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Special Issue "Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2022 | Viewed by 29507

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Silvie Rimpelová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, Prague 6, Czech Republic
Interests: biocompatible materials; mammalian cells; cell adhesion; antimicrobial activity; anticancer activity; plasma treatment; laser modification; fluorescence microscopy; photodynamic therapy; theranostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials, engineered substances that interact with biological systems with applications in medicine, have been in the spotlight recently, since there has been enormous progress in the field of materials itself. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on recent progress and novel trends in (bio)material science. Special attention will be devoted to biomaterials with advanced functions and unique properties applicable in medicine and biology but also as tools for research.

This Special Issue “Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications” will underline the most recent discoveries and progress in all fields of science related to advanced materials with possible applications in medicine and biology. This Special Issue will focus particularly on, but not be limited to, cell culture, tissue engineering, drug delivery, antimicrobial activity, material characterization, bioimaging, and bioactivity. Reviews, regular research articles, and short communications on this topic are invited from research groups from all over the world to encourage the dissemination of scientific knowledge through this open-access journal. Researchers working in the field of biomaterials and related disciplines are encouraged to publish their recent findings in this Special Issue of Materials.

Dr. Silvie Rimpelová
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biocompatible materials
  • Surface treatment
  • Coating
  • Surface properties
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug delivery
  • Cell adhesion
  • Proliferation
  • Primary fibroblasts
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Sol-Gel-Derived Fibers Based on Amorphous α-Hydroxy-Carboxylate-Modified Titanium(IV) Oxide as a 3-Dimensional Scaffold
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082752 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The development of novel fibrous biomaterials and further processing of medical devices is still challenging. For instance, titanium(IV) oxide is a well-established biocompatible material, and the synthesis of TiOx particles and coatings via the sol-gel process has frequently been published. However, synthesis [...] Read more.
The development of novel fibrous biomaterials and further processing of medical devices is still challenging. For instance, titanium(IV) oxide is a well-established biocompatible material, and the synthesis of TiOx particles and coatings via the sol-gel process has frequently been published. However, synthesis protocols of sol-gel-derived TiOx fibers are hardly known. In this publication, the authors present a synthesis and fabrication of purely sol-gel-derived TiOx fiber fleeces starting from the liquid sol-gel precursor titanium ethylate (TEOT). Here, the α-hydroxy-carboxylic acid lactic acid (LA) was used as a chelating ligand to reduce the reactivity towards hydrolysis of TEOT enabling a spinnable sol. The resulting fibers were processed into a non-woven fleece, characterized with FTIR, 13C-MAS-NMR, XRD, and screened with regard to their stability in physiological solution. They revealed an unexpected dependency between the LA content and the dissolution behavior. Finally, in vitro cell culture experiments proved their potential suitability as an open-mesh structured scaffold material, even for challenging applications such as therapeutic medicinal products (ATMPs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
In Vitro Hydrolytic Degradation of Polyester-Based Scaffolds under Static and Dynamic Conditions in a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072572 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Creating biofunctional artificial scaffolds could potentially meet the demand of patients suffering from bone defects without having to rely on donors or autologous transplantation. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a promising tool to fabricate, by computer design, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with high [...] Read more.
Creating biofunctional artificial scaffolds could potentially meet the demand of patients suffering from bone defects without having to rely on donors or autologous transplantation. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a promising tool to fabricate, by computer design, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with high precision and accuracy, using patient-specific anatomical data. Achieving controlled degradation profiles of 3D printed polymeric scaffolds is an essential feature to consider to match them with the tissue regeneration rate. Thus, achieving a thorough characterization of the biomaterial degradation kinetics in physiological conditions is needed. Here, 50:50 blends made of poly(ε-caprolactone)–Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PCL-PLGA) were used to fabricate cylindrical scaffolds by 3D printing (⌀ 7 × 2 mm). Their hydrolytic degradation under static and dynamic conditions was characterized and quantified. For this purpose, we designed and in-house fabricated a customized bioreactor. Several techniques were used to characterize the degradation of the parent polymers: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), evaluation of the mechanical properties, weigh loss measurements as well as the monitoring of the degradation media pH. Our results showed that flow perfusion is critical in the degradation process of PCL-PLGA based scaffolds implying an accelerated hydrolysis compared to the ones studied under static conditions, and up to 4 weeks are needed to observe significant degradation in polyester scaffolds of this size and chemical composition. Our degradation study and characterization methodology are relevant for an accurate design and to tailor the physicochemical properties of polyester-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Production of Fungal Nanochitosan Using High-Pressure Water Jet System for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041375 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 855
Abstract
In this present work, fungal nanochitosans, with very interesting particle size distribution of 22 µm, were efficiently generated in high-yield production using a high-pressure water jet system (Star Burst System, Sugino, Japan) after 10 passes of mechanical treatment under high pressure. The specific [...] Read more.
In this present work, fungal nanochitosans, with very interesting particle size distribution of 22 µm, were efficiently generated in high-yield production using a high-pressure water jet system (Star Burst System, Sugino, Japan) after 10 passes of mechanical treatment under high pressure. The specific characterization of fungal chitosan nanofibers suspensions in water revealed a high viscosity of 1450 mPa.s and an estimated transparency of 43.5% after 10 passes of fibrillation mechanical treatment. The mechanical characterization of fungal nanochitosan (NC) film are very interesting for medical applications with a Young’s modulus (E), a tensile strength (TS), and elongation at break (e%) estimated at 2950 MPa, 50.5 MPa, and 5.5%, respectively. Furthermore, we exhibited that the fungal nanochitosan (NC) film presented very good long-term antioxidant effect (reached 82.4% after 96 h of contact with DPPH radical solution) and very interesting antimicrobial activity when the nanochitosan (NC) fibers are mainly activated as NC-NH3+ form at the surface of the film with 45% reduction and 75% reduction observed for S. aureus (Gram-positive) and E. coli (Gram-negative), respectively, after 6 h of treatment. These promising antimicrobial and antioxidant activities indicated the high potential of valorization toward biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
KrF Laser and Plasma Exposure of PDMS–Carbon Composite and Its Antibacterial Properties
Materials 2022, 15(3), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030839 - 22 Jan 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes was successfully prepared. Composite foils were treated with both plasma and excimer laser, and changes in their physicochemical properties were determined in detail. Mainly changes in surface chemistry, wettability, and morphology were determined. The plasma [...] Read more.
A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes was successfully prepared. Composite foils were treated with both plasma and excimer laser, and changes in their physicochemical properties were determined in detail. Mainly changes in surface chemistry, wettability, and morphology were determined. The plasma treatment of PDMS complemented with subsequent heating led to the formation of a unique wrinkle-like pattern. The impact of different laser treatment conditions on the composite surface was determined. The morphology was determined by AFM and LCM techniques, while chemical changes and chemical surface mapping were studied with the EDS/EDX method. Selected activated polymer composites were used for the evaluation of antibacterial activity using Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The antibacterial effect was achieved against S. epidermidis on pristine PDMS treated with 500 mJ of laser energy and PDMS-C nanocomposite treated with a lower laser fluence of 250 mJ. Silver deposition of PDMS foil increases significantly its antibacterial properties against E. coli, which is further enhanced by the carbon predeposition or high-energy laser treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Influence of Friction Stir Process on the Physical, Microstructural, Corrosive, and Electrical Properties of an Al–Mg Alloy Modified with Ti–B Additives
Materials 2022, 15(3), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030835 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
In this study, two successive methods were used to improve the grain structure and the mechanical and physical properties of Al 5052 aluminum alloy. The modifying elements, 0.99 wt.% of titanium (Ti) and 0.2 wt.% of boron (B), were added during the casting [...] Read more.
In this study, two successive methods were used to improve the grain structure and the mechanical and physical properties of Al 5052 aluminum alloy. The modifying elements, 0.99 wt.% of titanium (Ti) and 0.2 wt.% of boron (B), were added during the casting process. After solidification, single- and double-pass friction stir processing (FSP) were performed to achieve additional grain refinement and disperse the newly formed phases well. The addition of Ti–B modifiers significantly improved the mechanical and physical properties of the Al 5052 aluminum alloy. Nevertheless, only a 3% improvement in microhardness was achieved. The ultimate strength (US), yield strength (YS), and elastic modulus were investigated. In addition, the electrical conductivity was reduced by 56% compared to the base alloys. The effects of grain refinement on thermal expansion and corrosion rate were studied; the modified alloy with Ti–B in the as-cast state showed lower dimension stability than the samples treated with the FSP method. The grain refinement significantly affected the corrosion resistance; for example, single and double FSP passes reduced the corrosion rate by 11.4 times and 19.2 times, respectively. The successive FSP passes, resulting in a non-porous structure, increased the bulk density and formed precipitates with high bulk density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Delivery of DNA into Human Cells by Functionalized Lignin Nanoparticles
Materials 2022, 15(1), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010303 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Lignin is an aromatic plant cell wall polymer that is generated in large quantities as a low-value by-product by the pulp and paper industry and by biorefineries that produce renewable fuels and chemicals from plant biomass. Lignin structure varies among plant species and [...] Read more.
Lignin is an aromatic plant cell wall polymer that is generated in large quantities as a low-value by-product by the pulp and paper industry and by biorefineries that produce renewable fuels and chemicals from plant biomass. Lignin structure varies among plant species and as a function of the method used for its extraction from plant biomass. We first explored the impact of this variation on the physico-chemical properties of lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) produced via a solvent exchange procedure and then examined whether LNPs produced from industrial sources of lignin could be used as delivery vehicles for DNA. Spherical LNPs were formed from birch and wheat BioLignin™ and from poplar thioglycolic acid lignin after dissolving the lignin in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dialyzing it against water. Dynamic light scattering indicated that the diameter of these LNPs was dependent on the initial concentration of the lignin, while electrophoretic light scattering indicated that the LNPs had a negative zeta potential, which became less negative as the diameter increased. The dynamics of LNP formation as a function of the initial lignin concentration varied as a function of the source of the lignin, as did the absolute value of the zeta potential. After coating the LNPs with cationic poly-l-lysine, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that DNA could adsorb to LNPs. Upon transfection of human A549 lung carcinoma basal epithelial cells with functionalized LNPs carrying plasmid DNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), green foci were observed under the microscope, and the presence of eGFP in the transfected cells was confirmed by ELISA. The low cytotoxicity of these LNPs and the ability to tailor diameter and zeta potential make these LNPs of interest for future gene therapy applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Influence of Sandblasting Process on Tribological Properties of Titanium Grade 4 in Artificial Saliva for Dentistry Applications
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247536 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Titanium Grade 4 (Ti G4) is widely used in medicine for dental implants. The failure-free life of implants depends on their properties such as resistance to wear and friction processes. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of sandblasting on tribological wear [...] Read more.
Titanium Grade 4 (Ti G4) is widely used in medicine for dental implants. The failure-free life of implants depends on their properties such as resistance to wear and friction processes. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of sandblasting on tribological wear of commercial dental implants made of TiG4 in artificial saliva. Tribological wear measurements were performed in a reciprocating motion in the ball-on-disc system. The scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) method was used to characterize the surface of the implants before and after the tribological wear test. The microhardness of Ti G4 was measured before and after sandblasting by the Vickers method. The contact angle was determined by the method of sitting drop in air. The residual stress test using the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) single-{hkl} sin2ψ method was carried out. The compressive residual stress of 324(7) MPa and surface hardening of Ti G4 was revealed after sandblasting with Al2O3 particles of 53–75 μm in diameter. It was found that sandblasting changes the surface wettability of Ti G4. The intermediate wettability of the mechanically polished surface and the hydrophobicity of the sandblasted surface was revealed. Sandblasting reduces the tribological wear and friction coefficient of Ti G4 surface in saliva. The three-body abrasion wear mechanism was proposed to explain the tribological wear of Ti G4 in saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
A Fluorescence Kinetic-Based Aptasensor Employing Stilbene Isomerization for Detection of Thrombin
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226927 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
It is important to detect thrombin due to its physiological and pathological roles, where rapid and simple analytical approaches are needed. In this study, an aptasensor based on fluorescence attenuation kinetics for the detection of thrombin is presented, which incorporates the features of [...] Read more.
It is important to detect thrombin due to its physiological and pathological roles, where rapid and simple analytical approaches are needed. In this study, an aptasensor based on fluorescence attenuation kinetics for the detection of thrombin is presented, which incorporates the features of stilbene and aptamer. We designed and synthesized an aptasensor by one-step coupling of stilbene compound and aptamer, which employed the adaptive binding of the aptamer with thrombin to cause a change in stilbene fluorescence attenuation kinetics. The sensor realized detection of thrombin by monitoring the variation in apparent fluorescence attenuation rate constant (kapp), which could be further used for probing of enzyme–aptamer binding. In comprehensive studies, the developed aptasensor presented satisfactory performance on repeatability, specificity, and regeneration capacity, which realized rapid sensing (10 s) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.205 μM. The strategy was successful across seven variants of thrombin aptasensors, with tunable kapp depending on the SITS (4-Acetamido-4′-isothiocyanato-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate) grafting site. Analyte detection mode was demonstrated in diluted serum, requiring no separation or washing steps. The new sensing mode for thrombin detection paves a way for high-throughput kinetic-based sensors for exploiting aptamers targeted at clinically relevant proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Combining Fiber Enzymatic Pretreatments and Coupling Agents to Improve Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp Hurd/Wood/Polypropylene Composite
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216384 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Natural fiber/plastic composites combine the low density and excellent mechanical properties of the natural fiber with the flexibility and moisture resistance of the plastic to create materials tailored to specific applications in theory. Wood/plastic composites (WPC) are the most common products, but many [...] Read more.
Natural fiber/plastic composites combine the low density and excellent mechanical properties of the natural fiber with the flexibility and moisture resistance of the plastic to create materials tailored to specific applications in theory. Wood/plastic composites (WPC) are the most common products, but many other fibers are being explored for this purpose. Among the more common is hemp hurd. Natural fibers are hydrophilic materials and plastics are hydrophobic, therefore one problem with all of these products is the limited ability of the fiber to interact with the plastic to create a true composite. Thus, compatibilizers are often added to enhance interactions, but fiber pretreatments may also help improve compatibility. The effects of pectinase or cellulase pretreatment of wood/hemp fiber mixtures in combination with coupling agents were evaluated in polypropylene panels. Pretreatments with pectinase or cellulase were associated with reduced thickness swell (TS24h) as well as increased modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation of 5.0% silane or 2.5% silane/2.5% titanate as a coupling agent further improved pectinase-treated panel properties, but was associated with diminished properties in cellulase treated fibers. Combinations of enzymatic pretreatment and coupling agents enhanced fiber/plastic interactions and improved flexural properties, but the effects varied with the enzyme or coupling agent employed. The results illustrate the potential for enhancing fiber/plastic interactions to produce improved composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Production, Characterization and Application of Oxide Nanotubes on Ti–6Al–7Nb Alloy as a Potential Drug Carrier
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206142 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
This work concerns the development of a method of functionalization of the surface of the biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy by producing oxide nanotubes (ONTs) with drug-eluting properties. Shaping of the morphology, microstructure, and thickness of the oxide layer was carried out by anodization in [...] Read more.
This work concerns the development of a method of functionalization of the surface of the biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy by producing oxide nanotubes (ONTs) with drug-eluting properties. Shaping of the morphology, microstructure, and thickness of the oxide layer was carried out by anodization in an aqueous solution of 1 M ethylene glycol with the addition of 0.2 M NH4F in the voltage range 5–100 V for 15–60 min at room temperature. The characterization of the physicochemical properties of the obtained ONTs was performed using SEM, XPS, and EDAX methods. ONTs have been shown to be composed mainly of TiO2, Al2O3, and Nb2O5. Single-walled ONTs with the largest specific surface area of 600 cm2 cm−2 can be obtained by anodization at 50 V for 60 min. The mechanism of ONT formation on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy was studied in detail. Gentamicin sulfate loaded into ONTs was studied using FTIR, TG, DTA, and DTG methods. Drug release kinetics was determined by UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The obtained ONTs can be proposed for use in modern implantology as carriers for drugs delivered locally in inflammatory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Effect of Temperature on Electrochemically Assisted Deposition and Bioactivity of CaP Coatings on CpTi Grade 4
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175081 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition similar to that of bone tissues. Among the methods of producing CaP coatings, the electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) is particularly important due to high repeatability and the [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition similar to that of bone tissues. Among the methods of producing CaP coatings, the electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) is particularly important due to high repeatability and the possibility of deposition at room temperature and neutral pH, which allows for the co-deposition of inorganic and organic components. In this work, the ECAD of CaP coatings from an acetate bath with a Ca:P ratio of 1.67, was developed. The effect of the ECAD conditions on CaP coatings deposited on commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CpTi G4) subjected to sandblasting and autoclaving was presented. The physicochemical characteristics of the ECAD-derived coatings was carried out using SEM, EDS, FTIR, 2D roughness profiles, and amplitude sensitive eddy current method. It was showed that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings can be obtained at a potential −1.5 to −10 V for 10 to 60 min at 20 to 70 °C. The thickness and surface roughness of the ACP coatings were an increasing function of potential, time, and temperature. The obtained ACP coatings are a precursor in the process of apatite formation in a simulated body fluid. The optimal ACP coating for use in dentistry was deposited at a potential of −3 V for 30 min at 20 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Antibacterial Properties of a Honeycomb-like Pattern with Cellulose Acetate and Silver Nanoparticles
Materials 2021, 14(14), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144051 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
This study involved the preparation and characterization of structures with a honeycomb-like pattern (HCP) formed using the phase separation method using a solution mixture of chloroform and methanol together with cellulose acetate. Fluorinated ethylene propylene modified by plasma treatment was used as a [...] Read more.
This study involved the preparation and characterization of structures with a honeycomb-like pattern (HCP) formed using the phase separation method using a solution mixture of chloroform and methanol together with cellulose acetate. Fluorinated ethylene propylene modified by plasma treatment was used as a suitable substrate for the formation of the HCP structures. Further, we modified the HCP structures using silver sputtering (discontinuous Ag nanoparticles) or by adding Ag nanoparticles in PEG into the cellulose acetate solution. The material morphology was then determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the material surface chemistry was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wettability was analyzed with goniometry. The AFM and SEM results revealed that the surface morphology of pristine HCP with hexagonal pores changed after additional sample modification with Ag, both via the addition of nanoparticles and sputtering, accompanied with an increase in the roughness of the PEG-doped samples, which was caused by the high molecular weight of PEG and its gel-like structure. The highest amount (approx. 25 at %) of fluorine was detected using the EDS method on the sample with an HCP-like structure, while the lowest amount (0.08%) was measured on the PEG + Ag sample, which revealed the covering of the substrate with biopolymer (the greater fluorine extent means more of the fluorinated substrate is exposed). As expected, the thickness of the Ag layer on the HCP surface depended on the length of sputtering (either 150 s or 500 s). The sputtering times for Ag (150 s and 500 s) corresponded to layers with heights of about 8 nm (3.9 at % of Ag) and 22 nm (10.8 at % of Ag), respectively. In addition, we evaluated the antibacterial potential of the prepared substrate using two bacterial strains, one Gram-positive of S. epidermidis and one Gram-negative of E. coli. The most effective method for the construction of antibacterial surfaces was determined to be sputtering (150 s) of a silver nanolayer onto a HCP-like cellulose structure, which proved to have excellent antibacterial properties against both G+ and G− bacterial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Thermal Evaluation by Infrared Thermography Measurement of Osteotomies Performed with Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery and Surgical Drill—An Animal Study
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113051 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
The bone healing process following osteotomy may vary according to the type of surgical instrumentation. The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine thermal changes of the bone tissue following osteotomies performed by Er:YAG laser ablation in contact and non-contact [...] Read more.
The bone healing process following osteotomy may vary according to the type of surgical instrumentation. The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine thermal changes of the bone tissue following osteotomies performed by Er:YAG laser ablation in contact and non-contact modes, piezoelectric surgery, and surgical drill using an infrared thermographic camera. For each measurement, the temperature before the osteotomy-baseline (Tbase) and the maximal temperature measured during osteotomy (Tmax) were determined. Mean temperature (ΔT) values were calculated for each osteotomy technique. The significance of the difference of the registered temperature between groups was assessed by the ANOVA test for repeated measures. Mean baseline temperature (Tbase) was 27.9 ± 0.3 °C for contact Er:YAG laser, 29.9 ± 0.3 °C for non-contact Er:YAG laser, 29.4 ± 0.3 °C for piezosurgery, and 28.3 ± 0.3 °C for surgical drill. Mean maximum temperature (Tmax) was 29.9 ± 0.5 °C (ΔT = 1.9 ± 0.3 °C) for contact Er:YAG laser, 79.1 ± 4.6 °C (ΔT = 49.1 ± 4.4 °C) for non-contact Er:YAG laser, 29.1 ± 0.2 °C (ΔT = −0.2 ± 0.3 °C) for piezosurgery, and 27.3 ± 0.4 °C (ΔT = −0.9 ± 0.4 °C) for surgical drill. Statistically significant temperature changes were observed for the non-contact laser. The results of the study showed beneficial effects of the osteotomy performed by the Er:YAG laser used in the contact mode of working as well as for piezosurgery, reducing the potential overheating of the bone tissue as determined by means of infrared thermography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Anodic Electrodeposition of Chitosan–AgNP Composites Using In Situ Coordination with Copper Ions
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112754 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Chitosan is an attractive material for biomedical applications. A novel approach for the anodic electrodeposition of chitosan–AgNP composites using in situ coordination with copper ions is proposed in this work. The surface and cross-section morphology of the obtained coating with varying concentrations of [...] Read more.
Chitosan is an attractive material for biomedical applications. A novel approach for the anodic electrodeposition of chitosan–AgNP composites using in situ coordination with copper ions is proposed in this work. The surface and cross-section morphology of the obtained coating with varying concentrations of AgNPs were evaluated by SEM, and surface functional groups were analyzed with FT-IR spectroscopy. The mechanism of the formation of the coating based on the chelation of Cu(II) ions with chitosan was discussed. The antibacterial activity of the coatings towards Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984/RP62A bacteria was analyzed using the live–dead approach. The presented results indicate that the obtained chitosan–AgNP-based films possess some limited anti-biofilm-forming properties and exhibit moderate antibacterial efficiency at high AgNP loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Ultrashort Peptide Hydrogels Display Antimicrobial Activity and Enhance Angiogenic Growth Factor Release by Dental Pulp Stem/Stromal Cells
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092237 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Recent studies on peptide hydrogels have shown that ultrashort peptides (<8 amino acids) can self-assemble into hydrogels. Ultrashort peptides can be designed to incorporate antimicrobial motifs, such as positively charged lysine residues, so that the peptides have inherent antimicrobial characteristics. Antimicrobial hydrogels represent [...] Read more.
Recent studies on peptide hydrogels have shown that ultrashort peptides (<8 amino acids) can self-assemble into hydrogels. Ultrashort peptides can be designed to incorporate antimicrobial motifs, such as positively charged lysine residues, so that the peptides have inherent antimicrobial characteristics. Antimicrobial hydrogels represent a step change in tissue engineering and merit further investigation, particularly in applications where microbial infection could compromise healing. Herein, we studied the biocompatibility of dental pulp stem/stromal cells (DPSCs) with an ultrashort peptide hydrogel, (naphthalene-2-ly)-acetyl-diphenylalanine-dilysine-OH (NapFFεKεK-OH), where the epsilon (ε) amino group forms part of the peptide bond rather than the standard amino grouping. We tested the antimicrobial properties of NapFFεKεK-OH in both solution and hydrogel form against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum and investigated the DPSC secretome in hydrogel culture. Our results showed NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels were biocompatible with DPSCs. Peptides in solution form were efficacious against biofilms of S. aureus and E. faecalis, whereas hydrogels demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. Using an angiogenic array we showed that DPSCs encapsulated within NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels produced an angiogenic secretome. These results suggest that NapFFεKεK-OH hydrogels have potential to serve as novel hydrogels in tissue engineering for cell-based pulp regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Improvement of the Electronic—Neuronal Interface by Natural Deposition of ECM
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061378 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
The foreign body reaction to neuronal electrode implants limits potential applications as well as the therapeutic period. Developments in the basic electrode design might improve the tissue compatibility and thereby reduce the foreign body reaction. In this work, the approach of embedding 3D [...] Read more.
The foreign body reaction to neuronal electrode implants limits potential applications as well as the therapeutic period. Developments in the basic electrode design might improve the tissue compatibility and thereby reduce the foreign body reaction. In this work, the approach of embedding 3D carbon nanofiber electrodes in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesized by human fibroblasts for a compatible connection to neuronal cells was investigated. Porous electrode material was manufactured by solution coelectrospinning of polyacrylonitrile and polyamide as a fibrous porogen. Moreover, NaCl represented an additional particulate porogen. To achieve the required conductivity for an electrical interface, meshes were carbonized. Through the application of two different porogens, the electrodes’ flexibility and porosity was improved. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on the electrode surface for ECM generation and removed afterwards. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a nano fibrous ECM network covering the carbon fibers. The collagen amount of the ECM coating was quantified by hydroxyproline-assays. The modification with the natural protein coating on the electrode functionality resulted in a minor increase of the electrical capacity, which slightly improved the already outstanding electrical interface properties. Increased cell numbers of SH-SY5Y cell line on ECM-modified electrodes demonstrated an improved cell adhesion. During cell differentiation, the natural ECM enhanced the formation of neurites regarding length and branching. The conducted experiments indicated the prevention of direct cell-electrode contacts by the modification, which might help to shield temporary the electrode from immunological cells to reduce the foreign body reaction and improve the electrodes’ tissue integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Cell Behavior of Primary Fibroblasts and Osteoblasts on Plasma-Treated Fluorinated Polymer Coated with Honeycomb Polystyrene
Materials 2021, 14(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040889 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
The development of new biocompatible polymer substrates is still of interest to many research teams. We aimed to combine a plasma treatment of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrate with a technique of improved phase separation. Plasma exposure served for substrate activation and modification [...] Read more.
The development of new biocompatible polymer substrates is still of interest to many research teams. We aimed to combine a plasma treatment of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrate with a technique of improved phase separation. Plasma exposure served for substrate activation and modification of surface properties, such as roughness, chemistry, and wettability. The treated FEP substrate was applied for the growth of a honeycomb-like pattern from polystyrene solution. The properties of the pattern strongly depended on the primary plasma exposure of the FEP substrate. The physico-chemical properties such as changes of the surface chemistry, wettability, and morphology of the prepared pattern were determined. The cell response of primary fibroblasts and osteoblasts was studied on a honeycomb pattern. The prepared honeycomb-like pattern from polystyrene showed an increase in cell viability and a positive effect on cell adhesion and proliferation for both primary fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Storable bFGF-Releasing Membrane Allowing Continuous Human iPSC Culture
Materials 2021, 14(3), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030651 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial supplement for culture media of human pluripotent stem cells. However, bFGF is extremely unstable under cell culture conditions, which makes frequent (generally every day) medium refreshment requisite. We recently developed a water-floatable, bFGF-releasing membrane via [...] Read more.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial supplement for culture media of human pluripotent stem cells. However, bFGF is extremely unstable under cell culture conditions, which makes frequent (generally every day) medium refreshment requisite. We recently developed a water-floatable, bFGF-releasing membrane via a simple bFGF adsorption process following oxygen plasma treatment by utilizing a polyethylene nonwoven fabric as an adsorbent. This membrane allowed sustained release of bFGF while floating on medium, thereby keeping the bFGF concentration in the medium sufficient for maintaining human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a proliferative and pluripotent state for as long as 3 days. In this study, lyophilization was applied to the membrane to stabilize bFGF. The sustained bFGF-releasing function of the membrane was kept unchanged even after lyophilization and subsequent cryopreservation at −30 °C for 3 months. The cryopreserved membrane supported proliferation and colony formation of human iPSCs while retaining their viability and pluripotency in a medium-change-free continuous culture for 3 days. The present bFGF-releasing membrane is ready-to-use, storable for at least 3 months, and obviates daily medium refreshment. Therefore, it is a new and more practical bFGF supplement for culture media of human stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Sustainable Rabbit Skin Glue to Produce Bioactive Nanofibers for Nonactive Wound Dressings
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235388 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
This paper assessed the collagen glue (Col) from rabbit skin for use as a raw material in combination with different water-based dispersants of antimicrobial agents such as ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs doped with nitrogen and Ag NPs (TiO2-N-Ag NPs), and [...] Read more.
This paper assessed the collagen glue (Col) from rabbit skin for use as a raw material in combination with different water-based dispersants of antimicrobial agents such as ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs doped with nitrogen and Ag NPs (TiO2-N-Ag NPs), and chitosan (CS) for the production of biocompatible and antimicrobial nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance in conjunction with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) analyses and antioxidant activity. The biocompatibility of electrospun nanofibers was investigated on cell lines of mouse fibroblast NCTC (clone L929) using MTT test assays. Antimicrobial activity was performed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Candida albicans pathogenic fungus. Electrospun antimicrobial nanofibers based on collagen glue achieved reduction in the number of viable microorganisms against both fungi and bacteria and exhibited multiple inhibitory actions of fungal and bacterial strains. The electrospun nanofibers showed average dimension sizes in the range of 30–160 nm. The results indicated that both Col/TiO2-N-Ag NPs and Col/CS formulations are suitable for cell proliferation and may be useful for producing of nonactive wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
3D Cell Culture of Human Salivary Glands Using Nature-Inspired Functional Biomaterials: The Egg Yolk Plasma and Egg White
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214807 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
The egg yolk plasma (EYP)—a translucent fraction of the egg yolk (EY) obtained by centrifugation—was tested as a developmentally encouraging, cost-effective, biomaterial for salivary gland (SG) tissue engineering. To find optimal incubating conditions for both the human NS-SV-AC SG acinar cell line and [...] Read more.
The egg yolk plasma (EYP)—a translucent fraction of the egg yolk (EY) obtained by centrifugation—was tested as a developmentally encouraging, cost-effective, biomaterial for salivary gland (SG) tissue engineering. To find optimal incubating conditions for both the human NS-SV-AC SG acinar cell line and SG fibroblasts, cells were stained with Live/Dead®. The cellular contents of 96-well plates were analyzed by high content screening image analysis. Characteristically, the EYP biomaterial had lipid and protein content resembling the EY. On its own, the EYP was non-conducive to cell survival. EYP’s pH of 6 mainly contributed to cell death. This was demonstrated by titrating EYP’s pH with different concentrations of either commercial cell culture media, NaOH, or egg white (EW). These additives improved SG mesenchymal and epithelial cell survival. The best combinations were EYP diluted with (1) 70% commercial medium, (2) 0.02 M NaOH, or (3) 50% EW. Importantly, commercial medium-free growth was obtained with EYP + NaOH or EYP + EW. Furthermore, 3D cultures were obtained as a result of EW’s gelatinous properties. Here, the isolation, characterization, and optimization of three EYP-based biomaterial combinations are shown; two were free of commercial medium or supplements and supported both SG cells’ survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites—Extracellular Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Antibacterial Potential
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194347 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
This research presents, for the first time, the potential of the Lactobacillus paracasei LC20 isolated from sweet whey as a novel, effective and accessible source for post-cultured ZnO nanocomposites synthesis. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to comprehensive characterization by a broad spectrum of [...] Read more.
This research presents, for the first time, the potential of the Lactobacillus paracasei LC20 isolated from sweet whey as a novel, effective and accessible source for post-cultured ZnO nanocomposites synthesis. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to comprehensive characterization by a broad spectrum of instrumental techniques. Results of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hexagonal crystalline structure of ZnO in the nanometer size. The dispersion stability of the obtained nanocomposites was determined based on the zeta potential (ZP) measurements—the average ZP value was found to be −29.15 ± 1.05 mV in the 7–9 pH range. The ZnO nanocomposites (NCs) demonstrated thermal stability up to 130 °C based on the results of thermogravimetric TGA/DTG) analysis. The organic deposit on the nanoparticle surface was recorded by spectroscopic analysis in the infrared range (FT-IR). Results of the spectrometric study exhibited nanostructure-assisted laser desorption/ionization effects and also pointed out the presence of organic deposits and, what is more, allowed us to identify the specific amino acids and peptides present on the ZnO NCs surfaces. In this context, mass spectrometry (MS) data confirmed the nano-ZnO formation mechanism. Moreover, fluorescence data showed an increase in fluorescence signal in the presence of nanocomposites designed for potential use as, e.g., biosensors. Despite ZnO NCs’ luminescent properties, they can also act as promising antiseptic agents against clinically relevant pathogens. Therefore, a pilot study on the antibacterial activity of biologically synthesized ZnO NCs was carried out against four strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by using MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration). Additionally, the colony forming units (CFU) assay was performed and quantified for all bacterial cells as the percentage of viable cells in comparison to a control sample (untreated culture) The nanocomposites were effective among three pathogens with MIC values in the range of 86.25–172.5 μg/mL and showed potential as a new type of, e.g., medical path or ointment formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Article
In Vitro Study of Comparative Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Fit between Heat-Pressed and CAD-CAM Monolithic Glass-Ceramic Restorations after Thermal Aging
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194239 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
The accuracy of newly developed ceramic materials is still being studied. Marginal and internal adaptation are known factors that have an essential impact on the long term success of dental restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal [...] Read more.
The accuracy of newly developed ceramic materials is still being studied. Marginal and internal adaptation are known factors that have an essential impact on the long term success of dental restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of heat-pressed and milled monolithic glass-ceramic restorations based on their ceramic type, processing technique, and in vitro thermocycling. Thirty-two crowns were studied and divided into four groups (n = 8), according to the ceramic material (feldspathic glass-ceramic (F) and zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic (ZLS)) and to their technological obtaining processes (milling (M) and heat-pressing (P)). A typodont preparation was scanned with a D2000 3D scanner to obtain identical 32 resin 3D-printed abutment teeth. Marginal and internal gaps were measured using the silicone replica technique under 40× magnification. The crowns were further cemented and thermally aged for 10,000 cycles After cementation and thermocycling of the samples, marginal and internal gaps were assessed using micro-CT (micro-computed tomography)) analysis. Data were statistically analyzed using statistical tests. Significant differences were found before and after cementation and thermocycling among the tested materials (p < 0.05). Related to technological processing, significant differences were seen in the marginal area between FP and FM (p < 0.05) Significant differences were also found in the axial and occlusal areas between the ZLSP and ZLSM. Thermocycling and cementation did not have a significant effect on the tested materials (p < 0.05). The technological processes influenced the marginal and internal fit of the crowns in favor of the CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing)technologies. Thermal aging had little effect on marginal adaptability; it increased the values for all the tested samples in a small way, but the values remained in their clinically acceptable range for all of the crowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Low-Shrinkage Resin Matrices in Restorative Dentistry-Narrative Review
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082951 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
Dimethacrylate-based resin composites restorations have become widely-used intraoral materials in daily dental practice. The increasing use of composites has greatly enhanced modern preventive and conservative dentistry. They have many superior features, especially esthetic properties, bondability, and elimination of mercury and galvanic currents. However, [...] Read more.
Dimethacrylate-based resin composites restorations have become widely-used intraoral materials in daily dental practice. The increasing use of composites has greatly enhanced modern preventive and conservative dentistry. They have many superior features, especially esthetic properties, bondability, and elimination of mercury and galvanic currents. However, polymeric materials are highly susceptible to polymerization shrinkage and stresses that lead to microleakage, biofilm formation, secondary caries, and restoration loss. Several techniques have been investigated to minimize the side effects of these shrinkage stresses. The primary approach is through fabrications and modification of the resin matrices. Therefore, this review article focuses on the methods for testing the shrinkage, as well as formulations of resinous matrices available to reduce polymerization shrinkage and its associated stress. Furthermore, this article reviews recent cutting-edge developments on bioactive low-shrinkage-stress nanocomposites to effectively inhibit the growth and activities of cariogenic pathogens and enhance the remineralization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Advances in Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072388 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Microbial infections caused by a variety of drug-resistant microorganisms are more common, but there are fewer and fewer approved new antimicrobial chemotherapeutics for systemic administration capable of acting against these resistant infectious pathogens. Formulation innovations of existing drugs are gaining prominence, while the [...] Read more.
Microbial infections caused by a variety of drug-resistant microorganisms are more common, but there are fewer and fewer approved new antimicrobial chemotherapeutics for systemic administration capable of acting against these resistant infectious pathogens. Formulation innovations of existing drugs are gaining prominence, while the application of nanotechnologies is a useful alternative for improving/increasing the effect of existing antimicrobial drugs. Nanomaterials represent one of the possible strategies to address this unfortunate situation. This review aims to summarize the most current results of nanoformulations of antibiotics and antibacterial active nanomaterials. Nanoformulations of antimicrobial peptides, synergistic combinations of antimicrobial-active agents with nitric oxide donors or combinations of small organic molecules or polymers with metals, metal oxides or metalloids are discussed as well. The mechanisms of actions of selected nanoformulations, including systems with magnetic, photothermal or photodynamic effects, are briefly described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Biomaterials and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine: A Systematic Review
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164641 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The use of biological templates for the suitable growth of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and “neo-tissue” construction has exponentially increased over the last years. The bioengineered scaffolds still have a prominent and biocompatible framework playing a role in tissue regeneration. In order [...] Read more.
The use of biological templates for the suitable growth of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and “neo-tissue” construction has exponentially increased over the last years. The bioengineered scaffolds still have a prominent and biocompatible framework playing a role in tissue regeneration. In order to supply AD-MSCs, biomaterials, as the stem cell niche, are more often supplemented by or stimulate molecular signals that allow differentiation events into several strains, besides their secretion of cytokines and effects of immunomodulation. This systematic review aims to highlight the details of the integration of several types of biomaterials used in association with AD-MSCs, collecting notorious and basic data of in vitro and in vivo assays, taking into account the relevance of the interference of the cell lineage origin and handling cell line protocols for both the replacement and repairing of damaged tissues or organs in clinical application. Our group analyzed the quality and results of the 98 articles selected from PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 97% of the articles retrieved demonstrated the potential in clinical applications. The synthetic polymers were the most used biomaterials associated with AD-MSCs and almost half of the selected articles were applied on bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Vitamin E: A Review of Its Application and Methods of Detection When Combined with Implant Biomaterials
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133691 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Vitamin E is a common compound used for tocopherols and tocotrienols (α, β, γ, δ); it is the component of many natural products of both plant and animal origin. Thanks to its powerful antioxidant capacity, vitamin E has been very successful in hip [...] Read more.
Vitamin E is a common compound used for tocopherols and tocotrienols (α, β, γ, δ); it is the component of many natural products of both plant and animal origin. Thanks to its powerful antioxidant capacity, vitamin E has been very successful in hip and knee arthroplasty, used to confer resistance to oxidation to irradiated UHMWPE. The positive results of these studies have made vitamin E an important object of research in the biomedical field, highlighting other important properties, such as anti-bacterial, -inflammatory, and -cancer activities. In fact, there is an extensive literature dealing with vitamin E in different kinds of material processing, drug delivery, and development of surface coatings. Vitamin E is widely discussed in the literature, and it is possible to find many reviews that discuss the biological role of vitamin E and its applications in food packaging and cosmetics. However, to date, there is not a review that discusses the biomedical applications of vitamin E and that points to the methods used to detect it within a solid. This review specifically aims to compile research about new biomedical applications of vitamin E carried out in the last 20 years, with the intention of providing an overview of the methodologies used to combine it with implantable biomaterials, as well as to detect and characterize it within these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
CRISPR-Associated (CAS) Effectors Delivery via Microfluidic Cell-Deformation Chip
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123164 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Identifying new and even more precise technologies for modifying and manipulating selectively specific genes has provided a powerful tool for characterizing gene functions in basic research and potential therapeutics for genome regulation. The rapid development of nuclease-based techniques such as CRISPR/Cas systems has [...] Read more.
Identifying new and even more precise technologies for modifying and manipulating selectively specific genes has provided a powerful tool for characterizing gene functions in basic research and potential therapeutics for genome regulation. The rapid development of nuclease-based techniques such as CRISPR/Cas systems has revolutionized new genome engineering and medicine possibilities. Additionally, the appropriate delivery procedures regarding CRISPR/Cas systems are critical, and a large number of previous reviews have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9–12 and 13 delivery methods. Still, despite all efforts, the in vivo delivery of the CAS gene systems remains challenging. The transfection of CRISPR components can often be inefficient when applying conventional delivery tools including viral elements and chemical vectors because of the restricted packaging size and incompetency of some cell types. Therefore, physical methods such as microfluidic systems are more applicable for in vitro delivery. This review focuses on the recent advancements of microfluidic systems to deliver CRISPR/Cas systems in clinical and therapy investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Recent Developments in Lactone Monomers and Polymer Synthesis and Application
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112881 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Lactones are a group of compounds that have been known for several decades. The commercial importance of lactones results from the possibility of manufacturing of a broad scope of derivatives and polymers with a wide spectrum of applications. In this work the synthesis [...] Read more.
Lactones are a group of compounds that have been known for several decades. The commercial importance of lactones results from the possibility of manufacturing of a broad scope of derivatives and polymers with a wide spectrum of applications. In this work the synthesis and characterization of simple lactones are described, which due to the easy methods of the synthesis are of high importance for the industry. The chemical as well as biochemical methods are included with special attention paid to the methods that avoid metal catalysts, initiators or toxic solvents, allowing the use of the final products for the medical applications, e.g., for controlled drug-release systems, resorbable surgical threads, implants, tissue scaffolds or for the production of drugs. Lactone-based derivatives, such as polymers, copolymers, composites or three-dimensional structures are also presented. The work is focused on the methods for the synthesis of lactones and lactones derivates, as well as on the special properties and application of the studied compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
A Review on the Adaption of Alginate-Gelatin Hydrogels for 3D Cultures and Bioprinting
Materials 2021, 14(4), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040858 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Sustaining the vital functions of cells outside the organism requires strictly defined parameters. In order to ensure their optimal growth and development, it is necessary to provide a range of nutrients and regulators. Hydrogels are excellent materials for 3D in vitro cell cultures. [...] Read more.
Sustaining the vital functions of cells outside the organism requires strictly defined parameters. In order to ensure their optimal growth and development, it is necessary to provide a range of nutrients and regulators. Hydrogels are excellent materials for 3D in vitro cell cultures. Their ability to retain large amounts of liquid, as well as their biocompatibility, soft structures, and mechanical properties similar to these of living tissues, provide appropriate microenvironments that mimic extracellular matrix functions. The wide range of natural and synthetic polymeric materials, as well as the simplicity of their physico-chemical modification, allow the mechanical properties to be adjusted for different requirements. Sodium alginate-based hydrogel is a frequently used material for cell culture. The lack of cell-interactive properties makes this polysaccharide the most often applied in combination with other materials, including gelatin. The combination of both materials increases their biological activity and improves their material properties, making this combination a frequently used material in 3D printing technology. The use of hydrogels as inks in 3D printing allows the accurate manufacturing of scaffolds with complex shapes and geometries. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the materials used for 3D cell cultures, which are mainly alginate–gelatin hydrogels, including their properties and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Review
Structural and Material Determinants Influencing the Behavior of Porous Ti and Its Alloys Made by Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2021, 14(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040712 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
One of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering is the manufacturing of porous structures that are customized in size and shape and that mimic natural bone structure. Additive manufacturing is known as a sufficient method to produce 3D porous structures used as bone [...] Read more.
One of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering is the manufacturing of porous structures that are customized in size and shape and that mimic natural bone structure. Additive manufacturing is known as a sufficient method to produce 3D porous structures used as bone substitutes in large segmental bone defects. The literature indicates that the mechanical and biological properties of scaffolds highly depend on geometrical features of structure (pore size, pore shape, porosity), surface morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this review is to present the latest advances and trends in the development of titanium scaffolds concerning the relationships between applied materials, manufacturing methods, and interior architecture determined by porosity, pore shape, and size, and the mechanical, biological, chemical, and physical properties. Such a review is assumed to show the real achievements and, on the other side, shortages in so far research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Materials for Biomedicinal Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Evaluation of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of chitosan/eugenol graft copolymers intendent for cellulose functionalization for medical use

Olivera Šauperl1, Lidija Fras Zemljic1, Julija Volmajer Valh1, Jasna Tompa1

1University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

Abstract:

The presented research work deals with the production of chitosan-eugenol copolymers by chemical and enzymatic grafting and their application to viscose substrates with the aim of producing antimicrobial and antioxidative active textiles. ATR - FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy were used to evaluate the efficiency of grafting and to compare both grafting procedures. Potentiometric titration was chosen to determine the amount of accessible amino groups of graft copolymers indicating the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Spectrophotometric methods, such as i) Folin - Ciocalteu, ii) reduction of iron ions and iii) α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods were used to determine the total content of phenolic compounds, i.e. to infer the antioxidant activity of the graft copolymers produced. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) was also part of the research to study the thermal properties of the graft copolymers, i.e. to evaluate the effectiveness of grafting. The viscose functionalized by the prepared copolymers was evaluated by ATR - FT IR spectroscopy and Acid Orange VII spectrophotometric method to assess the adsorption success, i.e. to determine the proportion of available antimicrobial active amino groups of chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed to study the fibre morphology. Finally, an antimicrobial fibre test was performed to determine the reduction of selected pathogenic microorganisms and the antioxidant activity of the fibres was provided as well. It has been concluded that fibres have a high bioactive profile and therefore have the potential to be used in the development of medical textiles.

 

2. Electrochemically Assisted Deposition of Biomimetic ACP Coatings on CpTi Grade 4 in an Acetate Bath

Patrycja Osak, Joanna Maszybrocka, Grzegorz Dercz, Julian Kubisztal, Bożena Łosiewicz*

Institute of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia in Katowice, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów, Poland; [email protected] (P.O.); [email protected] (J.M.); [email protected] (G.D.); [email protected] (J.K.); [email protected] (B.Ł.)

*   Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +48-32-3497-527 (B.Ł.)

Abstract: Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition similar to that of bone tissues. Among the methods of producing CaP coatings, the electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) is particularly important due to high repeatability and the possibility of deposition at ambient temperature and neutral pH, which allows to co-deposit inorganic and organic components. In this work, the ECAD of biomimetic CaP coatings from an acetate bath with a Ca:P ratio of 1.67, was developed. The effect of the ECAD conditions on CaP coatings deposited on commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CpTi G4) subjected to sandblasting and autoclaving, was presented. The physicochemical characteristics of the ECAD-derived coatings was carried out using XRD, GIXRD, SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR, 2D roughness profiles, and amplitude sensitive eddy current method. It was showed that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings can be obtained at a potential ranging from -1.5 to -10 V relative to the open circuit potential for 10 to 60 min varying the temperature of the deposition bath from 20 to 70 °C. The thickness and surface roughness of the ACP coatings were an increasing function of potential, time and temperature. The optimal ACP coatings for use in dentistry were deposited at a potential of -3 V for 30 min at ambient temperature. The deposition mechanism of the ACP coatings was discussed in details.

Keywords: calcium phosphate coatings; electrochemically assisted deposition; titanium

 

3. Title: Effect of local and systemic administration of atorvastatin for optimization on bone repair of critical defects: An animal study

Authors: Fábio Vieira de Miranda DDS, MSc, PhD1; Willian Phillip Pereira da Silva DDS, MSc1; Gustavo Antonio Correa Momesso DDS, MSc, PhD1; Leonardo Alan Delanora DDS1, Bárbara Ribeiro Rios DDS1, Tiburtino José de Lima Neto DDS1, Edilson Ervolino DDS, MSc2, PhD; Jamil Awad Shibli DDS, MSc, PhD3; Osvaldo Magro Filho DDS, MSc, PhD; Leonardo Perez Faverani DDS, MSc, PhD.

Affiliations:
1 - Department of Diagnosis and Surgery. Sao Paulo State University—Unesp. Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo 16015-050, Brazil
2 - Department of Basic Sciences. Sao Paulo State University—Unesp. Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo 16015-050, Brazil
3 - Dental Research Division, Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, University of Guarulhos (UnG), Guarulhos, SP 07115-230, Brazil

Article proposal for Materials – Special Issue
Bone regeneration studies have been investigated the groups of statins to stimulate the osteogenic factors, which the major question is about administration more appropriate to obtain better results. Thus, this study aims to compare the effect of Atorvastatin applied locally and systemically on critical defects of calvaria rats. Thirty-six rats Wistar adults will be randomly divided into three groups, the collagen membrane application group with distilled water (GAD) with critical size defects containing distilled water; the systemic application group of Atorvastatin (GAS) will be performed with critical size defects and the animals will be treated with atorvastatin (3.6mg/kg/day) per gavage; and the local application group of Atorvastatin (GAL) with critical size defects containing Atorvastatin. Each group will be evaluated by histometric analysis through measurement of the residual defect, area of newly formed bone (NFB), area of the membrane and soft tissue, cell count (osteocytes, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells), and immunohistochemistry reactions using antibodies against CD31, VEGF, BMP-2, and Osteocalcin. All quantitative data will be subjected firstly to a normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) and according to the distribution of the data, a parametric or non-parametric test will be applied, considering P<.05. All tests will be applied in the SigmaPlot 12.0 Sofware (Exakt Graph and Data Analysis, San Jose, Ca, USA).

Keywords: Osteogenesis. Atorvastatin. Bone regeneration.

 

4. Egg Yolk Plasma as a nature-inspired functional biomaterial for tissue engineering and 3D-cell culture of human salivary glands.

Andre M. Charbonneau, PhD, and Simon D. Tran, DMD, PhD, FRCDC

McGill Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory,
Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University,
Montréal, Québec, Canada

Email: [email protected]

Title: Evaluation of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of chitosan/eugenol graft copolymers intendent for cellulose functionalization for medical use
Authors: Olivera Šauperl; Lidija Fras Zemljic; Julija Volmajer Valh; Jasna Tompa
Affiliation: University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Abstract: The presented research work deals with the production of chitosan-eugenol copolymers by chemical and enzymatic grafting and their application to viscose substrates with the aim of producing antimicrobial and antioxidative active textiles. ATR - FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy were used to evaluate the efficiency of grafting and to compare both grafting procedures. Potentiometric titration was chosen to determine the amount of accessible amino groups of graft copolymers indicating the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Spectrophotometric methods, such as i) Folin - Ciocalteu, ii) reduction of iron ions and iii) α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods were used to determine the total content of phenolic compounds, i.e. to infer the antioxidant activity of the graft copolymers produced. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) was also part of the research to study the thermal properties of the graft copolymers, i.e. to evaluate the effectiveness of grafting. The viscose functionalized by the prepared copolymers was evaluated by ATR - FT IR spectroscopy and Acid Orange VII spectrophotometric method to assess the adsorption success, i.e. to determine the proportion of available antimicrobial active amino groups of chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed to study the fibre morphology. Finally, an antimicrobial fibre test was performed to determine the reduction of selected pathogenic microorganisms and the antioxidant activity of the fibres was provided as well. It has been concluded that fibres have a high bioactive profile and therefore have the potential to be used in the development of medical textiles.

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