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Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ludwig Cardon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Polymer and Material Technologies - CPMT, Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Interests: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; advanced polymer processing; polymer technology; materials engineering; composites; injection moulding; hybrid mould making; product development; circular economy

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is an innovative technology that offers many advantages for various industries, both at the material and processing level. AM offers many opportunities, encouraging the integration of smart production, digitalization, and advanced information technology within Industry 4.0. AM is essential as it allows the production of personalized products with shorter lead times, and less waste. It can reduce inventory, make complex parts on-demand, create smaller localized manufacturing environments, and reduce the cost and complexity of supply chains, therefore, reducing logistics needs. AM technologies are very promising due to their tremendous market and multicomponent compatibility for polymers, composites, metals, and ceramics.

Understand the fundamental relationship between the materials and processing environment and broadening the available materials is important for additive manufacturing of advanced engineering (e.g. automotive and aerospace sector), medical (e.g. scaffolds and tissue engineering), and related technologies. Achieving high product quality is another main and common research challenge. For almost all materials, AM relies on the transition of liquid phases into well-defined solid materials. This transition is influenced by many parameters in contrast to conventional manufacturing processes. These parameters can be either processing or material based.

In this Special Issue, there is a focus on the connection between the research field of materials science and AM processing. Both theoretical and experimental contributions can be submitted.

It is a pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue, including both full papers and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Ludwig Cardon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • materials engineering
  • polymer engineering
  • hybrid moulds

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Article
Additive Manufacturing-Based In Situ Consolidation of Continuous Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polycarbonate
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092450 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
Continuous carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composites have convincing anisotropic properties, which can be used to strengthen structural components in a local, variable and efficient way. In this study, an additive manufacturing (AM) process is introduced to fabricate in situ consolidated continuous fibre-reinforced polycarbonate. Specimens [...] Read more.
Continuous carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composites have convincing anisotropic properties, which can be used to strengthen structural components in a local, variable and efficient way. In this study, an additive manufacturing (AM) process is introduced to fabricate in situ consolidated continuous fibre-reinforced polycarbonate. Specimens with three different nozzle temperatures were in situ consolidated and tested in a three-point bending test. Computed tomography (CT) is used for a detailed analysis of the local material structure and resulting material porosity, thus the results can be put into context with process parameters. In addition, a highly curved test structure was fabricated that demonstrates the limits of the process and dependent fibre strand folding behaviours. These experimental investigations present the potential and the challenges of additive manufacturing-based in situ consolidated continuous fibre-reinforced polycarbonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Evaluation of Active Heat Sinks Design under Forced Convection—Effect of Geometric and Boundary Parameters
Materials 2021, 14(8), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082041 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
This study shows the performance of heat sinks (HS) with different designs under forced convection, varying geometric and boundary parameters, via computational fluid dynamics simulations. Initially, a complete and detailed analysis of the thermal performance of various conventional HS designs was taken. Afterwards, [...] Read more.
This study shows the performance of heat sinks (HS) with different designs under forced convection, varying geometric and boundary parameters, via computational fluid dynamics simulations. Initially, a complete and detailed analysis of the thermal performance of various conventional HS designs was taken. Afterwards, HS designs were modified following some additive manufacturing approaches. The HS performance was compared by measuring their temperatures and pressure drop after 15 s. Smaller diameters/thicknesses and larger fins/pins spacing provided better results. For fins HS, the use of radial fins, with an inverted trapezoidal shape and with larger holes was advantageous. Regarding pins HS, the best option contemplated circular pins in combination with frontal holes in their structure. Additionally, lattice HS, only possible to be produced by additive manufacturing, was also studied. Lower temperatures were obtained with a hexagon unit cell. Lastly, a comparison between the best HS in each category showed a lower thermal resistance for lattice HS. Despite the increase of at least 38% in pressure drop, a consequence of its frontal area, the temperature was 26% and 56% lower when compared to conventional pins and fins HS, respectively, and 9% and 28% lower when compared to the best pins and best fins of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Assessment of the Dimensional and Geometric Precision of Micro-Details Produced by Material Jetting
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081989 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 439
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology has been increasing its penetration not only for the production of prototypes and validation models, but also for final parts. This technology allows producing parts with almost no geometry restrictions, even on a micro-scale. However, the micro-Detail (mD) measurement [...] Read more.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology has been increasing its penetration not only for the production of prototypes and validation models, but also for final parts. This technology allows producing parts with almost no geometry restrictions, even on a micro-scale. However, the micro-Detail (mD) measurement of complex parts remains an open field of investigation. To be able to develop all the potential that this technology offers, it is necessary to quantify a process’s precision limitations, repeatability, and reproducibility. New design methodologies focus on optimization, designing microstructured parts with a complex material distribution. These methodologies are based on mathematical formulations, whose numerical models assume the model discretization through volumetric unitary elements (voxels) with explicit dimensions and geometries. The accuracy of these models in predicting the behavior of the pieces is influenced by the fidelity of the object’s physical reproduction. Despite that the Material Jetting (MJ) process makes it possible to produce complex parts, it is crucial to experimentally establish the minimum dimensional and geometric limits to produce parts with mDs. This work aims to support designers and engineers in selecting the most appropriate scale to produce parts discretized by hexahedral meshes (cubes). This study evaluated the dimensional and geometric precision of MJ equipment in the production of mDs (cubes) comparing the nominal design dimensions. A Sample Test (ST) with different sizes of mDs was modeled and produced. The dimensional and geometric precision of the mDs were quantified concerning the nominal value and the calculated deviations. From the tests performed, it was possible to conclude that: (i) more than 90% of all analyzed mDs exhibit three dimensions (xyz) higher than the nominal ones; (ii) for micro-details smaller than 423 μm, they show a distorted geometry, and below 212 μm, printing fails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Media for Dimensional Stabilization of Rubber Compounds during Additive Manufacturing and Vulcanization
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061337 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
The current article proposes a concept for the additive manufacturing of rubber components using extrusion-based 3D printing, in which an additional medium is added to ensure the maintenance of shape within the elastomeric structure during the additive manufacturing process and in the subsequent [...] Read more.
The current article proposes a concept for the additive manufacturing of rubber components using extrusion-based 3D printing, in which an additional medium is added to ensure the maintenance of shape within the elastomeric structure during the additive manufacturing process and in the subsequent vulcanization process. Specific requirements for the dimensional stabilization of the media were defined and suitable media were derived. Silicone rubber, molding sand, and plaster were examined in experimental vulcanization tests for their suitability as possible media with regard to shape retention. Selected rubber geometries made of NBR were embedded in these media to undergo the vulcanization process. The results show a significant influence of the media on the heating times. All media were able to ensure that the rubber geometries maintained their shape during vulcanization. Nevertheless, some side effects were found. The silicone rubber did not cure properly around the rubber sample. Therefore, it was difficult to remove it from the rubber after vulcanization. The molding sand caused an increased surface roughness on the rubber. Plaster changed the glossy surfaces at the beginning to a matte one after vulcanization and residuals were difficult to remove. However, all media can serve as stabilization media with specific changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Investigating the Linear Thermal Expansion of Additively Manufactured Multi-Material Joining between Invar and Steel
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245683 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
This work investigated the linear thermal expansion properties of a multi-material specimen fabricated with Invar M93 and A36 steel. A sequence of tests was performed to investigate the viability of additively manufactured Invar M93 for lowering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in [...] Read more.
This work investigated the linear thermal expansion properties of a multi-material specimen fabricated with Invar M93 and A36 steel. A sequence of tests was performed to investigate the viability of additively manufactured Invar M93 for lowering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in multi-material part tooling. Invar beads were additively manufactured on a steel base plate using a fiber laser system, and samples were taken from the steel, Invar, and the interface between the two materials. The CTE of the samples was measured between 40 °C and 150 °C using a thermomechanical analyzer, and the elemental composition was studied with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The CTE of samples taken from the steel and the interface remained comparable to that of A36 steel; however, deviations between the thermal expansion values were prevalent due to element diffusion in and around the heat-affected zone. The CTEs measured from the Invar bead were lower than those from the other sections with the largest and smallest thermal expansion values being 10.40 μm/m-K and 2.09 μm/m-K. In each of the sections, the largest CTE was measured from samples taken from the end of the weld beads. An additional test was performed to measure the aggregate expansion of multi-material tools. Invar beads were welded on an A36 steel plate. The invar was machined, and the sample was heated in an oven from 40 °C and 160 °C. Strain gauges were placed on the surface of the part and were used to analyze how the combined thermal expansions of the invar and steel would affect the thermal expansion on the surface of a tool. There were small deviations between the expansion values measured by gauges placed in different orientations, and the elongation of the sample was greatest along the dimension containing a larger percentage of steel. On average, the expansion of the machined Invar surface was 42% less than the expansion of the steel surface. The results of this work demonstrate that additively manufactured Invar can be utilized to decrease the CTE for multi-material part tooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Use of Maraging Steel 1.2709 for Implementing Parts of Pressure Mold Devices with Conformal Cooling System
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235533 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
In this paper, we present the results of experimental tests and numerical calculations for parts of foundry mold devices made by selective laser melting (SLM). The main aim of this research was to compare the heat conduction efficiency of the conformal and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the results of experimental tests and numerical calculations for parts of foundry mold devices made by selective laser melting (SLM). The main aim of this research was to compare the heat conduction efficiency of the conformal and the traditional channel arrangement. The infusion spreader with a conformal channel arrangement and the test material were made with an M2 Concept Laser Cusing machine using 1.2709 steel powder. Temperature changes in the spreaders were compared between conventional and conformal cooling channels using finite element method (FEM) calculations. The position of the so-called “thermal equilibrium isotherm” was determined for both sprue spreaders, which separate the area of the mold with a constant temperature from the zone of cyclic temperature changes. The components of the sprue spreaders in a stress state caused by temperature changes during the operation of the pressure machine were determined using the FEM model. It was found that the cooling system shortened the time of solidification and cooling of the alloy. Based on the analysis of the strength test results and the fracture surface of the samples, the relationship between heat treatment parameters and the strength, hardness, and elongation of the tested material was determined. The sprue spreaders were installed under a pressure machine and tested under production conditions. The use of a sprue spreader with a conformal cooling system shortened the time of a single cycle of the casting machine compared to the conventional solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Predicting the Printability in Selective Laser Melting with a Supervised Machine Learning Method
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225063 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
Though selective laser melting (SLM) has a rapidly increasing market these years, the quality of the SLM-fabricated part is extremely dependent on the process parameters. However, the current metallographic examination method to find the parameter window is time-consuming and involves subjective assessments of [...] Read more.
Though selective laser melting (SLM) has a rapidly increasing market these years, the quality of the SLM-fabricated part is extremely dependent on the process parameters. However, the current metallographic examination method to find the parameter window is time-consuming and involves subjective assessments of the experimenters. Here, we proposed a supervised machine learning (ML) method to detect the track defect and predict the printability of material in SLM intelligently. The printed tracks were classified into five types based on the measured surface morphologies and characteristics. The classification results were used as the target output of the ML model. Four indicators had been calculated to evaluate the quality of the tracks quantitatively, serving as input variables of the model. The data-driven model can determine the defect-free process parameter combination, which significantly improves the efficiency in searching the process parameter window and has great potential for the application in the unmanned factory in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Mitigating Scatter in Mechanical Properties in AISI 410 Fabricated via Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing Process
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214855 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Wire-based metal additive manufacturing utilizes the ability of additive manufacturing to fabricate complex geometries with high deposition rates (above 7 kg/h), thus finding applications in the fabrication of large-scale components, such as stamping dies. Traditionally, the workhorse materials for stamping dies have been [...] Read more.
Wire-based metal additive manufacturing utilizes the ability of additive manufacturing to fabricate complex geometries with high deposition rates (above 7 kg/h), thus finding applications in the fabrication of large-scale components, such as stamping dies. Traditionally, the workhorse materials for stamping dies have been martensitic steels. However, the complex thermal gyrations induced during additive manufacturing can cause the evolution of an inhomogeneous microstructure, which leads to a significant scatter in the mechanical properties, especially the toughness. Therefore, to understand these phenomena, arc-based additive AISI 410 samples were fabricated using robotic gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and were subjected to a detailed characterization campaign. The results show significant scatter in the tensile properties as well as Charpy V-notch impact toughness data, which was then correlated to the microstructural heterogeneity and delta (δ) ferrite formation. Post-processing (austenitizing and tempering) treatments were developed and an ~70% reduction in the scatter of tensile data and a four-times improvement in the toughness were obtained. The changes in mechanical properties were rationalized based on the microstructure evolution during additive manufacturing. Based on these, an outline to tailor the composition of “printable” steels for tooling with isotropic and uniform mechanical properties is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Mechanical Properties and Gamma-Ray Shielding Performance of 3D-Printed Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone/Tungsten Composites
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204475 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Nuclear energy provides enduring power to space vehicles, but special attention should be paid to radiation shielding during the development and use of nuclear energy systems. In this paper, novel composite materials containing poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as a substrate and different tungsten contents as [...] Read more.
Nuclear energy provides enduring power to space vehicles, but special attention should be paid to radiation shielding during the development and use of nuclear energy systems. In this paper, novel composite materials containing poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as a substrate and different tungsten contents as a reinforcing agent were developed and tested as shielding for gamma-ray radiation. Shielding test bodies were quickly processed by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing, and their mechanical, shielding properties of composite materials were evaluated. The results revealed shielding materials with excellent mechanical properties which can further be improved by heat treatment. Under 0.45 MPa load, the heat deflection temperature of PEEK/tungsten (metal) composites was significantly lower than that of PEEK/boron carbide (non-metal) composites. The new shielding materials also demonstrated better shielding of low-energy 137Cs than high-energy 60Co. The gamma-ray shielding rates of test pieces shielding materials made of the same thickness changed exponentially with the tungsten content present in the composite materials. More tungsten led to a better shielding effect. At the same tungsten content, the gamma-ray shielding effect showed a proportional relationship with the thickness of the shielding test bodies, in which thicker test bodies induced better shielding effects. In sum, the integration of 3D printing in the mechanical design and manufacturing of shielding bodies is an effective and promising way for quick processing when considering diverse rays and complex environments. Lighter shielding bodies, at lower costs, can be achieved by structural design in limited space to maximize the material utilization rate and reduce waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Towards Distributed Recycling with Additive Manufacturing of PET Flake Feedstocks
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194273 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
This study explores the potential to reach a circular economy for post-consumer Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET) packaging and bottles by using it as a Distributed Recycling for Additive Manufacturing (DRAM) feedstock. Specifically, for the first time, rPET water bottle flake is processed using [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential to reach a circular economy for post-consumer Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET) packaging and bottles by using it as a Distributed Recycling for Additive Manufacturing (DRAM) feedstock. Specifically, for the first time, rPET water bottle flake is processed using only an open source toolchain with Fused Particle Fabrication (FPF) or Fused Granular Fabrication (FGF) processing rather than first converting it to filament. In this study, first the impact of granulation, sifting, and heating (and their sequential combination) is quantified on the shape and size distribution of the rPET flakes. Then 3D printing tests were performed on the rPET flake with two different feed systems: an external feeder and feed tube augmented with a motorized auger screw, and an extruder-mounted hopper that enables direct 3D printing. Two Gigabot X machines were used, each with the different feed systems, and one without and the latter with extended part cooling. 3D print settings were optimized based on thermal characterization, and both systems were shown to 3D print rPET directly from shredded water bottles. Mechanical testing showed the importance of isolating rPET from moisture and that geometry was important for uniform extrusion. The mechanical strength of 3D-printed parts with FPF and inconsistent flow is lower than optimized fused filament, but adequate for a wide range of applications. Future work is needed to improve consistency and enable water bottles to be used as a widespread DRAM feedstock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Comparative Quality Control of Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V, 17–4 PH Stainless Steel, and Aluminum Alloy 4047 Either Manufactured or Repaired by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184171 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Additive manufacturing attracts much interest for manufacturing and repair of structural parts for the aerospace industry. This paper presents comparative characterization of aircraft items made of Al 4047 alloy, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and 17-4 precipitation hardened (PH) (AISI 630) stainless steel, either manufactured or [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing attracts much interest for manufacturing and repair of structural parts for the aerospace industry. This paper presents comparative characterization of aircraft items made of Al 4047 alloy, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and 17-4 precipitation hardened (PH) (AISI 630) stainless steel, either manufactured or repaired by laser engineered net shaping (LENS). Chemical analysis, density, and surface roughness measurements, X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) analysis, metallography, and micro-hardness testing were conducted. In all three materials, microstructures typical of rapid solidification were observed, along with high density, chemical composition, and hardness comparable to those of the counterpart wrought alloys (even in hard condition). High standard deviation in hardness values, anisotropic geometrical distortion, and overbuild at top edges were observed. The detected defects included partially melted and unmelted powder particles, porosity, and interlayer lack of fusion, in particular at the interface between the substrate plate and the build. There was a fairly good match between the density values measured by μ-CT and those measured by the Archimedes method; there was also good correlation between the type of defects detected by both techniques. Surface roughness, density of partially melted powder particles, and the content of bulk defects were significantly higher in Al 4047 than in 17-4 PH stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Optical gaging can be used reliably for surface roughness measurements. The implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Balling Behavior of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163632 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Macroscopic surface morphology and balling mechanism of AZ61 magnesium alloy prepared by Selective laser melting (SLM) have been investigated. This article studied and analyzed the surface morphology and balling phenomenon of Mg in the laser processing from the aspects of Mg inherent metal [...] Read more.
Macroscopic surface morphology and balling mechanism of AZ61 magnesium alloy prepared by Selective laser melting (SLM) have been investigated. This article studied and analyzed the surface morphology and balling phenomenon of Mg in the laser processing from the aspects of Mg inherent metal properties and laser processing. In terms of laser processing, the results show that, in the direction of increasing scanning speed, the energy density decreases, and the phenomenon of balling and porosity on the surface of the magnesium alloy is serious. When the energy density is 133.9–187.5 J/mm3, balling particles are significantly reduced. It can be seen from the low-magnification SEM image that, even at a scanning speed of 250 mm/s (Ev is 187.5 J/mm3), there are still a few small-sized balling particles on the surface. Therefore, in terms of inherent metal properties, the wettability, capillary instability, thermodynamic, and kinetic analysis of the balling behavior of Mg and other metal (Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, Ti) droplets in the SLM process has been carried out, and the dynamic model of magnesium droplet spreading/solidification was established basic on the result of experiment and metal inherent properties. The results show that SLMed magnesium alloy is a competitive process of melt diffusion and solidification. The final result depends on the intrinsic properties of the magnesium alloy and the applied laser processing parameters. The spreading process of Mg melt is very fast. Although the solidification time of Mg melts changes slowly with the increase of metal droplet temperature, the spreading speed is still very fast due to the low melt density, so the balling phenomenon of SLMed Mg can be controlled to a certain extent. Theoretically calculated, the solidification time of Mg melt droplet is longer than the wetting time at 1173 K (900 °C), so the spreading process is dominant, which can minimize the balling and realize the densification of SLMed Mg. The dynamic spreading of molten pool, the analysis of wetting and solidification process, and the establishment of SLM balling model can provide reference for the design of the SLM forming parameters of Mg and other different metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Influence of the Infill Orientation on the Properties of Zirconia Parts Produced by Fused Filament Fabrication
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143158 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The fused filament fabrication (FFF) of ceramics enables the additive manufacturing of components with complex geometries for many applications like tooling or prototyping. Nevertheless, due to the many factors involved in the process, it is difficult to separate the effect of the different [...] Read more.
The fused filament fabrication (FFF) of ceramics enables the additive manufacturing of components with complex geometries for many applications like tooling or prototyping. Nevertheless, due to the many factors involved in the process, it is difficult to separate the effect of the different parameters on the final properties of the FFF parts, which hinders the expansion of the technology. In this paper, the effect of the fill pattern used during FFF on the defects and the mechanical properties of zirconia components is evaluated. The zirconia-filled filaments were produced from scratch, characterized by different methods and used in the FFF of bending bars with infill orientations of 0°, ±45° and 90° with respect to the longest dimension of the specimens. Three-point bending tests were conducted on the specimens with the side in contact with the build platform under tensile loads. Next, the defects were identified with cuts in different sections. During the shaping by FFF, pores appeared inside the extruded roads due to binder degradation and or moisture evaporation. The changes in the fill pattern resulted in different types of porosity and defects in the first layer, with the latter leading to earlier fracture of the components. Due to these variations, the specimens with the 0° infill orientation had the lowest porosity and the highest bending strength, followed by the specimens with ±45° infill orientation and finally by those with 90° infill orientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
A Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Additive Manufacturing Processing Based on PET Fiber and PLA
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143044 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Continuous fiber-reinforced manufacturing has many advantages, but the fabrication cost is high and its process is difficult to control. This paper presents a method for printing fiber-reinforced composite on the common fused filament fabrication (FFF) platform. Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) [...] Read more.
Continuous fiber-reinforced manufacturing has many advantages, but the fabrication cost is high and its process is difficult to control. This paper presents a method for printing fiber-reinforced composite on the common fused filament fabrication (FFF) platform. Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers are used as printing materials. A spatial continuous toolpath planning strategy is employed to reduce the workload of post-processing without cutting the fiber. Experimental results show that this process not only enables the printing of models with complex geometric shapes but also supports material recycling and reuse. A material recovery rate of 100% for continuous PET fiber and 83% for PLA were achieved for a better environmental impact. Mechanical tests show that the maximum tensile strength of continuous PET fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (PFRTPCs) is increased by 117.8% when compared to polyamide-66 (PA66). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Flexible Electrode by Hydrographic Printing for Surface Electromyography Monitoring
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102339 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring has recently inspired new applications in the field of patient diagnose, rehabilitation therapy, man–machine–interface and prosthesis control. However, conventional wet electrodes for sEMG recording cannot fully satisfy the requirements of these applications because they are based on rigid metals [...] Read more.
Surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring has recently inspired new applications in the field of patient diagnose, rehabilitation therapy, man–machine–interface and prosthesis control. However, conventional wet electrodes for sEMG recording cannot fully satisfy the requirements of these applications because they are based on rigid metals and conductive gels that cause signal quality attenuation, motion artifact and skin allergy. In this study, a novel flexible dry electrode is presented for sEMG monitoring. The electrode is fabricated by screen-printing a silver–eutectic gallium–indium system over a transfer tattoo paper, which is then hydrographically printed on 3D surface or human skin. Peano curve in open-network pattern is adopted to enhance the mechanics of the electrode. Hydrographic printing enables the electrode to attach to skin intimately and conformably, meanwhile assures better mechanical and electrical properties and therefore improves the signal quality and long-term wearability of the electrode. By recording sEMG signal of biceps under three kinds of movement with comparison to conventional wet electrode, the feasibility of the presented flexible dry electrode for sEMG monitoring was proved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Neutron Shielding Performance of 3D-Printed Boron Carbide PEEK Composites
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102314 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Polyethylene is used as a traditional shielding material in the nuclear industry, but still suffers from low softening point, poor mechanical properties, and difficult machining. In this study, novel boron carbide polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) composites with different mass ratios were prepared and tested as [...] Read more.
Polyethylene is used as a traditional shielding material in the nuclear industry, but still suffers from low softening point, poor mechanical properties, and difficult machining. In this study, novel boron carbide polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) composites with different mass ratios were prepared and tested as fast neutron absorbers. Next, shielding test pieces with low porosity were rapidly manufactured through the fused deposition modeling (FDM)-3D printing optimization process. The respective heat resistances, mechanical properties, and neutron shielding characteristics of as-obtained PEEK and boron carbide PEEK composites with different thicknesses were then evaluated. At load of 0.45 MPa, the heat deformation temperature of boron carbide PEEK increased with the boron carbide content. The heat deformation temperature of 30% wt. boron carbide PEEK was recorded as 308.4 °C. After heat treatment, both tensile strength and flexural strength of PEEK and PEEK composites rose by 40%–50% and 65%–78%, respectively. Moreover, the as-prepared composites showed excellent fast neutron shielding performances. For shielding test pieces with thicknesses between 40 mm and 100 mm, the neutron shielding rates exhibited exponential variation as a function of boron carbide content. The addition of 5%–15% boron carbide significantly changed the curvature of the shielding rate curve, suggesting an optimal amount of boron carbide. Meanwhile, the integrated shielding/structure may effectively shield neutron radiation, thereby ensuring optimal shielding performances. In sum, further optimization of the proposed process could achieve lightweight materials with less consumables and small volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Discrete Element Simulation of the Effect of Roller-Spreading Parameters on Powder-Bed Density in Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102285 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
The powder-bed with uniform and high density that determined by the spreading process parameters is the key factor for fabricating high performance parts in Additive Manufacturing (AM) process. In this work, Discrete Element Method (DEM) was deployed in order to simulate Al2 [...] Read more.
The powder-bed with uniform and high density that determined by the spreading process parameters is the key factor for fabricating high performance parts in Additive Manufacturing (AM) process. In this work, Discrete Element Method (DEM) was deployed in order to simulate Al2O3 ceramic powder roller-spreading. The effects of roller-spreading parameters include translational velocity Vs, roller’s rotational speed ω, roller’s diameter D, and powder layer thickness H on powder-bed density were analyzed. The results show that the increased translational velocity of roller leads to poor powder-bed density. However, the larger roller’s diameter will improve powder-bed density. Moreover, the roller’s rotational speed has little effect on powder-bed density. Layer thickness is the most significant influencing factor on powder-bed density. When layer thickness is 50 μm, most of particles are pushed out of the build platform forming a lot of voids. However, when the layer thickness is greater than 150 μm, the powder-bed becomes more uniform and denser. This work can provide a reliable basis for roller-spreading parameters optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Preliminary Characterization of Glass/Alumina Composite Using Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092156 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) is currently used to produce high-efficiency, high-density, and high-performance products for a variety of applications. However, existing AM methods are applicable only to metal materials and not to high-melting-point ceramics. Here, we develop a composite material [...] Read more.
Powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) is currently used to produce high-efficiency, high-density, and high-performance products for a variety of applications. However, existing AM methods are applicable only to metal materials and not to high-melting-point ceramics. Here, we develop a composite material for PBF AM by adding Al2O3 to a glass material using laser melting. Al2O3 and a black pigment are added to a synthesized glass frit for improving the composite strength and increased laser-light absorption, respectively. Our sample analysis shows that the glass melts to form a composite when the mixture is laser-irradiated. To improve the sintering density, we heat-treat the sample at 750 °C to synthesize a high-density glass frit composite. As per our X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to confirm the reactivity of the glass frit and Al2O3, we find that no reactions occur between glass and crystalline Al2O3. Moreover, we obtain a high sample density of ≥95% of the theoretical density. We also evaluate the composite’s mechanical properties as a function of the Al2O3 content. Our approach facilitates the manufacturing of ceramic 3D structures using glass materials through PBF AM and affords the benefits of reduced process cost, improved performance, newer functionalities, and increased value addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Development of Thermal Resistant FDM Printed Blends. The Preparation of GPET/PC Blends and Evaluation of Material Performance
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092057 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
The paper discusses the preparation of polymer blends based on the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer/polycarbonate (GPET/PC). Materials have been prepared in order to assess their applicability in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. The tested key feature was the thermomechanical resistance, measured [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the preparation of polymer blends based on the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer/polycarbonate (GPET/PC). Materials have been prepared in order to assess their applicability in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. The tested key feature was the thermomechanical resistance, measured by head deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST), the mechanical tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were also performed. A clear relationship between the increasing content of PC in the blend properties was observed. DMTA analysis revealed significant changes in the glass transition temperature, which indicates the miscibility of this type of polymer system. The mechanical tests indicate a clear trend of stiffness and strength improvement along with the increasing share of PC phase in the structure. The increase in impact strength is also clear, however, compared to the results for a pure PC, the results obtained for GPET/PC blends are significantly lower. As part of the research, reference samples based on polyethylene terephthalate homopolymer (PET) and composite samples with addition of 10% talc were also prepared. The structure analysis for PET/PC(50/50) samples did not show miscibility. However, due to the formation of the PET crystalline phase, the thermomechanical resistance of these materials was visibly higher. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed a high degree of compatibility of the GPET/PC blend structure as indicated by the lack of visible signs of phase separation. This phenomenon is not observed for PET/PC blends, which confirms the different thermomechanical interactions of both tested polymer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Article
Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing of High Precision Glass Ceramic Parts
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071492 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Lithography based additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the most established and widely used 3D-printing processes. It has enabled the processing of many different materials from thermoplast-like polymers to ceramics that have outstanding feature resolutions and surface quality, with comparable properties of traditional [...] Read more.
Lithography based additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the most established and widely used 3D-printing processes. It has enabled the processing of many different materials from thermoplast-like polymers to ceramics that have outstanding feature resolutions and surface quality, with comparable properties of traditional materials. This work focuses on the processing of glass ceramics, which have high optical demands, precision and mechanical properties specifically suitable for dental replacements, such as crowns. Lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) has been chosen as the optimal manufacturing process where a light source with a defined wavelength is used to cure and structure ceramic filled photosensitive resins. In the case of glass ceramic powders, plastic flow during thermal processing might reduce the precision, as well as the commonly observed sintering shrinkage associated with the utilized temperature program. To reduce this problem, particular sinter structures have been developed to optimize the precision of 3D-printed glass ceramic crowns. To evaluate the precision of the final part, testing using digitizing methods from optical to tactile systems were utilized with the best results were obtained from micro computed tomography (CT) scanning. These methods resulted in an optimized process allowing for possible production of high precision molar crowns with dimensional accuracy and high reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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Review
A New Approach to Micromachining: High-Precision and Innovative Additive Manufacturing Solutions Based on Photopolymerization Technology
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132951 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The following article introduces technologies that build three dimensional (3D) objects by adding layer-upon-layer of material, also called additive manufacturing technologies. Furthermore, most important features supporting the conscious choice of 3D printing methods for applications in micro and nanomanufacturing are covered. The micromanufacturing [...] Read more.
The following article introduces technologies that build three dimensional (3D) objects by adding layer-upon-layer of material, also called additive manufacturing technologies. Furthermore, most important features supporting the conscious choice of 3D printing methods for applications in micro and nanomanufacturing are covered. The micromanufacturing method covers photopolymerization-based methods such as stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), the liquid crystal display–DLP coupled method, two-photon polymerization (TPP), and inkjet-based methods. Functional photocurable materials, with magnetic, conductive, or specific optical applications in the 3D printing processes are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Materials and Their Applications)
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