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Advances in Porous Materials: Synthesis, Characterisations and Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Porous Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 19008

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Guangxi Medical University Cancer Hospital, Nanning 530021, China
Interests: catalysis; nanoporous materials; noble metal nanomaterials; cancer therapy
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Design and Built Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Interests: catalysis; sensing; piezoelectric; nano–bio interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
Interests: porous materials; energy storage and conversion; dealloying; metallic glass; high entropy alloy; battery; light metals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Porous materials have shown great potential in catalysis, biosensor and biomedical, energy storage and conversion, aerospace, and architecture applications owing to their high surface area, low density, and high specific strength. Porous materials have the structural feature of continuous interconnected porosity, which benefits the transport of electrons, ions, and mass. The chemical compositions of porous materials are well-controlled and diversified and include metals, ceramics, and carbon-based materials. As a result, the development of porous materials is quickly becoming important. An increasing number of researchers are working from different perspectives to conduct fundamental research on various applications.

This Special Issue focuses on recent advances in various porous materials. Research areas include but are not limited to novel synthetic strategies, advanced characterization skills, theoretical calculation methods, and various applications. We encourage you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue. Original research papers and review articles are welcome. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Weiqing Zhang
Dr. Yichao Wang
Dr. Zhifeng Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • porous metals
  • metallic foam
  • carbon
  • dealloying
  • mechanical property
  • energy storage and conversion
  • catalysis
  • actuation
  • sensor
  • calculation and simulation

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Cu and Ni Co-Doped Porous Si Nanowire Networks as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Can Mi, Chang Luo, Zigang Wang, Yongguang Zhang, Shenbo Yang and Zhifeng Wang
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216980 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Due to its extremely high theoretical mass specific capacity, silicon is considered to be the most promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, serious volume expansion and poor conductivity limit its commercial application. Herein, dealloying treatments of spray dryed Al-Si-Cu-Ni particles are [...] Read more.
Due to its extremely high theoretical mass specific capacity, silicon is considered to be the most promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, serious volume expansion and poor conductivity limit its commercial application. Herein, dealloying treatments of spray dryed Al-Si-Cu-Ni particles are performed to obtain a Cu/Ni co-doped Si-based anode material with a porous nanowire network structure. The porous structure enables the material to adapt to the volume changes in the cycle process. Moreover, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the co-doping of Cu and Ni can improve the capture ability towards Li, which can accelerate the electron migration rate of the material. Based on the above advantages, the as-prepared material presents excellent electrochemical performance, delivering a reversible capacity of 1092.4 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Even after 500 cycles, it still retains 818.7 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1. This study is expected to provide ideas for the preparation and optimization of Si-based anodes with good electrochemical performance. Full article
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16 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Computational Study of Optimized Gas Diffusion Layer for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer
by Javid Hussain, Dae-Kyeom Kim, Sangmin Park, Muhammad Waqas Khalid, Sayed-Sajid Hussain, Ammad Ali, Bin Lee, Myungsuk Song and Taek-Soo Kim
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134554 - 23 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and PEM electrolyzer are emerging technologies that produce energy with zero carbon emissions. However, the commercial feasibility of these technologies mostly relies on their efficiency, which is determined by individual parts, including the gas diffusion layer (GDL). [...] Read more.
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and PEM electrolyzer are emerging technologies that produce energy with zero carbon emissions. However, the commercial feasibility of these technologies mostly relies on their efficiency, which is determined by individual parts, including the gas diffusion layer (GDL). GDL transfers fluid and charges while protecting other components form flooding and corrosion. As there is a very limited attention toward the simulation work, in this work, a novel approach was utilized that combines simulation and experimental techniques to optimize the sintering temperature of GDL. Ti64 GDL was produced through tape casting, a commercial method famous for producing precise thickness, uniform, and high-quality films and parameters such as slurry composition and rheology, casting parameters, drying, and debinding were optimized. The porosity and mechanical properties of the samples were tested experimentally at various sintering temperatures. The experimental results were compared with the simulated results achieved from the GeoDict simulation tool, showing around 96% accuracy, indicating that employing GeoDict to optimize the properties of Ti64 GDL produced via tape casting is a critical step towards the commercial feasibility of PEMFCs and electrolyzer. These findings significantly contribute to the development of sustainable energy solutions. Full article
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10 pages, 4077 KiB  
Article
Towards High Surface Area α-Al2O3–Mn-Assisted Low Temperature Transformation
by Tim Jähnichen, Simon Carstens, Maximilian Franz, Otto Laufer, Marianne Wenzel, Jörg Matysik and Dirk Enke
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083047 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
When impregnated with manganiferous precursors, γ-Al2O3 may be converted into α-Al2O3 under relatively mild and energy-saving conditions. In this work, a manganese assisted conversion to corundum at temperatures as low as 800 °C is investigated. To observe [...] Read more.
When impregnated with manganiferous precursors, γ-Al2O3 may be converted into α-Al2O3 under relatively mild and energy-saving conditions. In this work, a manganese assisted conversion to corundum at temperatures as low as 800 °C is investigated. To observe the alumina phase transition, XRD and solid-state 27Al-MAS-NMR are applied. By post-synthetical treatment in concentrated HCl, residual manganese is removed up to 3 wt.-%. Thereby, α-Al2O3 with a high specific surface area of 56 m2 g−1 is obtained after complete conversion. Just as for transition alumina, thermal stability is an important issue for corundum. Long-term stability tests were performed at 750 °C for 7 days. Although highly porous corundum was synthesized, the porosity decreased with time at common process temperatures. Full article
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17 pages, 5070 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Coal-Fly-Ash-Based Ordered Mesoporous Materials and Their Adsorption Application
by Miaomiao Tan, Dahai Pan, Shuwei Chen, Xiaoliang Yan, Lina Han, Ruifeng Li and Jiancheng Wang
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072868 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
A feasible approach was developed for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous SBA-15-type materials using coal fly ash (CFA) as raw material. In the proposed approach, CFA was, firstly, activated by subcritical water with the addition of NaOH, which allowed an efficient extraction of [...] Read more.
A feasible approach was developed for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous SBA-15-type materials using coal fly ash (CFA) as raw material. In the proposed approach, CFA was, firstly, activated by subcritical water with the addition of NaOH, which allowed an efficient extraction of silicon species from CFA under strong acidic conditions at near room temperature. Subsequently, in the synthesis system, using silicon extraction solution as the silicon precursor, the introduction of anhydrous ethanol as a co-solvent effectively inhibited the polymerization of silanol species and promoted their collaborative self-assembly with surfactant molecules by enhancing the hydrogen bond interactions. The resultant SBA-15 material had a high purity, high specific surface area (1014 m2/g) and pore volume (1.08 cm3/g), and a highly ordered mesostructure, and, therefore, exhibited an excellent removal efficiency (90.5%) and adsorption capacity (160.8 mg/g) for methylene blue (MB) from simulated wastewater. Additionally, the generation of surface acid sites from the homogenous incorporation of Al atoms onto the mesoporous walls of SBA-15 combined with the perfect retention of the ordered mesostructure endowed the obtained Al-SBA-15 material with a further boost in the removal performance of MB. The MB removal efficiency can reach ~100%, along with a maximum adsorption capacity of 190.1 mg/g. Full article
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20 pages, 7909 KiB  
Article
Spherical Attapulgite/Silica Aerogels Fabricated via Different Drying Methods with Excellent Adsorption Performance
by Zhixiang Zhu, Shengyuan Wang, Ya Zhong, Qi You, Jun Gao, Sheng Cui and Xiaodong Shen
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062292 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Dye wastewater has caused great harm to the environment, which is an urgent problem to be solved. As typical three-dimensional porous materials, aerogels have attracted great interest in dye wastewater treatment. In this work, spherical attapulgite/silica (ATP/SiO2) gels were initially prepared [...] Read more.
Dye wastewater has caused great harm to the environment, which is an urgent problem to be solved. As typical three-dimensional porous materials, aerogels have attracted great interest in dye wastewater treatment. In this work, spherical attapulgite/silica (ATP/SiO2) gels were initially prepared by easily scalable sol-gel dripping methods and then dried to aerogels with three drying techniques, namely, supercritical CO2 drying (SCD), freeze-drying (FD), and ambient pressure drying (APD). The effect of the drying techniques and heat-treated temperature on the physical characteristic, morphological properties, microstructure, and chemical structure of the spherical ATP/SiO2 aerogels were investigated. The macroscopic morphology of the spherical ATP/SiO2 aerogels was homogeneous and integrated without local cracking. The average pore diameter and specific surface area of the spherical ATP/SiO2 aerogels prepared by the three drying techniques were in the range of 6.8–8.6 nm and 218.5–267.4 m2/g, respectively. The heat treatment temperature had a significant effect on the pore structure and the wetting properties of the aerogels. The 600 °C heat-treated aerogels were subjected to adsorption tests in methylene blue (MB) solution (60 mg/g, 100 mL), which exhibited a great adsorption capacity of 102.50 mg/g. Therefore, the resulting spherical ATP/SiO2 aerogels possessed multipath preparation and exhibited an efficient adsorption performance, with the potential to be applied as an adsorbent for dye wastewater. Full article
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22 pages, 4995 KiB  
Article
Porous Structural Properties of K or Na-Co Hexacyanoferrates as Efficient Materials for CO2 Capture
by Paloma M. Frías-Ureña, Maximiliano Bárcena-Soto, Eulogio Orozco-Guareño, Alberto Gutiérrez-Becerra, Josué D. Mota-Morales, Karina Chavez, Víctor Soto, José A. Rivera-Mayorga, José I. Escalante-Vazquez and Sergio Gómez-Salazar
Materials 2023, 16(2), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020608 - 8 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
The stoichiometry of the components of hexacyanoferrate materials affecting their final porosity properties and applications in CO2 capture is an issue that is rarely studied. In this work, the effect that stoichiometry of all element components and oxidation states of transition metals [...] Read more.
The stoichiometry of the components of hexacyanoferrate materials affecting their final porosity properties and applications in CO2 capture is an issue that is rarely studied. In this work, the effect that stoichiometry of all element components and oxidation states of transition metals has on the structures of mesoporous K or Na-cobalt hexacyanoferrates (CoHCFs) and CO2 removal is reported. A series of CoHCFs model systems are synthesized using the co-precipitation method with varying amounts of Co ions. CoHCFs are characterized by N2 adsorption, TGA, FTIR-ATR, XRD, and XPS. N2 adsorption results reveal a more developed external surface area (72.69–172.18 m2/g) generated in samples containing mixtures of K+/Fe2+/Fe3+ ions (system III) compared to samples with Na+/Fe2+ ions (systems I, II). TGA results show that the porous structure of CoHCFs is affected by Fe and Co ions oxidation states, the number of water molecules, and alkali ions. The formation of two crystalline cells (FCC and triclinic) is confirmed by XRD results. Fe and Co oxidation states are authenticated by XPS and allow for the confirmation of charges involved in the stabilization of CoCHFs. CO2 removal capacities (3.04 mmol/g) are comparable with other materials reported. CO2 adsorption kinetics is fast (3–6 s), making CoHCFs attractive for continuous operations. Qst (24.3 kJ/mol) reveals a physical adsorption process. Regeneration effectiveness for adsorption/desorption cycles indicates ~1.6% loss and selectivity (~47) for gas mixtures (CO2:N2 = 15:85). The results of this study demonstrate that the CoHCFs have practical implications in the potential use of CO2 capture and flue gas separations. Full article
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9 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Porous Carbon Sponge from White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the Removal of Oils and Organic Solvents
by Yue Gong, Lejie Pan, Huahui Yuan, Juncheng Li, Xin Li, Qian Chen, Yue Yuan, Xian Wu and Sheng-Tao Yang
Materials 2023, 16(2), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020534 - 5 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Oil leakage incidentally occurs and leads to environmental disasters. Because of their porous and hydrophobic characteristics, graphene sponges are often studied as an oil adsorbent to repair oil spills at sea. Graphene materials are very expensive, and their biological toxicity has been given [...] Read more.
Oil leakage incidentally occurs and leads to environmental disasters. Because of their porous and hydrophobic characteristics, graphene sponges are often studied as an oil adsorbent to repair oil spills at sea. Graphene materials are very expensive, and their biological toxicity has been given serious concerns; however, the easier preparation and eco-friendly, biomass-derived porous carbon materials can be used as an alternative to graphene materials. In this study, we prepared a porous carbon sponge (PCS) for oil and organic solvent removal by carbonizing white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a fast-growing microorganism for the production of lignin-degrading enzymes and the environmental remediation. P. chrysosporium fungus balls were converted into black PCS by carbonization at high temperatures, where PCS was light (density of 56 g/L), hydrophobic (contact angle of 115°) and porous. According to the results of BET and XPS analysis, the surface area of PCS was 14.43 m2/g, and the carbon in PCS is mainly sp2 carbon. PCS could adsorb pure oils and organic solvents within seconds. The adsorption capacities of PCS were 20.7 g/g for gasoline, 30.1 g/g for peanut oil, 27.7 g/g for toluene, 18.5 g/g for dodecane, 32.5 g/g for chloroform, 27.1 g/g for tetrahydrofuran, 23.7 g/g for acetone and 13.7 g/g for ethanol. According to the reusability study, there was no obvious capacity loss after recycling up to 10 cycles. Our results indicated that white-rot fungi could be adopted as a cheap carbon resource for oil and organic solvent removal. Full article
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11 pages, 3215 KiB  
Article
Study of Electric and Magnetic Properties of Iron-Modified MFI Zeolite Prepared by a Mechanochemical Method
by Fabian N. Murrieta-Rico, Joel Antúnez-García, Rosario I. Yocupicio-Gaxiola, Jonathan Zamora, Armando Reyes-Serrato, Alexey Pestryakov and Vitalii Petranovskii
Materials 2022, 15(22), 7968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15227968 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
Zeolites are materials of undeniable importance for science and technology. Since the properties of zeolites can be tuned after the inclusion of additional chemical species into the zeolitic framework, it is necessary to study the nature of zeolites after modification with transition metals [...] Read more.
Zeolites are materials of undeniable importance for science and technology. Since the properties of zeolites can be tuned after the inclusion of additional chemical species into the zeolitic framework, it is necessary to study the nature of zeolites after modification with transition metals to understand the new properties that were obtained, and with this information, novel applications can be proposed. This paper reports a solvent-free approach for the rapid synthesis of zeolites modified with iron and/or iron oxide particles. The samples were characterized, and their electrical and magnetic properties were investigated. Full article
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18 pages, 5315 KiB  
Article
Thermal Properties of Porous Mullite Ceramics Modified with Microsized ZrO2 and WO3
by Ludmila Mahnicka-Goremikina, Ruta Svinka, Visvaldis Svinka, Liga Grase, Inna Juhnevica, Maris Rundans, Vadims Goremikins, Sanat Tolendiuly and Sergey Fomenko
Materials 2022, 15(22), 7935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15227935 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Mullite ceramics are well known as materials with a high temperature stability, strength and creep resistance. In this research, the effect of a modification with magnesia-stabilized zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia, separately, as well as in a mixture with WO3, in 1:1 [...] Read more.
Mullite ceramics are well known as materials with a high temperature stability, strength and creep resistance. In this research, the effect of a modification with magnesia-stabilized zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia, separately, as well as in a mixture with WO3, in 1:1 and 1:2 ratios on the thermal properties of porous mullite ceramics was investigated. The porous mullite-containing ceramics were prepared by a slip casting of the concentrated slurry of raw materials with the addition of a suspension of Al paste for the pore formation due to the H2 evolution as a result of the reaction of Al with water. The formed samples were sintered at 1600 °C and the holding time was 1 h. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, the laser flash contactless method, thermal shock resistance testing and the non-destructive impulse excitation method for determining the elasticity modulus. The modification of the porous mullite ceramic with a mixture of ZrO2 and WO3 oxides had a positive effect by decreasing the thermal conductivity, due to the increased porosity, in comparison to the undoped samples and samples with only ZrO2. The doubling of the WO3 amount in the modifying oxide mixtures improved the ceramic thermal shock resistance. The porous mullite ceramics which were modified with magnesia-stabilized zirconia (2.8 mol% MgO) and WO3 had a lower thermal conductivity and improved thermal shock resistance than the samples with yttria-stabilized zirconia (8 mol% Y2O3) and WO3. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 1572 KiB  
Review
Piezoelectric Applications of Low-Dimensional Composites and Porous Materials
by Xiaoqiang Luo, Qingbin Li and Yichao Wang
Materials 2024, 17(4), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040844 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Low-dimensional (LD) materials, with atomically thin anisotropic structures, exhibit remarkable physical and chemical properties, prominently featuring piezoelectricity resulting from the absence of centrosymmetry. This characteristic has led to diverse applications, including sensors, actuators, and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. While piezoelectric effects are observed [...] Read more.
Low-dimensional (LD) materials, with atomically thin anisotropic structures, exhibit remarkable physical and chemical properties, prominently featuring piezoelectricity resulting from the absence of centrosymmetry. This characteristic has led to diverse applications, including sensors, actuators, and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. While piezoelectric effects are observed across zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) LD materials, challenges such as effective charge separation and crystal structure imperfections limit their full potential. Addressing these issues requires innovative solutions, with the integration of LD materials with polymers, ceramics, metals, and other porous materials proving a key strategy to significantly enhance piezoelectric properties. This review comprehensively covers recent advances in synthesizing and characterizing piezoelectric composites based on LD materials and porous materials. The synergistic combination of LD materials with other substances, especially porous materials, demonstrates notable performance improvements, addressing inherent challenges. The review also explores future directions and challenges in developing these composite materials, highlighting potential applications across various technological domains. Full article
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16 pages, 4952 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Electrospun Membranes for Radiative Cooling
by Dongxue Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Zhiguang Xu and Yan Zhao
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103677 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Radiative cooling is an approach that maximizes the thermal emission through the atmospheric window in order to dissipate heat, while minimizing the absorption of incoming atmospheric radiation, to realize a net cooling effect without consuming energy. Electrospun membranes are made of ultra-thin fibers [...] Read more.
Radiative cooling is an approach that maximizes the thermal emission through the atmospheric window in order to dissipate heat, while minimizing the absorption of incoming atmospheric radiation, to realize a net cooling effect without consuming energy. Electrospun membranes are made of ultra-thin fibers with high porosity and surface area, which makes them suitable for radiative cooling applications. Many studies have investigated the use of electrospun membranes for radiative cooling, but a comprehensive review that summarizes the research progress in this area is still lacking. In this review, we first summarize the basic principles of radiative cooling and its significance in achieving sustainable cooling. We then introduce the concept of radiative cooling of electrospun membranes and discuss the selection criteria for materials. Furthermore, we examine recent advancements in the structural design of electrospun membranes for improved cooling performance, including optimization of geometric parameters, incorporation of highly reflective nanoparticles, and designing multilayer structure. Additionally, we discuss dual-mode temperature regulation, which aims to adapt to a wider range of temperature conditions. Finally, we provide perspectives for the development of electrospun membranes for efficient radiative cooling. This review will provide a valuable resource for researchers working in the field of radiative cooling, as well as for engineers and designers interested in commercializing and developing new applications for these materials. Full article
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