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Open AccessArticle

Identification of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Mulberries

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
2
Business Unit Fresh Food and Chains, Wageningen Food & Biobased Research, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Business Unit Bioscience, Wageningen Plant Research, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010007
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Mulberries are consumed either freshly or as processed fruits and are traditionally used to tackle several diseases, especially type II diabetes. Here, we investigated the metabolite compositions of ripe fruits of both white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) mulberries, using reversed-phase HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and related these to their in vitro antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Based on accurate masses, fragmentation data, UV/Vis light absorbance spectra and retention times, 35 metabolites, mainly comprising phenolic compounds and amino sugar acids, were identified. While the antioxidant activity was highest in M. nigra, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were similar between species. Both bioactivities were mostly resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. To identify the bioactive compounds, we combined LC-MS with 96-well-format fractionation followed by testing the individual fractions for α-glucosidase inhibition, while compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity were identified using HPLC with an online antioxidant detection system. We thus determined iminosugars and phenolic compounds in both M. alba and M. nigra, and anthocyanins in M. nigra as being the key α-glucosidase inhibitors, while anthocyanins in M. nigra and both phenylpropanoids and flavonols in M. alba were identified as key antioxidants in their ripe berries. View Full-Text
Keywords: mulberry; high resolution mass spectrometry; antioxidant activity; in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity mulberry; high resolution mass spectrometry; antioxidant activity; in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Urso, G.; Mes, J.J.; Montoro, P.; Hall, R.D.; de Vos, R.C. Identification of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Mulberries. Metabolites 2020, 10, 7.

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