Topic Editors

IMT Nord Europe, Institut Mines Télécom, University of Lille, Centre for Materials and Processes, F-59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
Centre for Polymer and Material Technologies, Department of Materials, Textile and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark, 130, 9052 Ghent, Belgium

Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing

Abstract submission deadline
1 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
18346

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental and energy concerns and digitalization are currently profoundly reshaping the plastics and composites industry. Manufacturing processes and systems evolve accordingly in order to cost-effectively produce high-performance, high-quality, lightweight, and multifunctional parts with a reduced carbon footprint. All composites manufacturing and polymer processing technologies are concerned with this trend: liquid composite molding (e.g., resin transfer molding and resin infusion/vacuum infusion), automated lay-up (e.g., automated fiber placement and automated tape laying), filament winding, prepreg technology, pultrusion, autoclave, compression molding, film stacking, additive manufacturing/3D printing, injection molding, over-molding/back-molding, extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, foaming, coating, preforming of textile reinforcement, joining/welding, and mold technologies (i.e. mold making and design).

This Topical Collection welcomes original research articles, state-of-the-art reviews, or short communications on the latest advances in composites manufacturing and plastics processing. Suggested contributions may address new process developments, modeling/simulation, monitoring/control, and performance or application issues, with either experimental or numerical approaches. All types of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) and fibers/fillers (glass, carbon, ceramic, mineral, and vegetal) are eligible, whether they come from recycled, bio-based, or fossil feedstocks. Multidisciplinarity is encouraged to cover emerging topics such as smart manufacturing, artificial intelligence applied to manufacturing, data-driven simulations, and digital twins.

Prof. Dr. Patricia Krawczak
Prof. Dr. Ludwig Cardon
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • polymer processing
  • composites manufacturing
  • joining and welding
  • additive manufacturing
  • process optimization, modelling, and simulation
  • manufacturing technology
  • smart manufacturing
  • digitalization and Industry 4.0
  • thermoplastic polymers and elastomers, thermosetting resins, and plastics
  • composite materials
  • nanocomposites
  • fibers, fillers, and textile reinforcement

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Fibers
fibers
4.0 7.0 2013 33.6 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Journal of Composites Science
jcs
3.0 5.0 2017 18.5 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
3.3 5.1 2017 14.7 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Materials
materials
3.1 5.8 2008 15.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Polymers
polymers
4.7 8.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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16 pages, 7420 KiB  
Article
A Workflow for the Compensation of Substrate Defects When Overprinting in Extrusion-Based Processes
by Fynn Atzler, Simon Hümbert and Heinz Voggenreiter
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8040147 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is used in industrial applications to manufacture complex parts in a short time frame and with reduced costs. Recently, the overprinting of continuous fibre-reinforced laminates has been discussed to produce high-performance, functional structures. A hybrid process combining FGF with [...] Read more.
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is used in industrial applications to manufacture complex parts in a short time frame and with reduced costs. Recently, the overprinting of continuous fibre-reinforced laminates has been discussed to produce high-performance, functional structures. A hybrid process combining FGF with Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) was developed to implement this approach, where an additively manufactured structure is bonded in situ onto a thermoplastic laminate. However, this combination places great demands on process control, especially in the first printing layer. When 3D printing onto a laminate, the height of the first printed layer is decisive to the shear strength of the bonding. Manufacturing-induced surface defects of a laminate, like thermal warpage, gaps, and tape overlaps, can result in deviations from the ideal geometry and thus impair the bonding strength when left uncompensated. This study, therefore, proposes a novel process flow that uses a 3D scan of a laminate to adjust the geometry of the additively manufactured structure to achieve a constant layer height in the 3D print and, thus, constant mechanical properties. For the above-listed surface defects, only thermal warpage was found to have a significant effect on the bonding strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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16 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
Various Morphologies of Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4) and Their Effect on the Thermomechanical Properties of Thermoset Epoxy Resin Composites
by Dina Al Mais, Samir Mustapha, Yasmine N. Baghdadi, Kamal Bouhadir and Ali R. Tehrani-Bagha
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131935 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
This research aims to highlight the importance of diverse forms of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as strengthening elements in epoxy composites. It explores the influence of three different forms of g-C3N4 and their concentrations on the [...] Read more.
This research aims to highlight the importance of diverse forms of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as strengthening elements in epoxy composites. It explores the influence of three different forms of g-C3N4 and their concentrations on the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites. Various characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), were utilized to comprehend the effects of g-C3N4 morphology and particle size on the physical and chemical characteristics of epoxy resin. Mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, strain, modulus, and fracture toughness, were determined for the composite samples. SEM analysis was performed to examine crack morphology in samples with different reinforcements. Findings indicate that optimal mechanical properties were achieved with a 0.5 wt% bulk g-C3N4 filler, enhancing tensile strength by 14%. SEM micrographs of fracture surfaces revealed a transition from brittle to rough morphology, suggesting increased toughness in the composites. While the TGA results showed no significant impact on degradation temperature, dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated a 17% increase in glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the improvement in thermal breakdown up to 600 °C was attributed to reinforced covalent bonds between carbon and nitrogen, supported by FTIR results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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14 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Comparing End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) and Packaging-Based Recyclates as Components in Polypropylene-Based Compounds for Automotive Applications
by Markus Gall, Daniela Mileva, Wolfgang Stockreiter, Christophe Salles and Markus Gahleitner
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131927 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Increasing recycled plastic content in cars to 25% by 2030 is one of the key measures for decarbonizing the automotive industry defined by the European Commission. This should include the recovery of plastics from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), but such materials are hardly used [...] Read more.
Increasing recycled plastic content in cars to 25% by 2030 is one of the key measures for decarbonizing the automotive industry defined by the European Commission. This should include the recovery of plastics from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), but such materials are hardly used in compounds today. To close the knowledge gap, two ELV recyclate grades largely based on bumper recycling were analyzed in comparison to a packaging-based post-consumer recyclate (PCR). The composition data were used to design polypropylene (PP) compounds for automotive applications with virgin base material and mineral reinforcement, which were characterized in relation to a commercial virgin-based compound. A compound with a 40 wt.-% ELV-based bumper recyclate can exceed one with just a 25 wt.-% packaging-based recyclate in terms of stiffness/impact balance. While the virgin reference can nearly be matched regarding mechanics, the flowability is not reached by any of the PCR compounds, making further development work necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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24 pages, 6288 KiB  
Article
Anti-Microbial, Thermal, Mechanical, and Gas Barrier Properties of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Extrusion Blow-Molded Bottles
by Saleh Alkarri, Muhammed Naveed, Fatimah Alali, Jérôme Vachon, Aaron Walworth and Abigail Vanderberg
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131914 - 4 Jul 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Microbial contamination can occur on the surfaces of blow-molded bottles, necessitating the development and application of effective anti-microbial treatments to mitigate the hazards associated with microbial growth. In this study, new methods of incorporating anti-microbial particles into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) extrusion blow-molded [...] Read more.
Microbial contamination can occur on the surfaces of blow-molded bottles, necessitating the development and application of effective anti-microbial treatments to mitigate the hazards associated with microbial growth. In this study, new methods of incorporating anti-microbial particles into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) extrusion blow-molded bottles were developed. The anti-microbial particles were thermally embossed on the external surface of the bottle through two particle deposition approaches (spray and powder) over the mold cavity. The produced bottles were studied for their thermal, mechanical, gas barrier, and anti-microbial properties. Both deposition approaches indicated a significant enhancement in anti-microbial activity, as well as barrier properties, while maintaining thermal and mechanical performance. Considering both the effect of anti-microbial agents and variations in tensile bar weight and thickness, the statistical analysis of the mechanical properties showed that applying the anti-microbial agents had no significant influence on the tensile properties of the blow-molded bottles. The external fixation of the particles over the surface of the bottles would result in optimum anti-microbial activity, making it a cost-effective solution compared to conventional compounding processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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17 pages, 4091 KiB  
Article
Functional Technical Textile-Based Polymer Nanocomposites with Adsorbent Properties of Toxins and Dyes also Have Antibacterial Behavior
by Marlene Andrade-Guel, Christian J. Cabello-Alvarado, Carlos Alberto Ávila Orta, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego and Brenda Cruz-Ortiz
Materials 2024, 17(12), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17123007 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
This is the first study of non-woven fabrics elaborated by melt-blowing from polymer nanocomposites made of Nylon 6 and nanoclay (Cloisite 20A) modified with an amine (1,4 diaminobutane dihydrochloride). Morphological and physical characteristics, adsorption capacity, and antibacterial properties are presented. From the X-ray [...] Read more.
This is the first study of non-woven fabrics elaborated by melt-blowing from polymer nanocomposites made of Nylon 6 and nanoclay (Cloisite 20A) modified with an amine (1,4 diaminobutane dihydrochloride). Morphological and physical characteristics, adsorption capacity, and antibacterial properties are presented. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, it was possible to observe a displacement of the signals to other 2θ angles, due to an α to ϒ phase shift. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the mean diameter of fiber decreased as the content of nanoclay increased. The mechanical tests showed that the tear strength force of neat nylon was 1.734 N, but this characteristic increased to 2.135 N for the sample with 0.5% modified nanoclay. The inulin adsorption efficiency of the Nylon 6/C20A 1.5% and Nylon 6/C20A 2% samples at 15 min was 75 and 74%, respectively. The adsorption capacity of Nylon 6/C20A 1.5% and Nylon 6/C20A 2% for methylene blue and methyl orange remained above 90% even after four adsorption cycles. In addition, non-woven fabrics present antibacterial activity against E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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23 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Modeling of the System Boundaries of a High-Speed Direct-Yarn-Placement System for In Situ Impregnation of Carbon Fibre Heavy Tows as Textile Reinforcements for Concrete Parts
by Erik Knoch, Steffen Rittner and Klaus Holschemacher
Fibers 2024, 12(6), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12060047 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
This study investigates a novel approach in modeling the system limits of a braked, high-speed yarn-laying process with in situ impregnation. Special attention is paid to the investigation of the yarn spool overrun after the robot has come to a standstill. This phenomenon [...] Read more.
This study investigates a novel approach in modeling the system limits of a braked, high-speed yarn-laying process with in situ impregnation. Special attention is paid to the investigation of the yarn spool overrun after the robot has come to a standstill. This phenomenon occurs at low yarn tensions in combination with high traversing speed and/or acceleration. The modeling of the yarn spool overrun is carried out using physical equations, taking into account the travel speed, acceleration of the robot, and braking force of the spool brake. Previous research has confirmed various operating points of the yarn-laying process, but a comprehensive and complete analysis of the system limits at different operating points and speeds up to 2 m/s is missing. The result of the study is a novel model that describes the system boundaries of the direct-yarn-placement. Furthermore, models for robot braking time, carbon spool diameter, and spool mass are developed. The proposed models have an R2 > 0.9674. Regarding the system stability boundaries, the calculations reveal that, as acceleration rises, the minimum tension requirement also increases. The same trend is found for system velocity. At a=12.5%, a minimum tension of 16 N suffices, compared to 23 N and 32 N at a=25% and 50%, respectively. The impact on tension of quadrupling the speed outweighs that of acceleration, with tension increasing by factors of up to 22.5 and 2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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19 pages, 33144 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Helical Milling and Drilling Operations While Machining Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Laminates
by Gururaj Bolar, Anoop Aroor Dinesh, Ashwin Polishetty, Raviraj Shetty, Anupama Hiremath and V. L. Neelakantha
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8030113 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Being a difficult-to-cut material, Fiber Metal Laminates (FML) often pose challenges during conventional drilling and require judicious selection of machining parameters to ensure defect-free laminates that can serve reliably during their service lifetime. Helical milling is a promising technique for producing good-quality holes [...] Read more.
Being a difficult-to-cut material, Fiber Metal Laminates (FML) often pose challenges during conventional drilling and require judicious selection of machining parameters to ensure defect-free laminates that can serve reliably during their service lifetime. Helical milling is a promising technique for producing good-quality holes and is preferred over conventional drilling. The paper compares conventional drilling with the helical milling technique for producing holes in carbon fiber-reinforced aluminum laminates. The effect of machining parameters, such as cutting speed and axial feed, on the magnitude of cutting force and the machining temperature during conventional drilling as well as helical milling is studied. It was observed that the thrust force produced during machining reduces considerably during helical milling in comparison to conventional drilling at a constant axial feed rate. The highest machining temperature recorded for helical milling was much lower in comparison to the highest machining temperature measured during conventional drilling. The machining temperatures recorded during helical milling were well below the glass transition temperature of the epoxy used in carbon fiber prepreg, hence protecting the prepreg from thermal degradation during the hole-making process. The surface roughness of the holes produced by both techniques is measured, and the surface morphology of the drilled holes is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. The surface roughness of the helical-milled holes was lower than that for holes produced by conventional drilling. Scanning electron microscope images provided insights into the interaction of the hole surface with the chips during the chip evacuation stage under different speeds and feed rates. The microhardness of the aluminum layers increased after processing holes using drilling and helical milling operations. The axial feed/axial pitch had minimal influence on the microhardness increase in comparison to the cutting speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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10 pages, 8804 KiB  
Article
A Peel Test Method to Characterize the Decay Law of Prepreg Tape Tack at Different Temperatures
by Jiaqi Shi, Wang Wang, Yuequan Wang, Junwei Qi and Jun Xiao
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102449 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The tack of prepreg is a key factor affecting the automatic tape laying process. During the manufacturing process of large composite parts, prepreg material may be stored at room temperature for several days, resulting in a decrease in its tack. In this study, [...] Read more.
The tack of prepreg is a key factor affecting the automatic tape laying process. During the manufacturing process of large composite parts, prepreg material may be stored at room temperature for several days, resulting in a decrease in its tack. In this study, a new tack test tool was designed, and the decay rate of prepreg tack at different temperatures was tested. We proposed a prepreg tack decay model, which assumes that the main factor in tack decay is the reduction in resin chain activity during storage. The maximum deviation between the model calculation results and the experimental results of the tack decay rate is 9.7%. This study also proposed a new statistical unit for prepreg tack, which can establish the relationship between the tack of prepreg and its remaining storage time and reduce prepreg management costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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18 pages, 5106 KiB  
Article
Effect of Flashlamp Heating System Parameters on the Wedge Peel Strength of Thermoplastic Carbon Fiber Tape in the Automated Tape Placement Process
by Alexander Legenstein and Ewald Fauster
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8030091 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Laser-assisted automated tape placement systems are currently the state of the art regarding thermoplastic tape placement. Flashlamp heating systems are rather new in this field of application and offer high energy density with low safety requirements and moderate costs compared to laser-assisted automated [...] Read more.
Laser-assisted automated tape placement systems are currently the state of the art regarding thermoplastic tape placement. Flashlamp heating systems are rather new in this field of application and offer high energy density with low safety requirements and moderate costs compared to laser-assisted automated tape placement systems. In this study, the effect of processing parameters on interlaminar bonding of carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 tapes is investigated using a flashlamp heating system. The temperature during placement is monitored using an infrared camera, and the bonding strength is characterized by a wedge peel test. The bonding quality of the tapes placed between 210 °C and 330 °C at a lay-up speed of 50 mm/s is investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and micrographs are used to investigate the material properties and effects of the processing conditions on the thermophysical properties and geometric properties of the tape. No significant changes in the thermophysical or geometric properties were found. Moisture within the tapes and staining of the quartz guides of the flashlamp system have significant influence on the bonding strength. The highest wedge peel strength of dried tapes was found at around 330 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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20 pages, 5333 KiB  
Article
Designing Prepregnation and Fused Filament Fabrication Parameters for Recycled PP- and PA-Based Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites
by Marah Baddour, Ruth Garcia-Campà, Pablo Reyes, Dagmar R. D’hooge, Ludwig Cardon and Mariya Edeleva
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081788 - 12 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Continuous carbon fiber (cCF)-based 3D-printed polymer composites are known for their excellent flexural properties; however, the optimization of the overall process is still desired, depending on the material types involved. Here, the improved manufacturing of cCF-based composites is reported, considering virgin polyamide (PA) [...] Read more.
Continuous carbon fiber (cCF)-based 3D-printed polymer composites are known for their excellent flexural properties; however, the optimization of the overall process is still desired, depending on the material types involved. Here, the improved manufacturing of cCF-based composites is reported, considering virgin polyamide (PA) and postindustrial waste polypropylene (PP), and the parameters affecting the material properties are evaluated. Firstly, the prepregnation technique was optimized to manufacture cCF polymer filaments with various fiber-to-polymer ratios. Secondly, the fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique was optimized. It was observed that the layer height needs to be sufficiently low for proper interlayer adhesion. The influence of the printing temperature is more complicated, with filaments characterized by a lower fiber-to-polymer ratio requiring a higher nozzle diameter and higher temperatures for efficient printing; and for lower diameters, the best flexural properties are observed for parts printed at lower temperatures, maintaining a high interspace distance. Plasma treatment of the cCF was also explored, as was annealing of the produced parts to enhance the flexural properties, the latter being specifically interesting for the PP-based composite due to a lower wetting caused by a higher viscosity, despite supportive interfacial interactions. Eventually, overall guidelines were formulated for the successful production of cCF-based composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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20 pages, 4793 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study on the Optimization of Drilling Performance in Hybrid Nano-Composites and Neat CFRP Composites Using Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches
by Tanzila Nargis, S. M. Shahabaz, Subash Acharya, Nagaraja Shetty, Rashmi Laxmikant Malghan and S. Divakara Shetty
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020067 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have gradually replaced metals due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio compared to metallic materials. However, the drilling process often reveals various defects, such as surface roughness, influenced by different drilling parameters. This study explores the drilling quality of [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have gradually replaced metals due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio compared to metallic materials. However, the drilling process often reveals various defects, such as surface roughness, influenced by different drilling parameters. This study explores the drilling quality of uni-directional CFRP composites, as well as hybrid Al2O3 alumina and hybrid SiC silicon carbide nano-composites, through experimental exploration using step, core, and twist drills. Response surface methodology (RSM) and statistical tools, including main effect plots, ANOVA, contour plots, and optimization techniques, were used to analyze the surface roughness of the hole. Optimization plots were drawn for optimal conditions, suggesting a spindle speed of 1500 rpm, feed of 0.01 mm/rev, and a 4 mm drill diameter for achieving minimum surface roughness. Furthermore, two machine learning models, artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF), were used for predictive analysis. The findings revealed the robust predictive capabilities of both models, with RF demonstrating superior performance over ANN and RSM. Through visual comparisons and error analyses, more insights were gained into model accuracy and potential avenues for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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15 pages, 11314 KiB  
Article
The Impact of PP-g-MAH on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding of Long Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Pellets from Thermoplastic Pultrusion Process
by Ponlapath Tipboonsri and Anin Memon
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020053 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Long fiber thermoplastic pellets are pellets containing discontinuous reinforced fibers and a matrix, offering excellent mechanical properties, good processability, recyclability, and low cost. Typically, commercial LFTP is manufactured through the hot melt impregnation process, combining extrusion and pultrusion. Although there is a thermoplastic [...] Read more.
Long fiber thermoplastic pellets are pellets containing discontinuous reinforced fibers and a matrix, offering excellent mechanical properties, good processability, recyclability, and low cost. Typically, commercial LFTP is manufactured through the hot melt impregnation process, combining extrusion and pultrusion. Although there is a thermoplastic pultrusion process for LFTP production, characterized by a simple machine and an easy method, its mechanical properties have not yet approached those of commercial LFTP. In improving the mechanical characteristics of LFTP manufactured via thermoplastic pultrusion, this research employed polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride as a coupling agent during the injection molding procedure. The LFTP is composed of polypropylene material reinforced with glass fiber. Mechanical and physical properties of the LFTP were investigated by introducing PP-g-MAH at concentrations of 4, 8, and 12 wt% through injection molding. The results revealed that, at a 4 wt% concentration of PP-g-MAH, the LFTP composites exhibited heightened tensile, flexural and impact strengths. However, these properties began to decrease upon exceeding 4 wt% PP-g-MAH. The enhanced interfacial adhesion among glass fibers, induced by PP-g-MAH, contributed to this improvement. Nonetheless, excessive amounts of PP-g-MAH led to a reduction in molecular weight, subsequently diminishing the impact strength, tensile modulus, and flexural modulus. In LFTP composites, both tensile and flexural strengths exhibited a positive correlation with the PP-g-MAH concentration, attributed to improved interfacial adhesion between glass fibers and polypropylene, coupled with a reduction in fiber pull-out. Based on morphological analysis by SEM, the incorporation of PP-g-MAH improved interfacial bonding and decreased fiber pull-out. The presence of maleic anhydride in the LFTPc was confirmed through the utilization of FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanical properties of LFTP containing 4 wt% PP-g-MAH were found to be equivalent to or superior to those of commercial LFTP, according to the results of a comparative analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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0 pages, 5079 KiB  
Article
Machinability and Surface Properties of Cryogenic Poly(methyl methacrylate) Machined via Single-Point Diamond Turning
by Xiaoyu Wu, Qiang Kang, Xiaoxing Jiang and Xudong Fang
Materials 2024, 17(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040866 - 13 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), with a glass transition temperature (Tg) over 100 °C, shows good mechanical and optical properties and has broad applications after being machined with single-point diamond turning (SPDT) at room temperature. Because of the high Tg, current efforts mostly focus on [...] Read more.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), with a glass transition temperature (Tg) over 100 °C, shows good mechanical and optical properties and has broad applications after being machined with single-point diamond turning (SPDT) at room temperature. Because of the high Tg, current efforts mostly focus on optimizing machining parameters to improve workpiece precision without considering the modification of material properties. Cryogenic cooling has been proven to be an effective method in assisting ultra-precision machining for certain types of metals, alloys, and polymers, but has never been used for PMMA before. In this work, cryogenic cooling was attempted during the SPDT of PMMA workpieces to improve surface quality. The machinability and surface properties of cryogenically cooled PMMA were investigated based on the mechanical properties at corresponding temperatures. Nanoindentation tests show that, when temperature is changed from 25 °C to 0 °C, the hardness and Young’s modulus are increased by 37% and 22%, respectively. At these two temperature points, optimal parameters including spindle speed, feed rate and cut depth were obtained using Taguchi methods to obtain workpieces with high surface quality. The surface quality was evaluated based on the total height of the profile (Pt) and the arithmetic mean deviation (Ra). The measurement results show that the values of Pt and Ra of the workpiece machined at 0 °C are 124 nm and 6 nm, respectively, while the corresponding values of that machined at 25 °C are 291 nm and 11 nm. The test data show that cryogenic machining is useful for improving the form accuracy and reducing the surface roughness of PMMA. Moreover, the relationship between temperature, material properties and machinability weas established with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data and a theoretical model. This can explain the origin of the better surface quality of the cryogenic material. The basis of this is that temperature affects the viscoelasticity of the polymer and the corresponding mechanical properties due to relaxation. Then, the material property changes will affect surface profile formation during machining. The experimental results and theoretical analysis show that cryogenically cooled PMMA has good machinability and improved surface quality when using SPDT compared to that at ambient temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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23 pages, 10146 KiB  
Article
Experimental Characterization of Screw-Extruded Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polyamide: Design for Aeronautical Mould Preforms with Multiphysics Computational Guidance
by Juan Carlos Antolin-Urbaneja, Haritz Vallejo Artola, Eduard Bellvert Rios, Jorge Gayoso Lopez, Jose Ignacio Hernández Vicente and Ana Isabel Luengo Pizarro
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8010034 - 9 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
In this research work, the suitability of short carbon fibre-reinforced polyamide 6 in pellet form for printing an aeronautical mould preform with specific thermomechanical requirements is investigated. This research study is based on an extensive experimental characterization campaign, in which the principal mechanical [...] Read more.
In this research work, the suitability of short carbon fibre-reinforced polyamide 6 in pellet form for printing an aeronautical mould preform with specific thermomechanical requirements is investigated. This research study is based on an extensive experimental characterization campaign, in which the principal mechanical properties of the printed material are determined. Furthermore, the temperature dependency of the material properties is characterized by testing samples at different temperatures for bead printing and stacking directions. Additionally, the thermal properties of the material are characterized, including the coefficient of thermal expansion. Moreover, the influence of printing machine parameters is evaluated by comparing the obtained tensile moduli and strengths of several manufactured samples at room temperature. The results show that the moduli and strengths can vary from 78% to 112% and from 55% to 87%, respectively. Based on a real case study of its aeronautical use and on the experimental data from the characterization stage, a new mould design is iteratively developed with multiphysics computational guidance, considering 3D printing features and limitations. Specific design drivers are identified from the observed material’s thermomechanical performance. The designed mould, whose mass is reduced around 90% in comparison to that of the original invar design, is numerically proven to fulfil thermal and mechanical requirements with a high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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15 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Modeling of a Process Window for Tailored Reinforcements in Overmolding Processes
by Philipp K. W. Picard, Tim A. Osswald, Swen Zaremba and Klaus Drechsler
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8020065 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
This study explores cost-effective and customized composite applications by strategically placing carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in multi-material designs. The focus is on developing a model for the simultaneous processing of non-reinforced and reinforced thermoplastic layers, with the aim of identifying essential parameters to minimize [...] Read more.
This study explores cost-effective and customized composite applications by strategically placing carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in multi-material designs. The focus is on developing a model for the simultaneous processing of non-reinforced and reinforced thermoplastic layers, with the aim of identifying essential parameters to minimize insert flow and ensure desired fiber orientation and positional integrity. The analysis involves an analytical solution for two layered power-law fluids in a squeeze flow setup, aiming to model the combined flow behavior of Newtonian and pseudo-plastic fluids, highlighting the impact of the non-Newtonian nature. The behavior reveals a non-linear trend in the radial flow ratio towards the logarithmic consistency index ratio compared to a linear trend for Newtonian fluids. While a plateau regime of consistency index ratios presents challenges in flow reduction for both layers, exceeding this ratio, depending on the height ratio of the layers, enables a viable overmolding process. Therefore, attention is required when selectively placing tailored composites with long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics or unidirectional reinforcements to avoid operating in the plateau region, which can be managed through appropriate cavity or tool designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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18 pages, 8299 KiB  
Article
Nanomaterial-Enhanced Sizings: Design and Optimisation of a Pilot-Scale Fibre Sizing Line
by Dionisis Semitekolos, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Stavros Anagnou, Behnam Dashtbozorg, Xiaoying Li, Hanshan Dong and Costas A. Charitidis
Fibers 2024, 12(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020016 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of a pilot-scale sizing line, including its initial design and installation, operational phases, and optimization of key process parameters. The primary objective is the identification of critical parameters for achieving a uniform sizing onto the fibres and [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of a pilot-scale sizing line, including its initial design and installation, operational phases, and optimization of key process parameters. The primary objective is the identification of critical parameters for achieving a uniform sizing onto the fibres and the determination of optimal conditions for maximum production efficiency. This investigation focused on adjusting the furnace desizing temperature for the removal of commercial sizing, adjusting the drying temperature, as well as optimizing the corresponding residence time of carbon fibres passing through the furnaces. The highest production rate, reaching 1 m sized carbon fibres per minute, was achieved by employing a desizing temperature of 550 °C, a drying temperature of 250 °C, and a residence time of 1 min. Furthermore, a range of sizing solutions was investigated and formulated, exploring carbon-based nanomaterial types with different surface functionalizations and concentrations, to evaluate their impact on the surface morphology and mechanical properties of carbon fibres. In-depth analyses, including scanning electron microscopy and contact angle goniometry, revealed the achievement of a uniform coating on the carbon fibre surface, leading to an enhanced affinity between fibres and the polymeric epoxy matrix. The incorporation of nanomaterials, specifically N2-plasma-functionalized carbon nanotubes and few-layer graphene, demonstrated notable improvements in the interfacial shear properties (90% increase), verified by mechanical and push-out tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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20 pages, 15289 KiB  
Article
Processing and Analysis of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide Composite Structures Made by Fused Granular Fabrication and Automated Tape Laying
by Patrick Hirsch, Simon Scholz, Benjamin Borowitza, Moritz Vyhnal, Ralf Schlimper, Matthias Zscheyge, Ondrej Kotera, Michaela Stipkova and Sebastian Scholz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8010025 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is a large format additive manufacturing (LFAM) technology and focuses on cost-effective granulate-based manufacturing by eliminating the need for semifinished filaments. This allows a faster production time and a broader range of usable materials for tailored composites. In this [...] Read more.
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is a large format additive manufacturing (LFAM) technology and focuses on cost-effective granulate-based manufacturing by eliminating the need for semifinished filaments. This allows a faster production time and a broader range of usable materials for tailored composites. In this study, the mechanical and morphological properties of FGF test structures made of polyamid 6 reinforced with 40% of short carbon fibers were investigated. For this purpose, FGF test structures with three different parameter settings were produced. The FGF printed structures show generally significant anisotropic mechanical characteristics, caused by the layer-by-layer building process. To enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the anisotropic behavior of FGF structures, continuous unidirectional fiber-reinforced tapes (UD tapes), employing automated tape laying (ATL), were subsequently applied. Thus, a significant improvement in the flexural stiffness and strength of the manufactured FGF structures was observed by hybridization with 60% glass fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 UD tapes. Since the effectiveness of UD-tape reinforcement depends mainly on the quality of the bond between the UD tape and the FGF structure, the surface quality of the FGF structure, the interface morphology, and the tape-laying process parameters were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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