Special Issue "Advanced Composite Biomaterials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Stefan Ioan Voicu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Gheorghe Polizu 1-7, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
Tel. +4 0721165757
Interests: polymeric membranes; polymeric materials; carbon nanotubes; graphene; characterization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Marian Miculescu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Metallic Material Science and Physical Metallurgy Department, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: thermal properties; mechanical properties; composites; materials characterization; microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in biomedical engineering, which has to respond to more and more challenges, in particular related to changes in lifestyle and environmental factors. If two or three decades ago this domain was limited to a small number of applications, there are now a number of niche domains such as tissue engineering, polymeric materials for osteointegration, artificial organs, devices for the controlled release of drugs and the new materials must respond to all the challenges that have arisen. Among the new synthesized materials, one can distinguish the composites with carbon or graphite nanotubes, the filler having both the role of refining and improvement of some properties such as conductivity, adsorption or release of various substances capacities. The present Special Issue is dedicated to composite biomaterials with carbon nanotubes or graphene applicable in tissue engineering, osteointegration etc. The domains addressed by this issue are:

  • Polymer-carbon nanotube composite biomaterials;
  • Polymer-graphene composite biomaterials;
  • Ceramic-carbon nanotubes composite biomaterials;
  • Applications of carbon-nanotube composite biomaterials;
  • Applications of graphene composite biomaterials;
  • Characterization methods for carbon nanotube composite biomaterials;
  • Characterization methods for graphene composite biomaterials.

Prof. Stefan Ioan Voicu
Prof. Marian Miculescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Composite biomaterials
  • Carbon nanotube
  • Graphene
  • Characterization methods
  • Polymer-carbon nanotube composites
  • Polymer-graphene composites
  • Biomaterials

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Dyed Corn Straw by Acid Red GR and Active Brilliant X-3B Dyes
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213483 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
Corn straw is a kind of biomass material with huge reserves, which can be used in plate processing, handicraft manufacturing, indoor decoration, and other fields. To investigate the dyeing mechanism of corn straw with different dyes, corn straw was pretreated and dyed with [...] Read more.
Corn straw is a kind of biomass material with huge reserves, which can be used in plate processing, handicraft manufacturing, indoor decoration, and other fields. To investigate the dyeing mechanism of corn straw with different dyes, corn straw was pretreated and dyed with Acid Red GR and Brilliant Red X-3B. The dyeing properties and light resistance of the two dyes were analyzed by dyeing rate, photochromaticity, FTIR, SEM, and water-washing firmness. The results showed that the structure and stability of the dyes were the main factors which influenced fading. A bleaching pretreatment could remove the waxiness of the corn straw epidermis and increase the porosity on the surface of the straw, which accelerated the photochromic coloring of the corn straw skin. The corn straw dyed with both dyes had good light resistance, but the straw dyed with Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B had higher dyeing rate, brighter color, and higher photochromaticity than the straw dyed with Acid Red GR. FTIR and water-washing firmness showed that Acid Red GR mainly bound to lignin, while Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B mainly bound to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in corn straw through covalent bonds, which increased the coloring rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of Color and Elastic Modulus on Antifouling Performance: A Study of Graphene Oxide/Silicone Rubber Composite Membranes
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162608 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Biofouling is a significant maritime problem because the growth of fouling organisms on the hulls of ships leads to very high economic losses every year. Inspired by the soft skins of dolphins, we prepared graphene oxide/silicone rubber composite membranes in this study. These [...] Read more.
Biofouling is a significant maritime problem because the growth of fouling organisms on the hulls of ships leads to very high economic losses every year. Inspired by the soft skins of dolphins, we prepared graphene oxide/silicone rubber composite membranes in this study. These membranes have low surface free energies and adjustable elastic moduli, which are beneficial for preventing biofouling. Diatom attachment studies under static conditions revealed that color has no effect on antifouling behavior, whereas the studies under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that the combined effects of color and elastic modulus determine the antifouling performance. The experimental results are in accordance with the “harmonic motion effect” theory proposed by us, and we also provide a supplement to the theory in this paper. On the basis of the diatom attachment test results, the membrane with 0.36 wt % of graphene oxide showed excellent antifouling performance, and is promising in practical applications. The results confirmed that the graphene oxide and graphene have similar effect to enhance silicone rubber antifouling performance. This study provides important insight for the design of new antifouling coatings; specifically, it indicates that lighter colors and low Young’s moduli provide superior performance. In addition, this study provides a reference for the application of graphene oxide as fillers to enhance the composite antifouling performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Mechanical Properties of ZrO2-Impregnated PMMA Nanocomposite for Denture-Based Applications
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081344 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Acrylic resin PMMA (poly-methyl methacrylate) is used in the manufacture of denture bases but its mechanical properties can be deficient in this role. This study investigated the mechanical properties (flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and hardness) and fracture behavior of a commercial, [...] Read more.
Acrylic resin PMMA (poly-methyl methacrylate) is used in the manufacture of denture bases but its mechanical properties can be deficient in this role. This study investigated the mechanical properties (flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and hardness) and fracture behavior of a commercial, high impact (HI), heat-cured denture base acrylic resin impregnated with different concentrations of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles. Six groups were prepared having different wt% concentrations of ZrO2 nanoparticles: 0% (control), 1.5%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured using a three-point bending test and surface hardness was evaluated using the Vickers hardness test. Fracture toughness and impact strength were evaluated using a single edge bending test and Charpy impact instrument. The fractured surfaces of impact test specimens were also observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analyses were conducted on the data obtained from the experiments. The mean flexural strength of ZrO2/PMMA nanocomposites (84 ± 6 MPa) at 3 wt% zirconia was significantly greater than that of the control group (72 ± 9 MPa) (p < 0.05). The mean flexural modulus was also significantly improved with different concentrations of zirconia when compared to the control group, with 5 wt% zirconia demonstrating the largest (23%) improvement. The mean fracture toughness increased in the group containing 5 wt% zirconia compared to the control group, but it was not significant. However, the median impact strength for all groups containing zirconia generally decreased when compared to the control group. Vickers hardness (HV) values significantly increased with an increase in ZrO2 content, with the highest values obtained at 10 wt%, at 0 day (22.9 HV0.05) in dry conditions when compared to the values obtained after immersing the specimens for seven days (18.4 HV0.05) and 45 days (16.3 HV0.05) in distilled water. Incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles into high impact PMMA resin significantly improved flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness and surface hardness, with an optimum concentration of 3–5 wt% zirconia. However, the impact strength of the nanocomposites decreased, apart from the 5 wt% zirconia group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Biomaterials)
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