Special Issue "Long-Term Behavior of Cementitious Materials and Reinforced Concrete Structures"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assist. Prof. Branko Šavija
Website
Guest Editor
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Interests: concrete durability; concrete modeling; experimental micromechanics
Assoc. Prof. Ivan Ignjatovic
Website
Guest Editor
University of Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: structural concrete; durability; service life design; recycling and waste materials in concrete
Dr. Ravi A. Patel
Website
Guest Editor
Paul Scherer Institute, Switzerland
Interests: concrete durability; transport processes; chemomechanical processes; pore-scale modeling and multiscale modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Concrete is a building material of choice for structures in aggressive environmental conditions. Structures that are expected to have a long service life, such as bridges, tunnels, and dams, nuclear power plants, and geological waste disposal facilities, have main components made of concrete. Furthermore, there is a pressing need for extending the service life of existing structures as a more sustainable option compared to buiding new structures. In order to ensure that these structures perform well, it is important to understand time-dependent changes in the material and its interaction with the environment. This is especially critical when new types of concrete, such as alkali-activated concrete, recycled aggregate concrete, or concrete based on suplementary cementitous materials, are considered for application.

This aim of this Special Issue is to cover recent research in time-dependent phenomena
(shrinkage, creep, fatigue), aging, and durability of cementitious materials and reinforced concrete structures, including their service life design. The focus is on measuring, modeling, and monitoring these processes on multiple length scales, ranging from the microscale (pore-scale) all the way up to the macroscale (structural element/structure scale). Transport processess, cracking, damage, reinforcement corrosion, and loss of serviceability are all topics of interest. Furthermore, contributions dealing with the long-term performance of new types of concrete on all length scales are especially encouraged.

With this Special Issue, it is our ambition to circulate the latest knowledge in the long-term performance of cementitious materials and reinforced concrete structures. Excellent contributions will form a basis for new research for both young researchers as well as leading experts in the field.

Assist. Prof. Branko Šavija
Assoc. Prof. Ivan Ignjatovic
Dr. Ravi A. Patel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Alkali–silica reaction
  • Sulphate attack
  • Calcium leaching
  • Carbonation
  • Chloride ingress
  • Reinforcement corrosion
  • Service life design
  • Transport processes
  • Creep/shrinkage
  • Concrete cracking
  • Serviceability limit state (SLS)
  • Aging

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Peridynamics-Based Micromechanical Modeling Approach for Random Heterogeneous Structural Materials
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061298 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a peridynamics-based micromechanical analysis framework that can efficiently handle material failure for random heterogeneous structural materials. In contrast to conventional continuum-based approaches, this method can handle discontinuities such as fracture without requiring supplemental mathematical relations. The framework presented here generates [...] Read more.
This paper presents a peridynamics-based micromechanical analysis framework that can efficiently handle material failure for random heterogeneous structural materials. In contrast to conventional continuum-based approaches, this method can handle discontinuities such as fracture without requiring supplemental mathematical relations. The framework presented here generates representative unit cells based on microstructural information on the material and assigns distinct material behavior to the constituent phases in the random heterogenous microstructures. The framework incorporates spontaneous failure initiation/propagation based on the critical stretch criterion in peridynamics and predicts effective constitutive response of the material. The current framework is applied to a metallic particulate-reinforced cementitious composite. The simulated mechanical responses show excellent match with experimental observations signifying efficacy of the peridynamics-based micromechanical framework for heterogenous composites. Thus, the multiscale peridynamics-based framework can efficiently facilitate microstructure guided material design for a large class of inclusion-modified random heterogenous materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Recycled Iron Powder as Fine Aggregate on the Mechanical, Durability, and High Temperature Behavior of Mortars
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051168 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study evaluates the mechanical, durability, and residual compressive strength (after being exposed to 20, 120, 250, 400 and 600 °C) of mortar that uses recycled iron powder (RIP) as a fine aggregate. Within this context, mechanical strength, shrinkage, durability, and residual strength [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the mechanical, durability, and residual compressive strength (after being exposed to 20, 120, 250, 400 and 600 °C) of mortar that uses recycled iron powder (RIP) as a fine aggregate. Within this context, mechanical strength, shrinkage, durability, and residual strength tests were performed on mortar made with seven different percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of replacement of natural sand (NS) by RIP. It was found that the mechanical strength of mortar increased when replaced with up to 30% NS by RIP. In addition, the increase was 30% for compressive, 18% for tensile, and 47% for flexural strength at 28 days, respectively, compared to the reference mortar (mortar made with 100% NS). Shrinkage was observed for the mortar made with 100% NS, while both shrinkage and expansion occurred in the mortar made with RIP, especially for RIP higher than 5%. Furthermore, significantly lower porosity and capillary water absorption were observed for mortar made with up to 30% RIP, compared to that made with 100% NS, which decreased by 36% for porosity and 48% for water absorption. As the temperature increased, the strength decreased for all mixes, and the drop was more pronounced for the temperatures above 250 °C and 50% RIP. This study demonstrates that up to 30% RIP can be utilized as a fine aggregate in mortar due to its better mechanical and durability performances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Chloride Distribution for Offshore Concrete Based on Statistical Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010174 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chloride-induced corrosion is the main threat to the service life of concrete structures. In order to better investigate chloride distribution in offshore concrete, this study proposed a new prediction model based on statistical analysis as well as a large body of experimental results [...] Read more.
Chloride-induced corrosion is the main threat to the service life of concrete structures. In order to better investigate chloride distribution in offshore concrete, this study proposed a new prediction model based on statistical analysis as well as a large body of experimental results collected from various sources. A detailed discussion found that the key influential parameters, such as diffusion coefficient ( D ), surface chloride concentration ( C S ) and penetration depth ( x ) are all highly time-dependent. The exposure zone, water–cement ratio and service time were also considered as relevant factors. The proposed model is then validated by two alternative tests and the results suggest that it is feasible in predicting the chloride content and penetration depth of concrete structures in a marine environment under chloride attack. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Development of Nanoalumina-Based Cement Mortars for Overlay Applications in Concrete Floors
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213465 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article focuses on the development of nanoalumina-based cement mortars for overlay applications in concrete floors. It focuses on the effect of applying aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanopowder to the cement mortar used to make the overlay, on the adhesion [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the development of nanoalumina-based cement mortars for overlay applications in concrete floors. It focuses on the effect of applying aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanopowder to the cement mortar used to make the overlay, on the adhesion of this overlay to concrete substrate and on its functional properties. It was claimed that the addition of 0.5% of Al2O3 nanopowder has a positive effect on the adhesion of the cement mortar used to make the overlay to the substrate made of concrete. The prior studies performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the reason for the improvement in adhesion is the fact that cement mortar used to make the overlay with the addition of 0.5% of Al2O3 nanopowder is less porous than the reference mortar within the interphase. The article concurs that the most favorable results, in terms of lower abrasion resistance and higher subsurface tensile strength of the cement mortar used to make the overlay, are mainly brought about by adding 0.5% of Al2O3 nanopowder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Nano-SiO2 and Bentonite-Based Mortars for Corrosion Protection of Reinforcing Steel
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162622 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the use of nano-silica (nano-SiO2) and bentonite as mortar additives for combating reinforcement corrosion is reported. More specifically, these materials were used as additives in ordinary Portland cement (OPC)/fly ash blended mortars in different amounts. The effects of [...] Read more.
In this study, the use of nano-silica (nano-SiO2) and bentonite as mortar additives for combating reinforcement corrosion is reported. More specifically, these materials were used as additives in ordinary Portland cement (OPC)/fly ash blended mortars in different amounts. The effects of nano-silica and bentonite addition on compressive strength of mortars at different ages was tested. Accelerated corrosion testing was used to assess the corrosion resistance of reinforced mortar specimens containing different amounts of nano-silica and bentonite. It was found that the specimens containing nano-SiO2 not only had higher compressive strength, but also showed lower steel mass loss due to corrosion compared to reference specimens. However, this was accompanied by a small reduction in workability (for a constant water to binder ratio). Mortar mixtures with 4% of nano-silica were found to have optimal performance in terms of compressive strength and corrosion resistance. Control specimens (OPC/fly ash mortars without any additives) showed low early age strength and low corrosion resistance compared to specimens containing nano-SiO2 and bentonite. In addition, samples from selected mixtures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Finally, the influence of Ca/Si ratio of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) in different specimens on the compressive strength is discussed. In general, the study showed that the addition of nano-silica (and to a lesser extent bentonite) can result in higher strength and corrosion resistance compared to control specimens. Furthermore, the addition of nano-SiO2 can be used to offset the negative effect of fly ash on early age strength development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Flue Gas Injection on the Long-Term Durability of a Natural Draft Concrete Cooling Tower
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132038 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
The article undertakes the very important topic of the long-term durability of concrete in a natural draft concrete cooling tower with flue gas injection. The corrosive conditions, including temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and SO2 gas concentrations, near the inner wall [...] Read more.
The article undertakes the very important topic of the long-term durability of concrete in a natural draft concrete cooling tower with flue gas injection. The corrosive conditions, including temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and SO2 gas concentrations, near the inner wall of a cooling tower with flue gas injection were monitored in real time to obtain the long-term durability performance of concrete. The pH and chemical compositions of the condensed liquid that adhered to the tower’s inner face and the macromorphology, compressive strength, and neutralization depth of in situ specimens were tested periodically. In addition, a finite element numerical simulation was conducted to simulate and verify the concentration distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the flue gas in the cooling tower. The results showed that the cleaned flue gas was enveloped, diluted, and uplifted by hot vapor in the cooling tower, and its concentration decreased. Meanwhile, the effective diffusion radius increased gradually as the flue gas rose. With the same elevation in the cooling tower, the concentration of flue gas decreased rapidly from the central point to the surrounding area. The air near the inner surface of the cooling tower was merely dampened air with a low concentration of acidic gas due to the gigantic diameter of the cooling tower. As a result, the injection of cleaned flue gas will not evidently increase the corrosion risk in a natural draft concrete cooling tower. Full article
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