Special Issue "Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Silvie Rimpelová
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, Prague 6, Czech Republic
Interests: biocompatible materials; mammalian cells; cell adhesion; antimicrobial activity; anticancer activity; plasma treatment; laser modification; fluorescence microscopy; photodynamic therapy; theranostics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials, engineered substances that interact with biological systems with applications in medicine, have been in the spotlight recently, since there has been enormous progress in the field of materials itself. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on recent progress and novel trends in (bio)material science. Special attention will be devoted to biomaterials with advanced functions and unique properties applicable in medicine and biology but also as tools for research.

This Special Issue “Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications” will underline the most recent discoveries and progress in all fields of science related to advanced materials with possible applications in medicine and biology. This Special Issue will focus particularly on, but not be limited to, cell culture, tissue engineering, drug delivery, antimicrobial activity, material characterization, bioimaging, and bioactivity. Reviews, regular research articles, and short communications on this topic are invited from research groups from all over the world to encourage the dissemination of scientific knowledge through this open-access journal. Researchers working in the field of biomaterials and related disciplines are encouraged to publish their recent findings in this Special Issue of Materials.

Dr. Silvie Rimpelová
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biocompatible materials
  • Surface treatment
  • Coating
  • Surface properties
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug delivery
  • Cell adhesion
  • Proliferation
  • Primary fibroblasts
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Thermal Evaluation by Infrared Thermography Measurement of Osteotomies Performed with Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery and Surgical Drill—An Animal Study
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113051 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
The bone healing process following osteotomy may vary according to the type of surgical instrumentation. The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine thermal changes of the bone tissue following osteotomies performed by Er:YAG laser ablation in contact and non-contact [...] Read more.
The bone healing process following osteotomy may vary according to the type of surgical instrumentation. The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine thermal changes of the bone tissue following osteotomies performed by Er:YAG laser ablation in contact and non-contact modes, piezoelectric surgery, and surgical drill using an infrared thermographic camera. For each measurement, the temperature before the osteotomy-baseline (Tbase) and the maximal temperature measured during osteotomy (Tmax) were determined. Mean temperature (ΔT) values were calculated for each osteotomy technique. The significance of the difference of the registered temperature between groups was assessed by the ANOVA test for repeated measures. Mean baseline temperature (Tbase) was 27.9 ± 0.3 °C for contact Er:YAG laser, 29.9 ± 0.3 °C for non-contact Er:YAG laser, 29.4 ± 0.3 °C for piezosurgery, and 28.3 ± 0.3 °C for surgical drill. Mean maximum temperature (Tmax) was 29.9 ± 0.5 °C (ΔT = 1.9 ± 0.3 °C) for contact Er:YAG laser, 79.1 ± 4.6 °C (ΔT = 49.1 ± 4.4 °C) for non-contact Er:YAG laser, 29.1 ± 0.2 °C (ΔT = −0.2 ± 0.3 °C) for piezosurgery, and 27.3 ± 0.4 °C (ΔT = −0.9 ± 0.4 °C) for surgical drill. Statistically significant temperature changes were observed for the non-contact laser. The results of the study showed beneficial effects of the osteotomy performed by the Er:YAG laser used in the contact mode of working as well as for piezosurgery, reducing the potential overheating of the bone tissue as determined by means of infrared thermography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Anodic Electrodeposition of Chitosan–AgNP Composites Using In Situ Coordination with Copper Ions
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112754 - 23 May 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Chitosan is an attractive material for biomedical applications. A novel approach for the anodic electrodeposition of chitosan–AgNP composites using in situ coordination with copper ions is proposed in this work. The surface and cross-section morphology of the obtained coating with varying concentrations of [...] Read more.
Chitosan is an attractive material for biomedical applications. A novel approach for the anodic electrodeposition of chitosan–AgNP composites using in situ coordination with copper ions is proposed in this work. The surface and cross-section morphology of the obtained coating with varying concentrations of AgNPs were evaluated by SEM, and surface functional groups were analyzed with FT-IR spectroscopy. The mechanism of the formation of the coating based on the chelation of Cu(II) ions with chitosan was discussed. The antibacterial activity of the coatings towards Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984/RP62A bacteria was analyzed using the live–dead approach. The presented results indicate that the obtained chitosan–AgNP-based films possess some limited anti-biofilm-forming properties and exhibit moderate antibacterial efficiency at high AgNP loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Ultrashort Peptide Hydrogels Display Antimicrobial Activity and Enhance Angiogenic Growth Factor Release by Dental Pulp Stem/Stromal Cells
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092237 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Recent studies on peptide hydrogels have shown that ultrashort peptides (<8 amino acids) can self-assemble into hydrogels. Ultrashort peptides can be designed to incorporate antimicrobial motifs, such as positively charged lysine residues, so that the peptides have inherent antimicrobial characteristics. Antimicrobial hydrogels represent [...] Read more.
Recent studies on peptide hydrogels have shown that ultrashort peptides (<8 amino acids) can self-assemble into hydrogels. Ultrashort peptides can be designed to incorporate antimicrobial motifs, such as positively charged lysine residues, so that the peptides have inherent antimicrobial characteristics. Antimicrobial hydrogels represent a step change in tissue engineering and merit further investigation, particularly in applications where microbial infection could compromise healing. Herein, we studied the biocompatibility of dental pulp stem/stromal cells (DPSCs) with an ultrashort peptide hydrogel, (naphthalene-2-ly)-acetyl-diphenylalanine-dilysine-OH (NapFFεKεK-OH), where the epsilon (ε) amino group forms part of the peptide bond rather than the standard amino grouping. We tested the antimicrobial properties of NapFFεKεK-OH in both solution and hydrogel form against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum and investigated the DPSC secretome in hydrogel culture. Our results showed NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels were biocompatible with DPSCs. Peptides in solution form were efficacious against biofilms of S. aureus and E. faecalis, whereas hydrogels demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. Using an angiogenic array we showed that DPSCs encapsulated within NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels produced an angiogenic secretome. These results suggest that NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels have potential to serve as novel hydrogels in tissue engineering for cell-based pulp regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Improvement of the Electronic—Neuronal Interface by Natural Deposition of ECM
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061378 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The foreign body reaction to neuronal electrode implants limits potential applications as well as the therapeutic period. Developments in the basic electrode design might improve the tissue compatibility and thereby reduce the foreign body reaction. In this work, the approach of embedding 3D [...] Read more.
The foreign body reaction to neuronal electrode implants limits potential applications as well as the therapeutic period. Developments in the basic electrode design might improve the tissue compatibility and thereby reduce the foreign body reaction. In this work, the approach of embedding 3D carbon nanofiber electrodes in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesized by human fibroblasts for a compatible connection to neuronal cells was investigated. Porous electrode material was manufactured by solution coelectrospinning of polyacrylonitrile and polyamide as a fibrous porogen. Moreover, NaCl represented an additional particulate porogen. To achieve the required conductivity for an electrical interface, meshes were carbonized. Through the application of two different porogens, the electrodes’ flexibility and porosity was improved. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on the electrode surface for ECM generation and removed afterwards. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a nano fibrous ECM network covering the carbon fibers. The collagen amount of the ECM coating was quantified by hydroxyproline-assays. The modification with the natural protein coating on the electrode functionality resulted in a minor increase of the electrical capacity, which slightly improved the already outstanding electrical interface properties. Increased cell numbers of SH-SY5Y cell line on ECM-modified electrodes demonstrated an improved cell adhesion. During cell differentiation, the natural ECM enhanced the formation of neurites regarding length and branching. The conducted experiments indicated the prevention of direct cell-electrode contacts by the modification, which might help to shield temporary the electrode from immunological cells to reduce the foreign body reaction and improve the electrodes’ tissue integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Cell Behavior of Primary Fibroblasts and Osteoblasts on Plasma-Treated Fluorinated Polymer Coated with Honeycomb Polystyrene
Materials 2021, 14(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040889 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The development of new biocompatible polymer substrates is still of interest to many research teams. We aimed to combine a plasma treatment of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrate with a technique of improved phase separation. Plasma exposure served for substrate activation and modification [...] Read more.
The development of new biocompatible polymer substrates is still of interest to many research teams. We aimed to combine a plasma treatment of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrate with a technique of improved phase separation. Plasma exposure served for substrate activation and modification of surface properties, such as roughness, chemistry, and wettability. The treated FEP substrate was applied for the growth of a honeycomb-like pattern from polystyrene solution. The properties of the pattern strongly depended on the primary plasma exposure of the FEP substrate. The physico-chemical properties such as changes of the surface chemistry, wettability, and morphology of the prepared pattern were determined. The cell response of primary fibroblasts and osteoblasts was studied on a honeycomb pattern. The prepared honeycomb-like pattern from polystyrene showed an increase in cell viability and a positive effect on cell adhesion and proliferation for both primary fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Storable bFGF-Releasing Membrane Allowing Continuous Human iPSC Culture
Materials 2021, 14(3), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030651 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial supplement for culture media of human pluripotent stem cells. However, bFGF is extremely unstable under cell culture conditions, which makes frequent (generally every day) medium refreshment requisite. We recently developed a water-floatable, bFGF-releasing membrane via [...] Read more.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial supplement for culture media of human pluripotent stem cells. However, bFGF is extremely unstable under cell culture conditions, which makes frequent (generally every day) medium refreshment requisite. We recently developed a water-floatable, bFGF-releasing membrane via a simple bFGF adsorption process following oxygen plasma treatment by utilizing a polyethylene nonwoven fabric as an adsorbent. This membrane allowed sustained release of bFGF while floating on medium, thereby keeping the bFGF concentration in the medium sufficient for maintaining human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a proliferative and pluripotent state for as long as 3 days. In this study, lyophilization was applied to the membrane to stabilize bFGF. The sustained bFGF-releasing function of the membrane was kept unchanged even after lyophilization and subsequent cryopreservation at −30 °C for 3 months. The cryopreserved membrane supported proliferation and colony formation of human iPSCs while retaining their viability and pluripotency in a medium-change-free continuous culture for 3 days. The present bFGF-releasing membrane is ready-to-use, storable for at least 3 months, and obviates daily medium refreshment. Therefore, it is a new and more practical bFGF supplement for culture media of human stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Sustainable Rabbit Skin Glue to Produce Bioactive Nanofibers for Nonactive Wound Dressings
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235388 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
This paper assessed the collagen glue (Col) from rabbit skin for use as a raw material in combination with different water-based dispersants of antimicrobial agents such as ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs doped with nitrogen and Ag NPs (TiO2-N-Ag NPs), and [...] Read more.
This paper assessed the collagen glue (Col) from rabbit skin for use as a raw material in combination with different water-based dispersants of antimicrobial agents such as ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs doped with nitrogen and Ag NPs (TiO2-N-Ag NPs), and chitosan (CS) for the production of biocompatible and antimicrobial nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance in conjunction with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) analyses and antioxidant activity. The biocompatibility of electrospun nanofibers was investigated on cell lines of mouse fibroblast NCTC (clone L929) using MTT test assays. Antimicrobial activity was performed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Candida albicans pathogenic fungus. Electrospun antimicrobial nanofibers based on collagen glue achieved reduction in the number of viable microorganisms against both fungi and bacteria and exhibited multiple inhibitory actions of fungal and bacterial strains. The electrospun nanofibers showed average dimension sizes in the range of 30–160 nm. The results indicated that both Col/TiO2-N-Ag NPs and Col/CS formulations are suitable for cell proliferation and may be useful for producing of nonactive wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
3D Cell Culture of Human Salivary Glands Using Nature-Inspired Functional Biomaterials: The Egg Yolk Plasma and Egg White
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214807 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
The egg yolk plasma (EYP)—a translucent fraction of the egg yolk (EY) obtained by centrifugation—was tested as a developmentally encouraging, cost-effective, biomaterial for salivary gland (SG) tissue engineering. To find optimal incubating conditions for both the human NS-SV-AC SG acinar cell line and [...] Read more.
The egg yolk plasma (EYP)—a translucent fraction of the egg yolk (EY) obtained by centrifugation—was tested as a developmentally encouraging, cost-effective, biomaterial for salivary gland (SG) tissue engineering. To find optimal incubating conditions for both the human NS-SV-AC SG acinar cell line and SG fibroblasts, cells were stained with Live/Dead®. The cellular contents of 96-well plates were analyzed by high content screening image analysis. Characteristically, the EYP biomaterial had lipid and protein content resembling the EY. On its own, the EYP was non-conducive to cell survival. EYP’s pH of 6 mainly contributed to cell death. This was demonstrated by titrating EYP’s pH with different concentrations of either commercial cell culture media, NaOH, or egg white (EW). These additives improved SG mesenchymal and epithelial cell survival. The best combinations were EYP diluted with (1) 70% commercial medium, (2) 0.02 M NaOH, or (3) 50% EW. Importantly, commercial medium-free growth was obtained with EYP + NaOH or EYP + EW. Furthermore, 3D cultures were obtained as a result of EW’s gelatinous properties. Here, the isolation, characterization, and optimization of three EYP-based biomaterial combinations are shown; two were free of commercial medium or supplements and supported both SG cells’ survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites—Extracellular Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Antibacterial Potential
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194347 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
This research presents, for the first time, the potential of the Lactobacillus paracasei LC20 isolated from sweet whey as a novel, effective and accessible source for post-cultured ZnO nanocomposites synthesis. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to comprehensive characterization by a broad spectrum of [...] Read more.
This research presents, for the first time, the potential of the Lactobacillus paracasei LC20 isolated from sweet whey as a novel, effective and accessible source for post-cultured ZnO nanocomposites synthesis. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to comprehensive characterization by a broad spectrum of instrumental techniques. Results of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hexagonal crystalline structure of ZnO in the nanometer size. The dispersion stability of the obtained nanocomposites was determined based on the zeta potential (ZP) measurements—the average ZP value was found to be −29.15 ± 1.05 mV in the 7–9 pH range. The ZnO nanocomposites (NCs) demonstrated thermal stability up to 130 °C based on the results of thermogravimetric TGA/DTG) analysis. The organic deposit on the nanoparticle surface was recorded by spectroscopic analysis in the infrared range (FT-IR). Results of the spectrometric study exhibited nanostructure-assisted laser desorption/ionization effects and also pointed out the presence of organic deposits and, what is more, allowed us to identify the specific amino acids and peptides present on the ZnO NCs surfaces. In this context, mass spectrometry (MS) data confirmed the nano-ZnO formation mechanism. Moreover, fluorescence data showed an increase in fluorescence signal in the presence of nanocomposites designed for potential use as, e.g., biosensors. Despite ZnO NCs’ luminescent properties, they can also act as promising antiseptic agents against clinically relevant pathogens. Therefore, a pilot study on the antibacterial activity of biologically synthesized ZnO NCs was carried out against four strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by using MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration). Additionally, the colony forming units (CFU) assay was performed and quantified for all bacterial cells as the percentage of viable cells in comparison to a control sample (untreated culture) The nanocomposites were effective among three pathogens with MIC values in the range of 86.25–172.5 μg/mL and showed potential as a new type of, e.g., medical path or ointment formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
In Vitro Study of Comparative Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Fit between Heat-Pressed and CAD-CAM Monolithic Glass-Ceramic Restorations after Thermal Aging
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194239 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 563
Abstract
The accuracy of newly developed ceramic materials is still being studied. Marginal and internal adaptation are known factors that have an essential impact on the long term success of dental restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal [...] Read more.
The accuracy of newly developed ceramic materials is still being studied. Marginal and internal adaptation are known factors that have an essential impact on the long term success of dental restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of heat-pressed and milled monolithic glass-ceramic restorations based on their ceramic type, processing technique, and in vitro thermocycling. Thirty-two crowns were studied and divided into four groups (n = 8), according to the ceramic material (feldspathic glass-ceramic (F) and zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic (ZLS)) and to their technological obtaining processes (milling (M) and heat-pressing (P)). A typodont preparation was scanned with a D2000 3D scanner to obtain identical 32 resin 3D-printed abutment teeth. Marginal and internal gaps were measured using the silicone replica technique under 40× magnification. The crowns were further cemented and thermally aged for 10,000 cycles After cementation and thermocycling of the samples, marginal and internal gaps were assessed using micro-CT (micro-computed tomography)) analysis. Data were statistically analyzed using statistical tests. Significant differences were found before and after cementation and thermocycling among the tested materials (p < 0.05). Related to technological processing, significant differences were seen in the marginal area between FP and FM (p < 0.05) Significant differences were also found in the axial and occlusal areas between the ZLSP and ZLSM. Thermocycling and cementation did not have a significant effect on the tested materials (p < 0.05). The technological processes influenced the marginal and internal fit of the crowns in favor of the CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing)technologies. Thermal aging had little effect on marginal adaptability; it increased the values for all the tested samples in a small way, but the values remained in their clinically acceptable range for all of the crowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review

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Review
CRISPR-Associated (CAS) Effectors Delivery via Microfluidic Cell-Deformation Chip
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123164 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Identifying new and even more precise technologies for modifying and manipulating selectively specific genes has provided a powerful tool for characterizing gene functions in basic research and potential therapeutics for genome regulation. The rapid development of nuclease-based techniques such as CRISPR/Cas systems has [...] Read more.
Identifying new and even more precise technologies for modifying and manipulating selectively specific genes has provided a powerful tool for characterizing gene functions in basic research and potential therapeutics for genome regulation. The rapid development of nuclease-based techniques such as CRISPR/Cas systems has revolutionized new genome engineering and medicine possibilities. Additionally, the appropriate delivery procedures regarding CRISPR/Cas systems are critical, and a large number of previous reviews have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9–12 and 13 delivery methods. Still, despite all efforts, the in vivo delivery of the CAS gene systems remains challenging. The transfection of CRISPR components can often be inefficient when applying conventional delivery tools including viral elements and chemical vectors because of the restricted packaging size and incompetency of some cell types. Therefore, physical methods such as microfluidic systems are more applicable for in vitro delivery. This review focuses on the recent advancements of microfluidic systems to deliver CRISPR/Cas systems in clinical and therapy investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Recent Developments in Lactone Monomers and Polymer Synthesis and Application
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112881 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Lactones are a group of compounds that have been known for several decades. The commercial importance of lactones results from the possibility of manufacturing of a broad scope of derivatives and polymers with a wide spectrum of applications. In this work the synthesis [...] Read more.
Lactones are a group of compounds that have been known for several decades. The commercial importance of lactones results from the possibility of manufacturing of a broad scope of derivatives and polymers with a wide spectrum of applications. In this work the synthesis and characterization of simple lactones are described, which due to the easy methods of the synthesis are of high importance for the industry. The chemical as well as biochemical methods are included with special attention paid to the methods that avoid metal catalysts, initiators or toxic solvents, allowing the use of the final products for the medical applications, e.g., for controlled drug-release systems, resorbable surgical threads, implants, tissue scaffolds or for the production of drugs. Lactone-based derivatives, such as polymers, copolymers, composites or three-dimensional structures are also presented. The work is focused on the methods for the synthesis of lactones and lactones derivates, as well as on the special properties and application of the studied compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
A Review on the Adaption of Alginate-Gelatin Hydrogels for 3D Cultures and Bioprinting
Materials 2021, 14(4), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040858 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Sustaining the vital functions of cells outside the organism requires strictly defined parameters. In order to ensure their optimal growth and development, it is necessary to provide a range of nutrients and regulators. Hydrogels are excellent materials for 3D in vitro cell cultures. [...] Read more.
Sustaining the vital functions of cells outside the organism requires strictly defined parameters. In order to ensure their optimal growth and development, it is necessary to provide a range of nutrients and regulators. Hydrogels are excellent materials for 3D in vitro cell cultures. Their ability to retain large amounts of liquid, as well as their biocompatibility, soft structures, and mechanical properties similar to these of living tissues, provide appropriate microenvironments that mimic extracellular matrix functions. The wide range of natural and synthetic polymeric materials, as well as the simplicity of their physico-chemical modification, allow the mechanical properties to be adjusted for different requirements. Sodium alginate-based hydrogel is a frequently used material for cell culture. The lack of cell-interactive properties makes this polysaccharide the most often applied in combination with other materials, including gelatin. The combination of both materials increases their biological activity and improves their material properties, making this combination a frequently used material in 3D printing technology. The use of hydrogels as inks in 3D printing allows the accurate manufacturing of scaffolds with complex shapes and geometries. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the materials used for 3D cell cultures, which are mainly alginate–gelatin hydrogels, including their properties and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Structural and Material Determinants Influencing the Behavior of Porous Ti and Its Alloys Made by Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2021, 14(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040712 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
One of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering is the manufacturing of porous structures that are customized in size and shape and that mimic natural bone structure. Additive manufacturing is known as a sufficient method to produce 3D porous structures used as bone [...] Read more.
One of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering is the manufacturing of porous structures that are customized in size and shape and that mimic natural bone structure. Additive manufacturing is known as a sufficient method to produce 3D porous structures used as bone substitutes in large segmental bone defects. The literature indicates that the mechanical and biological properties of scaffolds highly depend on geometrical features of structure (pore size, pore shape, porosity), surface morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this review is to present the latest advances and trends in the development of titanium scaffolds concerning the relationships between applied materials, manufacturing methods, and interior architecture determined by porosity, pore shape, and size, and the mechanical, biological, chemical, and physical properties. Such a review is assumed to show the real achievements and, on the other side, shortages in so far research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Evaluation of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of chitosan/eugenol graft copolymers intendent for cellulose functionalization for medical use

Olivera Šauperl1, Lidija Fras Zemljic1, Julija Volmajer Valh1, Jasna Tompa1

1University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

Abstract:

The presented research work deals with the production of chitosan-eugenol copolymers by chemical and enzymatic grafting and their application to viscose substrates with the aim of producing antimicrobial and antioxidative active textiles. ATR - FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy were used to evaluate the efficiency of grafting and to compare both grafting procedures. Potentiometric titration was chosen to determine the amount of accessible amino groups of graft copolymers indicating the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Spectrophotometric methods, such as i) Folin - Ciocalteu, ii) reduction of iron ions and iii) α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods were used to determine the total content of phenolic compounds, i.e. to infer the antioxidant activity of the graft copolymers produced. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) was also part of the research to study the thermal properties of the graft copolymers, i.e. to evaluate the effectiveness of grafting. The viscose functionalized by the prepared copolymers was evaluated by ATR - FT IR spectroscopy and Acid Orange VII spectrophotometric method to assess the adsorption success, i.e. to determine the proportion of available antimicrobial active amino groups of chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed to study the fibre morphology. Finally, an antimicrobial fibre test was performed to determine the reduction of selected pathogenic microorganisms and the antioxidant activity of the fibres was provided as well. It has been concluded that fibres have a high bioactive profile and therefore have the potential to be used in the development of medical textiles.

 

2. Electrochemically Assisted Deposition of Biomimetic ACP Coatings on CpTi Grade 4 in an Acetate Bath

Patrycja Osak, Joanna Maszybrocka, Grzegorz Dercz, Julian Kubisztal, Bożena Łosiewicz*

Institute of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia in Katowice, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów, Poland; [email protected] (P.O.); [email protected] (J.M.); [email protected] (G.D.); [email protected] (J.K.); [email protected] (B.Ł.)

*   Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +48-32-3497-527 (B.Ł.)

Abstract: Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition similar to that of bone tissues. Among the methods of producing CaP coatings, the electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) is particularly important due to high repeatability and the possibility of deposition at ambient temperature and neutral pH, which allows to co-deposit inorganic and organic components. In this work, the ECAD of biomimetic CaP coatings from an acetate bath with a Ca:P ratio of 1.67, was developed. The effect of the ECAD conditions on CaP coatings deposited on commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CpTi G4) subjected to sandblasting and autoclaving, was presented. The physicochemical characteristics of the ECAD-derived coatings was carried out using XRD, GIXRD, SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR, 2D roughness profiles, and amplitude sensitive eddy current method. It was showed that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings can be obtained at a potential ranging from -1.5 to -10 V relative to the open circuit potential for 10 to 60 min varying the temperature of the deposition bath from 20 to 70 °C. The thickness and surface roughness of the ACP coatings were an increasing function of potential, time and temperature. The optimal ACP coatings for use in dentistry were deposited at a potential of -3 V for 30 min at ambient temperature. The deposition mechanism of the ACP coatings was discussed in details.

Keywords: calcium phosphate coatings; electrochemically assisted deposition; titanium

 

3. Title: Effect of local and systemic administration of atorvastatin for optimization on bone repair of critical defects: An animal study

Authors: Fábio Vieira de Miranda DDS, MSc, PhD1; Willian Phillip Pereira da Silva DDS, MSc1; Gustavo Antonio Correa Momesso DDS, MSc, PhD1; Leonardo Alan Delanora DDS1, Bárbara Ribeiro Rios DDS1, Tiburtino José de Lima Neto DDS1, Edilson Ervolino DDS, MSc2, PhD; Jamil Awad Shibli DDS, MSc, PhD3; Osvaldo Magro Filho DDS, MSc, PhD; Leonardo Perez Faverani DDS, MSc, PhD.

Affiliations:
1 - Department of Diagnosis and Surgery. Sao Paulo State University—Unesp. Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo 16015-050, Brazil
2 - Department of Basic Sciences. Sao Paulo State University—Unesp. Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo 16015-050, Brazil
3 - Dental Research Division, Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, University of Guarulhos (UnG), Guarulhos, SP 07115-230, Brazil

Article proposal for Materials – Special Issue
Bone regeneration studies have been investigated the groups of statins to stimulate the osteogenic factors, which the major question is about administration more appropriate to obtain better results. Thus, this study aims to compare the effect of Atorvastatin applied locally and systemically on critical defects of calvaria rats. Thirty-six rats Wistar adults will be randomly divided into three groups, the collagen membrane application group with distilled water (GAD) with critical size defects containing distilled water; the systemic application group of Atorvastatin (GAS) will be performed with critical size defects and the animals will be treated with atorvastatin (3.6mg/kg/day) per gavage; and the local application group of Atorvastatin (GAL) with critical size defects containing Atorvastatin. Each group will be evaluated by histometric analysis through measurement of the residual defect, area of newly formed bone (NFB), area of the membrane and soft tissue, cell count (osteocytes, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells), and immunohistochemistry reactions using antibodies against CD31, VEGF, BMP-2, and Osteocalcin. All quantitative data will be subjected firstly to a normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) and according to the distribution of the data, a parametric or non-parametric test will be applied, considering P<.05. All tests will be applied in the SigmaPlot 12.0 Sofware (Exakt Graph and Data Analysis, San Jose, Ca, USA).

Keywords: Osteogenesis. Atorvastatin. Bone regeneration.

 

4. Egg Yolk Plasma as a nature-inspired functional biomaterial for tissue engineering and 3D-cell culture of human salivary glands.

Andre M. Charbonneau, PhD, and Simon D. Tran, DMD, PhD, FRCDC

McGill Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory,
Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University,
Montréal, Québec, Canada

Email: [email protected]

Title: Evaluation of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of chitosan/eugenol graft copolymers intendent for cellulose functionalization for medical use
Authors: Olivera Šauperl; Lidija Fras Zemljic; Julija Volmajer Valh; Jasna Tompa
Affiliation: University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Abstract: The presented research work deals with the production of chitosan-eugenol copolymers by chemical and enzymatic grafting and their application to viscose substrates with the aim of producing antimicrobial and antioxidative active textiles. ATR - FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy were used to evaluate the efficiency of grafting and to compare both grafting procedures. Potentiometric titration was chosen to determine the amount of accessible amino groups of graft copolymers indicating the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Spectrophotometric methods, such as i) Folin - Ciocalteu, ii) reduction of iron ions and iii) α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods were used to determine the total content of phenolic compounds, i.e. to infer the antioxidant activity of the graft copolymers produced. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) was also part of the research to study the thermal properties of the graft copolymers, i.e. to evaluate the effectiveness of grafting. The viscose functionalized by the prepared copolymers was evaluated by ATR - FT IR spectroscopy and Acid Orange VII spectrophotometric method to assess the adsorption success, i.e. to determine the proportion of available antimicrobial active amino groups of chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed to study the fibre morphology. Finally, an antimicrobial fibre test was performed to determine the reduction of selected pathogenic microorganisms and the antioxidant activity of the fibres was provided as well. It has been concluded that fibres have a high bioactive profile and therefore have the potential to be used in the development of medical textiles.

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