Special Issue "Development of Mechanical, Corrosion Resistance, and Antibacterial Properties of Steels"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Crtomir Donik
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: corrosion; metal materials; porous materials; characterization; porous metals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marjetka Conradi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Metals and Technology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: mechanical properties; materials science; composites; corrosion; corrosion protection; colloids; publishing; Physics of surfaces and interfaces, free-standing films of liquid crystals; Physics of colloidal systems in isotropic and anisotropic media; Polymer (nano)composites (physical, mechanical properties/testing; Corrosion of metallic materials; Corrosion protection coatings; Biocompatible materials, coatings; Surface (nano)structuring, tailoring surface properties for specific end-use

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this Special Issue “Mechanical, Corrosion Resistance, and Antibacterial Properties of Steels” is the research on the latest developments in areas of materials mechanical properties and characterization, pure/applied corrosion and phenomena, and advanced understanding of bacterial adhesion with induced antibacterial properties of steels.

Authors are invited to present their research using novel approaches related to basic material properties and microstructure affecting the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, as well as antibacterial properties of steels. Appropriate submissions should reflect recent developments in the science and technology of steels through the latest scientific research achievements in new processes and their dissemination and applications.

The papers are welcome to provide:

  • Advanced understanding of the structure and mechanical properties of steels as well as the discovery or development and characterization of the structure of improved steels with novel functional or mechanical properties of potential engineering interests;
  • Latest developments in areas of corrosion mechanisms and corrosion control, passivity, anodic oxidation, and biochemical corrosion;
  • Improvements of the antibacterial properties of steels by changing the chemical composition of steels or by the application of specific coatings.

This Special Issue will publish original peer-reviewed papers in the fields of surface science and engineering and forms an important link between metallurgists, materials scientists, and all investigators of metallic materials for different demanding applications.

Dr. Crtomir Donik
Prof. Dr. Marjetka Conradi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mechanical properties
  • characterization
  • corrosion
  • electrochemical characterization
  • spectroscopic characterization
  • antibacterial properties
  • coating/metal interfaces

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Improvement of Corrosion Resistance of TiO2 Layers in Strong Acidic Solutions by Anodizing and Thermal Oxidation Treatment
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051188 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
By anodization and thermal oxidation at 600 °C, an oxide layer on Ti with excellent corrosion resistance in strong acid solutions was prepared. The structural properties of TiO2 films before and after thermal oxidation were investigated with methods of Scanning electron microscope [...] Read more.
By anodization and thermal oxidation at 600 °C, an oxide layer on Ti with excellent corrosion resistance in strong acid solutions was prepared. The structural properties of TiO2 films before and after thermal oxidation were investigated with methods of Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical characterization was recorded via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and Mott–Schottky methods. XRD results show that a duplex rutile/anatase structure formed after oxidation, and the amount of anatase phase increased as the treatment time was prolonged from 3 to 9 h. XPS analysis indicates that as the thermal oxidation time increased, more Ti vacancies were present in the titanium oxide films, with decreased donor concentration. Longer thermal oxidation promoted the formation of hydroxides of titanium on the surface, which is helpful to improve the passive ability of the film. The anodized and thermally oxidized Ti samples showed relatively high corrosion resistance in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 solutions at 100 ± 5 °C. The passive current density values of the thermally oxidized samples were five orders of magnitude under the testing condition compared with that of the anodized sample. With the oxidation time prolonged, the passive current density decreased further to some extent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Interlayer Temperature on Structure and Properties of Wire and Arc Additive Manufactured Duplex Stainless Steel Product
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245795 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
WAAM (wire and arc additive manufacturing) is becoming an increasingly popular method to produce components from metals, which are usually not so suitable for conventional production methods. One of the good examples is duplex stainless steels (DSSs), which are quite complex for welding [...] Read more.
WAAM (wire and arc additive manufacturing) is becoming an increasingly popular method to produce components from metals, which are usually not so suitable for conventional production methods. One of the good examples is duplex stainless steels (DSSs), which are quite complex for welding and machining. Excessive ferrite amount is a common problem for them and controlling an interlayer temperature could offer a solution. However, using too low interlayer temperature will slow down the whole process and compromise one of the WAAM’s main advantages—the high productivity. The aim of this study is to find the relationship between interlayer temperature and process duration and to determine the influence of the interlayer temperature on product structure and other properties. Three samples (walls) were made using different interlayer temperatures (50 °C, 100 °C and 150 °C) and they were tested to analyze their surface texture, chemical composition, ferrite amount, the appearance of porosity and the hardness. Ferrite amount was higher and there was more porosity on lower interlayer temperatures, while there is no significant difference between surface texture and chemical composition for the samples. Considering the fact that higher interlayer temperatures provide a faster process, they should be preferred to produce duplex stainless steel products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Progressive Applications of Hyperbranched Polymer Based on Diarylamine: Antimicrobial, Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Aerobic Corrosion
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092076 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
New generations of hyperbranched aramids were synthesized from diarylamine and methyl acrylate using an AB2 monomer approach in a straightforward one-pot preparation. The chemical structure of hyperbranched Phenylenediamine/Methyl Acrylate HB(PDMA was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( [...] Read more.
New generations of hyperbranched aramids were synthesized from diarylamine and methyl acrylate using an AB2 monomer approach in a straightforward one-pot preparation. The chemical structure of hyperbranched Phenylenediamine/Methyl Acrylate HB(PDMA was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the particle’s size and distribution were recorded using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Moreover, the synthesized HB(PDMA)s displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast strains and anti-biofilm activity where the highest activity was attributed to HB(PDMA)G4 at the lowest Minimum Inhibitory, Minimum Bactericidal, and Fungicidal Concentrations (MIC, MBC, and MFC, respectively). Furthermore, the HB(PDMA)s expressed anti-bacterial activity against isolated Pseudomonas sp. (R301) at a salinity of 35,000 ppm (NaCl). In addition, they revealed different corrosion inhibition efficiencies at the cultivated medium salinity at the estimated minimum bactericidal concentrations. The highest metal corrosion inhibition efficiencies were 59.5 and 94.3% for HB(PDMA)G4 at the Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBCs) and two times Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (2XMBCs), respectively, in comparison to both negative and positive controls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Manipulation of TiO2 Nanoparticle/Polymer Coatings Wettability and Friction in Different Environments
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071702 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
An AISI 316L surface was functionalized by the adsorption of hydrophilic epoxy and epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coatings and hydrophobic epoxy/fluoroalkylsilane-functionalized FAS-TiO2/epoxy coatings. We characterized the coatings’ wettability, morphology and average surface roughness and discussed the influence of surface wettability and morphology [...] Read more.
An AISI 316L surface was functionalized by the adsorption of hydrophilic epoxy and epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coatings and hydrophobic epoxy/fluoroalkylsilane-functionalized FAS-TiO2/epoxy coatings. We characterized the coatings’ wettability, morphology and average surface roughness and discussed the influence of surface wettability and morphology on the coefficient of friction and the wear resistance. Experiments were performed in dry, distilled water and in a simulated physiological solution (Hank’s solution). In the case of dry sliding, a lower coefficient of friction is achieved for both TiO2 coatings compared to the pure epoxy coating. In a water environment the same level of friction is shown for all three coatings, whereas in Hank’s solution the friction is reduced for the hydrophilic epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coating, increased for the hydrophobic epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coating and has no effect on the pure epoxy coating. The results show that the corrosion resistance is significantly improved for the hydrophobic epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coating compared to the hydrophilic pure epoxy and epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coatings. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Monitoring the Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Exposed to a Marine Environment
Materials 2020, 13(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020407 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
Reinforced concrete structures require continuous monitoring and maintenance to prevent corrosion of the carbon steel reinforcement. In this work, concrete columns with carbon and stainless steel reinforcements were exposed to a real marine environment. In order to monitor the corrosion processes, two types [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete structures require continuous monitoring and maintenance to prevent corrosion of the carbon steel reinforcement. In this work, concrete columns with carbon and stainless steel reinforcements were exposed to a real marine environment. In order to monitor the corrosion processes, two types of corrosion probes were embedded in these columns at different height levels. The results from the monitoring of the probes were compared to the actual corrosion damage in the different exposure zones. Electrical resistance (ER) probes and coupled multi-electrodes (CMEs) were shown to be promising methods for long-term corrosion monitoring in concrete. Correlations between the different exposure zones and the corrosion processes of the steel in the concrete were found. Macrocell corrosion properties and the distribution of the separated anodic/cathodic places on the steel in chloride-contaminated concrete were addressed as two of the key issues for understanding the corrosion mechanisms in such environments. The specific advantages and limitations of the tested measuring techniques for long-term corrosion monitoring were also indicated. The results of the measurements and the corrosion damage evaluation clearly confirmed that the tested stainless steels (AISI 304 and AISI 304L) in a chloride-contaminated environment behave significantly better than ordinary carbon steel, with corrosion rates from 110× to 9500× lower in the most severe (tidal) exposure conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activation and Repassivation of Stainless Steels in Artificial Brines as a Function of pH
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233811 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
When planning oil wells with stainless steel components, two possible reasons for depassivation have to be considered—chemical depassivation caused by acidizing jobs and mechanical depassivation caused by various tools and hard particles. The study explores conditions causing chemical activation of investigated steels and [...] Read more.
When planning oil wells with stainless steel components, two possible reasons for depassivation have to be considered—chemical depassivation caused by acidizing jobs and mechanical depassivation caused by various tools and hard particles. The study explores conditions causing chemical activation of investigated steels and circumstances under which repassivation occurs after activation. The main focus of the study is to determine, how quickly various steels can repassivate under different conditions and to find pH values where repassivation will occur after depassivation. The investigated steels were ferritic (martensitic or bainitic) in the cases of 13Cr, 13Cr6Ni2Mo, and 17Cr4Ni2Mo, austenitic in the case of 17Cr12Ni2Mo, and duplex (austenitic and ferritic) in the case of 22Cr5Ni3Mo. Potentiodynamic experiments were employed to obtain electrochemical properties of investigated steels, followed by immersion tests to find ultimate conditions, where the steels still retain their passivity. After obtaining this information, scratch tests were performed to study the repassivation kinetics. It was found that repassivation times are similar for nearly all investigated steels independent of their chemical composition and microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Surface Wettability and Topography on the Bioactivity of TiO2/Epoxy Coatings on AISI 316L Stainless Steel
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111877 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Epoxy/TiO2/epoxy and epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coatings were applied to the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel with the aim to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Contact-angle measurements were used to evaluate the wetting properties of the epoxy, epoxy/TiO2/epoxy [...] Read more.
Epoxy/TiO2/epoxy and epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coatings were applied to the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel with the aim to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Contact-angle measurements were used to evaluate the wetting properties of the epoxy, epoxy/TiO2/epoxy and epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coatings. The epoxy and epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coatings were hydrophilic compared with the strongly hydrophobic epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coating. The average surface roughness (Sa) of the epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy coating was higher than that of the epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coating due to the formation of agglomerates. The biocompatibility evaluation revealed that the cell attachment was significantly higher on the epoxy/FAS-TiO2/epoxy and epoxy/TiO2/epoxy coatings compared with the pure epoxy coating. We also observed improved antibacterial properties for the epoxy coatings with the addition of both TiO2 and FAS-TiO2 nanoparticles. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Strategies for Improving Antimicrobial Properties of Stainless Steel
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132944 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
In this review, strategies for improving the antimicrobial properties of stainless steel (SS) are presented. The main focus given is to present current strategies for surface modification of SS, which alter surface characteristics in terms of surface chemistry, topography and wettability/surface charge, without [...] Read more.
In this review, strategies for improving the antimicrobial properties of stainless steel (SS) are presented. The main focus given is to present current strategies for surface modification of SS, which alter surface characteristics in terms of surface chemistry, topography and wettability/surface charge, without influencing the bulk attributes of the material. As SS exhibits excellent mechanical properties and satisfactory biocompatibility, it is one of the most frequently used materials in medical applications. It is widely used as a material for fabricating orthopedic prosthesis, cardiovascular stents/valves and recently also for three dimensional (3D) printing of custom made implants. Despite its good mechanical properties, SS lacks desired biofunctionality, which makes it prone to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Due to increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, it is imperative to achieve antibacterial properties of implants. Thus, many different approaches were proposed and are discussed herein. Emphasis is given on novel approaches based on treatment with highly reactive plasma, which may alter SS topography, chemistry and wettability under appropriate treatment conditions. This review aims to present and critically discuss different approaches and propose novel possibilities for surface modification of SS by using highly reactive gaseous plasma in order to obtain a desired biological response. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Plasma treatment for surface finishing of vascular implants
Authors: Ita Junkar *, Metka Benčina, Janez Kovač, Rok Zaplotnik, Miran Mozetič, Aleš Iglič
Corresponding author: [email protected]

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