The development of novel polymeric composites based on cellulose derivatives and hydroxyapatite represents a fascinating and challenging research topic in membranes science and technology. Cellulose-based materials are a viable alternative to synthetic polymers due to their favorable physico-chemical and biological characteristics. They are also an appropriate organic matrix for the incorporation of hydroxyapatite particles, inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, as well as electrostatic interactions being formed between the functional groups on the polymeric chains surface and the inorganic filler. The current review presents an overview on the main application fields of cellulose derivatives/hydroxyapatite composite membranes. Considering the versatility of hydroxyapatite particles, the hybrid materials offer favorable prospects for applications in water purification, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and hemodialysis. The preparation technique and the chemical composition have a big influence on the final membrane properties. The well-established membrane fabrication methods such as phase inversion, electrospinning, or gradual electrostatic assembly are discussed, together with the various strategies employed to obtain a homogenous dispersion of the inorganic particles in the polymeric matrix. Finally, the main conclusions and the future directions regarding the preparation and applications of cellulose derivatives/hydroxyapatite composite membranes are presented.
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