53,93] |

Grade 91 steel (P91) | Post-WAAM heat treatment process | The microstructure is optimized with a very fine martensite lath and rational prior austenite grain size (PAGS). | [147] |

304 Stainless steel | COMSOL–5.4 Multiphysics software | Simulated the build-up of the wall. To validate this model, the dimensions of the melt pool and the shape of the deposit calculated for the first layer were compared to experimental data given by macrographs and high-speed videos. | [148] |

Aluminum alloys | Experiments measure temperature results (thermal cycles, etc.) | Variation in the beam height can affect the measurement and longitudinal RS distribution in both the beam and the substrate, while that can only influence the transverse RS in the substrate but not in the beam nearly | [32,66] |

Ti17 Titanium alloy | Post-treatment technique combining laser shock peening and heat treatment | Enhance the mechanical performance of WAAM parts by changing their microstructure and RS distribution | [127] |

Nickel-based super alloys | X-ray, optical, and scanning electron microscopy | Studied the microstructure, RS, and mechanical properties | [149] |

Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 | Hole-drilling method, theoretical and experimentally | RS and distortion were minimized by printing with short track lengths among the three patterns investigated for both alloys. The strain parameter exactly predicted the effects of WAAM parameters on distortion when the detailed thermomechanical calculations cannot be carried out | [19,143] |

Aluminum | Finite element model and experiments | Predicted the melt pool volume as an indicator of the porosity rate | [150] |

Ti-6Al-4V | Thermocouple measurements and numerical simulation | Measured and predicted temperatures, RS, and distortion profiles indicated that the model is quite reliable for grain morphology, predicting the cooling rates and the microstructure | [33] |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gurmesa, F.D.; Lemu, H.G.
Literature Review on Thermomechanical Modelling and Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing. *Metals* **2023**, *13*, 526.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030526

**AMA Style**

Gurmesa FD, Lemu HG.
Literature Review on Thermomechanical Modelling and Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing. *Metals*. 2023; 13(3):526.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030526

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gurmesa, Fakada Dabalo, and Hirpa Gelgele Lemu.
2023. "Literature Review on Thermomechanical Modelling and Analysis of Residual Stress Effects in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing" *Metals* 13, no. 3: 526.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030526