Special Issue "Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Porous Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 November 2022 | Viewed by 6756

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hamada Elsayed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
2. Ceramic Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Interests: additive manufacturing; novel processing routes; engineering design of porous glasses and ceramics for functional and structural applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Porous materials are fundamental in a wide range of applications (e.g., catalysis, adsorption separation, sensing, drug delivery, biomedicine, energy production, energy storage systems, thermal and acoustic insulators). Therefore, they have attracted the attention of both the industry and academics and have been the subject of intensive research in recent years. In terms of composition, porous materials can be inorganic, organic, or inorganic–organic composite materials (ceramics, glasses, metals, polymers, and their composites). In addition, recent advances in porous materials include the development of materials and shaping in the desired porous shapes. Moreover, tailoring of the total and type of porosity, pore size, and pore wall surface chemistry of porous materials are of scientific and technological importance.

Given the high level of research interest and importance of porous materials, this Special Issue of Materials is devoted to “Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies”. This Special Issue of Materials will focus on the rapid publication of high-quality, peer-reviewed papers on the synthesis, processing, characterization, and evaluation of porous materials, as well as the wide range of types and applications of porous materials. Besides, special emphasis will be devoted to new fabrication methods, new properties, and new applications of porous materials, and how this impacts many different technologies.

This Special Issue aims to cover research of relevance to, without being limited to, the following themes:

  • Innovative porous materials (inorganic, organic, hybrids).
  • Fabrication, characterization, functionalization, and use of porous materials in different applications.
  • Advanced manufacturing approaches and processing, including additive manufacturing techniques of porous materials.
  • New characterization methods and approaches, such as 3D imaging and reconstruction.
  • Simulation/optimization properties of porous materials.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Hamada Elsayed
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • porous materials
  • porous ceramics
  • porous metals
  • porous polymers
  • porosity
  • novel processing and manufacturing techniques
  • additive manufacturing 3D printing techniques

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Low-Cost Porous Polymer Membrane for Gas Permeation
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103537 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 283
Abstract
In this work, an efficient technique was used to produce porous membranes for different applications. Polyethylene (PE) was selected for the matrix, while corn starch (CS) was used to create the porous structure via leaching. The membranes were produced by continuous extrusion (blending)–calendering [...] Read more.
In this work, an efficient technique was used to produce porous membranes for different applications. Polyethylene (PE) was selected for the matrix, while corn starch (CS) was used to create the porous structure via leaching. The membranes were produced by continuous extrusion (blending)–calendering (forming) followed by CS leaching in a 20% aqueous acetic acid solution at 80 °C. A complete characterization of the resulting membranes was performed including morphological and mechanical properties. After process optimization, the gas transport properties through the membranes were determined on the basis of pure gas permeation including CH4, CO2, O2, and N2 for two specific applications: biogas sweetening (CH4/CO2) and oxygen-enriched air (O2/N2). The gas separation results for ideal permeability and selectivity at 25 °C and 1.17 bar (17 psi) show that these membranes are a good starting point for industrial applications since they are low-cost, easy to produce, and can be further optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Communication
Porous Glass Microspheres from Alkali-Activated Fiber Glass Waste
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031043 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Fiber glass waste (FGW) was subjected to alkali activation in an aqueous solution with different concentrations of sodium/potassium hydroxide. The activated materials were fed into a methane–oxygen flame with a temperature of around 1600 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of several [...] Read more.
Fiber glass waste (FGW) was subjected to alkali activation in an aqueous solution with different concentrations of sodium/potassium hydroxide. The activated materials were fed into a methane–oxygen flame with a temperature of around 1600 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of several hydrated compounds, which decomposed upon flame synthesis, leading to porous glass microspheres (PGMs). Pore formation was favored by using highly concentrated activating alkali solutions. The highest homogeneity and yield of PGMs corresponded to the activation with 9 M KOH aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
High Mechanic Enhancement of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced-Low-Density Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composite at Low Preparation Temperature with Facile Polymerization
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154273 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
Chopped carbon fiber-reinforced low-density unsaturated polyester resin (CCFR-LDUPR) composite materials with light weight and high mechanical properties were prepared at low temperature and under the synergistic action of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP-II) and cobalt naphthenate. Optimal preparation conditions were obtained through an [...] Read more.
Chopped carbon fiber-reinforced low-density unsaturated polyester resin (CCFR-LDUPR) composite materials with light weight and high mechanical properties were prepared at low temperature and under the synergistic action of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP-II) and cobalt naphthenate. Optimal preparation conditions were obtained through an orthogonal experiment, which were preparation temperature at 58.0 °C, 2.00 parts per hundred of resin (phr) of NH4HCO3, 4.00 phr of chopped carbon fibers (CCFs) in a length of 6.0 mm, 1.25 phr of initiator and 0.08 phr of cobalt naphthenate. CCFR-LDUPR composite sample presented its optimal properties for which the density (ρ) was 0.58 ± 0.02 g·cm−3 and the specific compressive strength (Ps) was 53.56 ± 0.83 MPa·g−1·cm3, which is 38.9% higher than that of chopped glass fiber-reinforced low-density unsaturated polyester resin (CGFR-LDUPR) composite materials. Synergistic effects of initiator and accelerator accelerated the specific polymerization of resin in facile preparation at low temperature. Unique “dimples”, “plate microstructure” and “surface defect” fabricated the specific microstructure of the matrix of CCFR-LDUPR composite samples, which was different from that of cured unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) with “body defect” or that of CGFR-LDUPR with coexistence of “surface defect” and “body defect”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Improved Biological Responses of Titanium Coating Using Laser-Aided Direct Metal Fabrication on SUS316L Stainless Steel
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143947 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Direct metal fabrication (DMF) coatings have the advantage of a more uniform porous structure and superior mechanical properties compared to coatings provided by other methods. We applied pure titanium metal powders to SUS316L stainless steel using laser-aided DMF coating technology with 3D printing. [...] Read more.
Direct metal fabrication (DMF) coatings have the advantage of a more uniform porous structure and superior mechanical properties compared to coatings provided by other methods. We applied pure titanium metal powders to SUS316L stainless steel using laser-aided DMF coating technology with 3D printing. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this surface modification of stainless steel. The capacity of cells to adhere to DMF-coated SUS316L stainless steel was compared with machined SUS316L stainless steel in vitro and in vivo. Morphological in vitro response to human osteoblast cell lines was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Separate specimens were inserted into the medulla of distal femurs of rabbits for in vivo study. The distal femurs were harvested after 3 months, and were then subjected to push-out test and histomorphometrical analyses. The DMF group exhibited a distinct surface chemical composition, showing higher peaks of titanium compared to the machined stainless steel. The surface of the DMF group had a more distinct porous structure, which showed more extensive coverage with lamellipodia from osteoblasts than the machined surface. In the in vivo test, the DMF group showed better results than the machined group in the push-out test (3.39 vs. 1.35 MPa, respectively, p = 0.001). In the histomorphometric analyses, the mean bone-to-implant contact percentage of the DMF group was about 1.5 times greater than that of the machined group (65.4 ± 7.1% vs. 41.9 ± 5.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). The porous titanium coating on SUS316L stainless steel produced using DMF with 3D printing showed better surface characteristics and biomechanical properties than the machined SUS316L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
A Micro-Computed Tomography Comparison of the Porosity in Additively Fabricated CuCr1 Alloy Parts Using Virgin and Surface-Modified Powders
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081995 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Recently, the use of novel CuCr1 surface-modified powder for reliable laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) manufacturing has been proposed, enabling a broader LPBF processing window and longer powder storage life. Nevertheless, virgin CuCr1 powder is also LPBF processable, on the condition that a high-energy [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of novel CuCr1 surface-modified powder for reliable laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) manufacturing has been proposed, enabling a broader LPBF processing window and longer powder storage life. Nevertheless, virgin CuCr1 powder is also LPBF processable, on the condition that a high-energy density is employed. In this work, we compare two dense specimens produced from virgin and surface-modified CuCr1 powder. Furthermore, a third sample fabricated from surface-modified powder is characterized to understand an abnormal porosity content initially detected through Archimedes testing. Utilizing high-resolution micro-CT scans, the nature of the defects present in the different samples is revealed. Pores are analyzed in terms of size, morphology and spatial distribution. The micro-CT data reveal that the virgin CuCr1 dense specimen displays keyhole pores plus pit cavities spanning multiple layer thicknesses. On the other hand, the sample fabricated with the surface-modified CuCr1 powder mainly contains small and spherical equi-distributed metallurgical defects. Finally, the CT analysis of the third specimen reveals the presence of a W contamination, favoring lack-of-fusion pores between subsequent LPBF layers. The LPBF melting mode (keyhole or conductive), the properties of the material, and the potential presence of contaminants are connected to the different porosity types and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Prediction Models Based on Regression and Artificial Neural Network for Moduli of Layers Constituted by Open-Graded Aggregates
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051199 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The impermeable cover in urban area has been growing due to rapid urbanization, which prevents stormwater from being naturally infiltrated into the ground. There is a higher chance of flooding in urban area covered with conventional concretes and asphalts. The permeable pavement is [...] Read more.
The impermeable cover in urban area has been growing due to rapid urbanization, which prevents stormwater from being naturally infiltrated into the ground. There is a higher chance of flooding in urban area covered with conventional concretes and asphalts. The permeable pavement is one of Low-Impact Development (LID) technologies that can reduce surface runoff and water pollution by allowing stormwater into pavement systems. Unlike traditional pavements, permeable pavement bases employ open-graded aggregates (OGAs) with highly uniform particle sizes. There is very little information on the engineering properties of compacted OGAs. In this study, the moduli of open-graded aggregates under various compaction energies are investigated based on the Plate Load Test (PLT) and Light-Weight Deflectometer (LWD). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Linear Regression (LR) models are employed for estimation of the moduli of the aggregates based on the material type and level of compaction. Overall, the moduli from PLT and LWD steeply increase until the number of roller passes reaches 4, and they gradually increase until the number of roller passes becomes 8. A set of simple linear equations are proposed to evaluate the moduli of open-graded aggregates from PLT and LWD based on the material type and the number of roller passes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Effect of Internal Microstructure Distribution on Quasi-Static Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of Hollow Truss Structures
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225094 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 528
Abstract
In this work, hollow truss structures with different internal microstructure distributions, i.e., basic hollow truss structure (specimen HT), hollow truss structure with internal microstructure at joints (specimen HTSJ), and hollow truss structure with internal microstructure on tube walls (specimen HTSW), were designed and [...] Read more.
In this work, hollow truss structures with different internal microstructure distributions, i.e., basic hollow truss structure (specimen HT), hollow truss structure with internal microstructure at joints (specimen HTSJ), and hollow truss structure with internal microstructure on tube walls (specimen HTSW), were designed and manufactured using a selective laser melting technique. The effect of internal microstructure distribution on quasi-static compressive behavior and energy absorption was investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The experimental results show that compressive strength and specific compressive strength of specimen HTSW increase by nearly 50% and 14% compared to specimen HT, and its energy absorption per volume and mass also increase by 52% and 15% at a strain of 0.5, respectively. However, the parameters of specimen HTSJ exhibit limited improvement or even a decrease in different degrees in comparison to specimen HT. The numerical simulation indicates that internal microstructures change the bearing capacity and structural weaknesses of the cells, resulting in the different mechanical properties and energy absorptions of the specimens. Based on the internal microstructure design in this study, adding microstructures into the internal weaknesses of the cells parallel to the loading direction is an effective way to improve the compressive properties, energy absorption and compressive stability of hollow truss structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Acoustical and Optical Determination of Mechanical Properties of Inorganically-Bound Foundry Core Materials
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112531 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Inorganically-bound sand cores are used in many light-metal foundries to form cavities in the cast part, which cannot be realised by the mould itself. To enable FEM simulations with core materials, their mechanical properties have to be measured. In this article, we adapt [...] Read more.
Inorganically-bound sand cores are used in many light-metal foundries to form cavities in the cast part, which cannot be realised by the mould itself. To enable FEM simulations with core materials, their mechanical properties have to be measured. In this article, we adapt methods to determine the Young’s and shear modulus, the Poisson ratio and the fracture strain of sand cores. This allows us to fully parametrise an ideal brittle FEM model. We found that the Young’s and shear modulus can be obtained acoustically via the impulse excitation technique. The fracture strain was measured with a high-speed camera and a digital image correlation algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Review

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Review
Additive Manufacturing as a Solution to Challenges Associated with Heat Pipe Production
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041609 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The aim of this review is to present the recent developments in heat pipe production, which respond to the current technical problems related to the wide implementation of this technology. A novel approach in HP manufacturing is to utilise hi-tech additive manufacturing techniques [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to present the recent developments in heat pipe production, which respond to the current technical problems related to the wide implementation of this technology. A novel approach in HP manufacturing is to utilise hi-tech additive manufacturing techniques where the most complicated geometries are fabricated layer-by-layer directly from a digital file. This technology might be a solution to various challenges that exist in HP production, i.e., (1) manufacturing of complex or unusual geometries HPs; (2) manufacturing complicated and efficient homogenous wick structures with desired porosity, uniform pore sizes, permeability, thickness and where the pores are evenly distributed; (3) manufacturing a gravity friendly wick structures; (4) high customisation and production time; (5) high costs; (6) difficulties in the integration of the HP into a unit chassis that enables direct thermal management of heated element and decrease its total thermal resistance; (7) high weight and material use of the part; (8) difficulties in sealing; (9) deformation of the flat shape HPs caused by the high pressure and uneven distribution of stress in the casing, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Porous geopolymer-mullite composites derived from waste alumina brick and rice husk components

Cengiz Bagci* and Emre Dolu*

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hitit University, Corum, 19030, TURKEY

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