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Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2023) | Viewed by 32702

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Peloponnesus, 1 Megalou Alexandrou Street, GR-26334 Patras, Greece
Interests: analysis and design of structures; fracture mechanics; contact mechanics; computational methods; characterization of materials; nanomaterials and nanotechnology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the engineering field, the efficient and reliable design of safe and functional structural materials has always been of major importance. Especially nowadays, where new material technologies arise, there is a need for novel design methodologies. Any material component, independently of its inherent or intentional structural complexity, should be appropriately designed in order to present exceptional performance under a variety of simple or combined, static or dynamic, mild or severe loadings or stimulus or other effects of structural, thermal, electrical, or magnetic nature. Novel materials typically have non-linear multi-physical properties and characteristics (plasticity, viscosity, structural instability, damaging, internal friction, damping, thermal degradation, biodegradation, ageing, etc.) due to their special structural characteristics or method of manufacturing. Therefore, there is a great challenge for developing new theoretical and numerical tools and techniques, optimization and computational algorithms, and advanced experimental methods capable of accurately representing the distinct structural characteristics of such materials, predicting their behavior and allowing their optimized design under a variety of environmental conditions. 

The present Special Issue aims to provide modern theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods, as well as innovative technologies, for the analysis and design assessment of structures and materials.

Dr. Georgios I. Giannopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • structural, thermal, electrical, magnetic analysis
  • analytical methods
  • constitutive equations
  • numerical methods
  • multiphysics simulations
  • molecular dynamics
  • molecular mechanics
  • CAM
  • CAE
  • FEM
  • BEM
  • DEM
  • meshless methods
  • artificial intelligence
  • fuzzy logic
  • experimental assessment
  • multi-scale methods
  • hybrid methods
  • light alloys
  • advanced polymers
  • composite materials
  • textiles
  • nanomaterials
  • graphene
  • 2D nanosheets
  • Nanosystems
  • functional materials
  • metamaterials
  • metadevices
  • smart materials
  • intelligent structures
  • shape memory materials
  • bioinspired materials
  • drug delivery materials
  • sensing materials
  • actuator systems

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Cumulative Fatigue Damage of Composite Laminates: Engineering Rule and Life Prediction Aspect
by Nikolaos D. Batsoulas and Georgios I. Giannopoulos
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083271 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The analysis of cumulative fatigue damage is an important factor in predicting the life of composite elements and structures that are exposed to field load histories. A method for predicting the fatigue life of composite laminates under varying loads is suggested in this [...] Read more.
The analysis of cumulative fatigue damage is an important factor in predicting the life of composite elements and structures that are exposed to field load histories. A method for predicting the fatigue life of composite laminates under varying loads is suggested in this paper. A new theory of cumulative fatigue damage is introduced grounded on the Continuum Damage Mechanics approach that links the damage rate to cyclic loading through the damage function. A new damage function is examined with respect to hyperbolic isodamage curves and remaining life characteristics. The nonlinear damage accumulation rule that is presented in this study utilizes only one material property and overcomes the limitations of other rules while maintaining implementation simplicity. The benefits of the proposed model and its correlation with other relevant techniques are demonstrated, and a broad range of independent fatigue data from the literature is used for comparison to investigate its performance and validate its reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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18 pages, 6042 KiB  
Article
Influence of Haunch Geometry and Additional Steel Reinforcement on Load Carrying Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Box Culvert
by Hafiz Ahmed Waqas, Muhammad Waseem, Abdullah Riaz, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Naveed and Hermann Seitz
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041409 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4133
Abstract
The culverts are used to safely convey water under railways, highways, and overpasses. They are utilized in drainage areas or water channels and in areas where the bearing capacity of soil is low. The design and construction of this crucial infrastructure need to [...] Read more.
The culverts are used to safely convey water under railways, highways, and overpasses. They are utilized in drainage areas or water channels and in areas where the bearing capacity of soil is low. The design and construction of this crucial infrastructure need to be improved to meet contemporary demands of reliability and affordability. Precast reinforced box culverts are popular alternatives as they ensure strength, durability, rigidity, and economy. This research seeks to develop an effective and affordable design improvement procedure for a precast box culvert using modern numerical tools. The Finite Element Method (FEM) based approach is used in studying the effects of haunch geometry and additional steel reinforcement on the load-bearing capacity of box culverts. A conventional box culvert is analyzed to create the numerical models in the Abaqus FEM code and to investigate the load-bearing capacity of culverts with an expanded span. The outcomes of the study reveal the critical places for stress concentration as well as the location of maximum damage. It is found that haunch geometry and additional reinforcement at these critical places significantly affect the load-carrying capacity of a culvert. From the comparison of capacity curves of models with and without haunches and diagonal reinforcement, it is found that a 25% increase in load-carrying capacity is achievable with the recommended changes. The proposed design improvement technique can be employed for the cost-effective and safe design of a concrete box culvert with larger span lengths and high water-flowing capacities. The findings of this study are expected to assist practitioners in strength enhancement tasks of box culverts for increased structural stability and drainage efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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20 pages, 11306 KiB  
Article
Material and Process Tests of Heterogeneous Membranes Containing ZIF-8, SiO2 and POSS-Ph
by Daniel Polak and Maciej Szwast
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186455 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Heterogeneous membranes made of a polymer matrix and containing nano-metric fillers in their structure may present improved physicochemical and process properties compared to homogeneous membranes made only of polymer materials. Membranes made of a PEBAX®2533 block copolymer were tested with fillers [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous membranes made of a polymer matrix and containing nano-metric fillers in their structure may present improved physicochemical and process properties compared to homogeneous membranes made only of polymer materials. Membranes made of a PEBAX®2533 block copolymer were tested with fillers such as ZIF-8, SiO2 and POSS-Ph being dosed to them. The material analysis and process tests indicate that these nanomaterials can be used as fillers for heterogeneous membranes. Chemometric analyses determined the influence of individual fillers on selected physicochemical properties of the materials which were used to produce the membranes. For specific concentrations of these fillers, improvement in the permeability and selectivity of the membranes, or at least in one of these parameters, was achieved. The greatest increase in permeability against the homogeneous membrane was obtained for membranes containing 10 wt% ZIF-8 (for CO2, an increase of 2.07 times; for CH4, 2.36 times; for N2, 3.08 times). In turn, the greatest increase in selectivity was obtained for the CO2/CH4 mixture for the membrane containing 5 wt% SiO2 (1.15 times), and for the CO2/N2 mixture for the membrane containing 2 wt% POSS-Ph (1.21 times). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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15 pages, 4792 KiB  
Article
Seismic Damage Evaluation of Beam-Column Joints in Monolithic Precast Concrete Frame Structures
by Yan Cao and Zhao Yang
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176038 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Quantitative calculation and evaluation of seismic damage are very important for structural safety, performance-based structural analysis, and seismic reinforcement. However, the relevant research results for precast concrete structures are extremely limited. In this paper, the seismic damage evaluation of beam-column joints in monolithic [...] Read more.
Quantitative calculation and evaluation of seismic damage are very important for structural safety, performance-based structural analysis, and seismic reinforcement. However, the relevant research results for precast concrete structures are extremely limited. In this paper, the seismic damage evaluation of beam-column joints in monolithic precast concrete frames was studied through cyclic loading tests and damage index calculation. The seismic damage process, load-displacement relationship, stiffness degradation, and the influence of axial compression ratio were analyzed, then the damage indexes were calculated and analyzed, and the quantitative evaluation of joint damage was conducted last. The results show that the connection seams can significantly affect the mechanical properties of precast joints, easily causing damage concentration, resulting in a lower bearing capacity and faster stiffness degradation compared with a cast-in-situ joint. A larger axial compression ratio can bring higher bearing capacity for the precast joints, and the peak load can be increased by 42.9% when the axial compression ratio is increased from 0.2 to 0.4. In contrast, the stiffness degradation will be accelerated with the increase in the axial compression ratio. From yield load to peak load, the stiffness of the precast joint with the largest axial compression ratio decreases by 46.0%, while the joint with the smallest axial compression ratio is only 36.4%. The damage index model adopted in this paper can accurately reflect the damage characteristics of the precast joints. The presented damage states based on the damage index calculation can accurately reflect the joint’s damage characteristics according to different stages. The paper realizes the quantitative damage evaluation for this kind of joint and provides a theoretical basis and method for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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25 pages, 1888 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design and Competitive Spans of Timber Floor Joists Based on Multi-Parametric MINLP Optimization
by Primož Jelušič and Stojan Kravanja
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093217 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5378
Abstract
This study investigates the optimization of the design of timber floor joists, taking into account the self-manufacturing costs and the discrete sizes of the structure. This non-linear and discrete class of optimization problem was solved with the multi-parametric mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP). An [...] Read more.
This study investigates the optimization of the design of timber floor joists, taking into account the self-manufacturing costs and the discrete sizes of the structure. This non-linear and discrete class of optimization problem was solved with the multi-parametric mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP). An MINLP optimization model was developed. In the model, an accurate objective function of the material and labor costs of the structure was subjected to design, strength, vibration and deflection (in)equality constraints, defined according to Eurocode regulations. The optimal design of timber floor joists was investigated for different floor systems, different materials (sawn wood and glulam), different load sharing systems, different vertical imposed loads, different spans, and different alternatives of discrete cross-sections. For the above parameters, 380 individual MINLP optimizations were performed. Based on the results obtained, a recommended optimal design for timber floor joists was developed. Engineers can select from the recommendations the optimal design system for a given imposed load and span of the structure. Economically suitable spans for timber floor joists structures were found. The current knowledge of competitive spans for timber floor joists is extended based on cost optimization and Eurocode standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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16 pages, 7733 KiB  
Article
Stress–Strain Field in an Innovative Metallic Dam Gate Used to Control the Water Flow
by Calin Itu and Sorin Vlase
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072689 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The paper aims to determine the stress and strain field in metallic dam gates to identify an optimal constructive solution for their design, from the point of view of strength in service. The study is of a dam with a central, oscillating pivot, [...] Read more.
The paper aims to determine the stress and strain field in metallic dam gates to identify an optimal constructive solution for their design, from the point of view of strength in service. The study is of a dam with a central, oscillating pivot, which has the role of closing the gates when the downstream water level becomes too high and can thus flood the upstream portion of the river. It starts from a constructive solution initially proposed by the designers, which is then modified in several steps, until a better solution is reached in terms of strength to mechanical stress. This solution is obtained after analyzing several structural scenarios. The final results ensure an excellent behavior of the mechanical stresses, and represent a constructive solution that is easy to achieve and is economically convenient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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22 pages, 39749 KiB  
Article
Flammability and Thermoregulation Properties of Knitted Fabrics as a Potential Candidate for Protective Undergarments
by Laimutė Stygienė, Sigitas Krauledas, Aušra Abraitienė, Sandra Varnaitė-Žuravliova and Kristina Dubinskaitė
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072647 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
The most important functional purpose of knitted fabrics used for the protective non-flammable underwear worn in contact with the skin is to ensure wearing comfort by creating and maintaining a constant and pleasant microclimate at the skin surface independently from the environmental conditions. [...] Read more.
The most important functional purpose of knitted fabrics used for the protective non-flammable underwear worn in contact with the skin is to ensure wearing comfort by creating and maintaining a constant and pleasant microclimate at the skin surface independently from the environmental conditions. Protective non-flammable underwear may be used by firefighters or sportsmen, e.g., racing (Formula) sportsmen, where a risk of burn injuries (when the car is on fire after a car crash) is present. In order to investigate the flammability and thermal comfort properties of two-layer knitted fabrics, two groups of aramids and flame-retardant (FR) viscose fiber fabrics of different combined patterns and surface structures (porosity and flatness) were designed and manufactured for this research. Aramid fiber spun yarns (METAFINE.X.95®) formed the inner layer (contacting with human skin) of fabrics and aramid/viscose FR fiber spun yarns (METALEN®) formed the outer layer. For the evaluation of the functional characteristics of the manufactured fabrics, the flammability and thermoregulating properties, such as liquid moisture management, water vapor and air permeability, and thermal resistance were investigated. The results show that all tested fabrics are non-flammable, breathable, permeable to air, and can be assigned to moisture management fabrics. Their obtained overall moisture management capacity (OMMC) values are in the range 0.59–0.88. The knitted fabrics with an embossed porous surface to skin had a higher OMMC (0.75–0.88). The thermoregulation comfort properties were mostly influenced by the structure of the fabrics, while the burning behavior was found to be independent from the structure, and the non-flammability properties were imparted by the fiber content of the knits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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17 pages, 3108 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Non-Ferrous Metals from PCBs Scrap by Liquation from Lead
by Maciej Wędrychowicz, Andrzej Piotrowicz, Tomasz Skrzekut, Piotr Noga and Adam Bydalek
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062089 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
This article presents the results of research on the recycling of non-ferrous metals from PCB scrap using melting in metallic lead. The idea of this process is to dissolve (transfer) metals from PCB scrap in lead, and then liquation them by cooling the [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of research on the recycling of non-ferrous metals from PCB scrap using melting in metallic lead. The idea of this process is to dissolve (transfer) metals from PCB scrap in lead, and then liquation them by cooling the lead-metals alloy. PCB scrap was crushed and then melted into liquid lead. The lead after process was then poured into the casting mold and its chemical composition was examined. Among the various metals in the PCB scrap, copper and tin in particular are dissolved in lead. The more scrap dissolved in lead, the higher the concentration of copper and tin in the alloy. The highest obtained concentration of copper in lead were about 2.2 wt.%, and for tin about 0.8 wt.%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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21 pages, 13371 KiB  
Article
Full-Scale Measurements of Translational and Torsional Dynamics Characteristics of a High-Rise Building during Typhoon Sarika
by Jiaxing Hu, Zhengnong Li and Zhefei Zhao
Materials 2022, 15(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020493 (registering DOI) - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
The field measurement of wind-induced response is of great significance to the wind resistance design of high-rise buildings, in particular torsional responses measured from high-rise buildings under typhoons. The measured high-rise building, with a height of 108 m, has 32 stories and is [...] Read more.
The field measurement of wind-induced response is of great significance to the wind resistance design of high-rise buildings, in particular torsional responses measured from high-rise buildings under typhoons. The measured high-rise building, with a height of 108 m, has 32 stories and is supported by giant trusses with four massive columns. Acceleration responses along translational and torsional directions were monitored synchronously and continuously during the passage of Typhoon Sarika on 18 October 2016. The wind speed and wind direction at the height of 115 m, the translational accelerations on a total of six floors and the angular accelerations on a total of four floors were recorded. The time and frequency domain characteristics of translational acceleration and torsional angular accelerations were analyzed. The amplitude-dependent translational and torsional modal frequencies of the measured building were identified by NExT-ERA, SSI, and RDT methods. The full-scale study is expected to provide useful information on the wind-resistant design of high-rise buildings in typhoon-prone regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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20 pages, 6272 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Suitability of Elastomeric Bearings Modeling Using the Hyperelasticity and the Finite Element Method
by Marcin Daniel Gajewski and Mikołaj Miecznikowski
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247665 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
The paper presents modeling of bridge elastomeric bearings using large deformation theory and hyperelastic constitutive relations. In this work, the simplest neo-Hookean model was compared with the Yeoh model. The parameters of the models were determined from the elastomer uniaxial tensile test and [...] Read more.
The paper presents modeling of bridge elastomeric bearings using large deformation theory and hyperelastic constitutive relations. In this work, the simplest neo-Hookean model was compared with the Yeoh model. The parameters of the models were determined from the elastomer uniaxial tensile test and then verified with the results from experimental bearing compression tests. For verification, bearing compression tests were modeled and executed using the finite element method (FEM) in ABAQUS software. Additionally, the parameters of the constitutive models were determined using the inverse analysis method, for which the simulation results were as close as possible to those recorded during the experimental tests. The overall assessment of the suitability of elastomer bearings modeling with neo-Hookean and Yeoh hyperelasticity models is presented in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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12 pages, 39476 KiB  
Article
The Use of ZrO2 Waste for the Electrolytic Production of Composite Ni–P–ZrO2 Powder
by Jolanta Niedbała, Magdalena Popczyk, Grzegorz Benke, Hubert Okła, Jadwiga Gabor, Roman Wrzalik, Arkadiusz Stanula and Andrzej S. Swinarew
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216597 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Ni–P–ZrO2 composite powder was obtained from a galvanic nickel bath with ZrO2 powder. Production was conducted under galvanostatic conditions. The Ni–P–ZrO2 composite powder was characterized by the presence of ZrO2 particles covered with electrolytical nanocrystalline Ni–P coating. The chemical [...] Read more.
Ni–P–ZrO2 composite powder was obtained from a galvanic nickel bath with ZrO2 powder. Production was conducted under galvanostatic conditions. The Ni–P–ZrO2 composite powder was characterized by the presence of ZrO2 particles covered with electrolytical nanocrystalline Ni–P coating. The chemical composition (XRF method), phase structure (XRD method) and morphology (SEM) of Ni–P–ZrO2 and the distribution of elements in the powder were all investigated. Based on the analyses, it was found that the obtained powder contained about 50 weight % Zr and 40 weight % Ni. Phase structure analysis showed that the basic crystalline component of the tested powder is a mixed oxide of zirconium and yttrium Zr0.92Y0.08O1.96. In addition, the sample contains very large amounts of amorphous compounds (Ni–P). The mechanism to produce the composite powder particles is explained on the basis of Ni2+ ions adsorption process on the metal oxide particles. Current flow through the cell forces the movement of particles in the bath. Oxide grains with adsorbed nickel ions were transported to the cathode surface. Ni2+ ions were discharged. The oxide particles were covered with a Ni–P layer and the heavy composite grains of Ni–P–ZrO2 flowed down to the bottom of the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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29 pages, 42164 KiB  
Article
A Thermodynamically Consistent Model of Quasibrittle Elastic Damaged Materials Based on a Novel Helmholtz Potential and Dissipation Function
by Inez Kamińska and Aleksander Szwed
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216323 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
In the paper, a thermodynamically consistent model of elastic damaged material in the framework of small strain theory is formulated, describing the process of deterioration in quasibrittle materials, concrete in particular. The main goal is to appropriately depict the distinction between material responses [...] Read more.
In the paper, a thermodynamically consistent model of elastic damaged material in the framework of small strain theory is formulated, describing the process of deterioration in quasibrittle materials, concrete in particular. The main goal is to appropriately depict the distinction between material responses in tension and compression. A novel Helmholtz energy and a dissipation potential including three damage parameters are introduced. The Helmholtz function has a continuous first derivative with respect to strain tensor. Based on the assumed functions, the strain–stress relationship, the damage condition, the evolution laws, and the tangent stiffness tensor are derived. The model’s predictions for uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial cyclic compression–tension, and pure shear tests are calculated using Wolfram Mathematica in order to identify the main features of the model and to grasp the physical meaning of an isotropic damage parameter, a tensile damage parameter, and a compressive damage parameter. Their values can be directly bound to changes of secant stiffness and generalized Poisson’s ratio. An interpretation of damage parameters in association with three mechanisms of damage is given. The considered dissipation potential allows a flexible choice of a damage condition. The influence of material parameters included in dissipation function on damage mode interaction is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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23 pages, 4039 KiB  
Article
Large Deflection Analysis of Peripherally Fixed Circular Membranes Subjected to Liquid Weight Loading: A Refined Design Theory of Membrane Deflection-Based Rain Gauges
by Jun-Yi Sun, Qi Zhang, Ji Wu, Xue Li and Xiao-Ting He
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205992 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
The anticipated use of elastic membranes for deflection-based rain gauges has provided an impetus for this paper to revisit the large deflection problem of a peripherally fixed circular membrane subjected to liquid weight loading, a statics problem when the fluid–structure interaction of membrane [...] Read more.
The anticipated use of elastic membranes for deflection-based rain gauges has provided an impetus for this paper to revisit the large deflection problem of a peripherally fixed circular membrane subjected to liquid weight loading, a statics problem when the fluid–structure interaction of membrane and liquid reaches static equilibrium. The closed-form solution of this statics problem of fluid–structure interaction is necessary for the design of such membrane deflection-based rain gauges, while the existing closed-form solution, due to the use of the small rotation angle assumption of the membrane, cannot meet the design requirements for computational accuracy. In this paper, the problem under consideration is reformulated by giving up the small rotation angle assumption, which gives rise to a new and somewhat intractable nonlinear integro-differential equation of the governing out-of-plane equilibrium. The power series method has played an irreplaceable role in analytically solving membrane equations involving both integral and differential operations, and a new and more refined closed-form solution without the small rotation angle assumption is finally presented. Numerical examples conducted show that the new and more refined closed-form solution presented has satisfactory convergence, and the effect of giving up the small rotation angle assumption is also investigated numerically. The application of the closed-form solution presented in designing such membrane deflection-based rain gauges is illustrated, and the reliability of the new and more refined closed-form solution presented was confirmed by conducting a confirmatory experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Structures and Materials)
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