Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind

A special issue of Languages (ISSN 2226-471X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2022) | Viewed by 46836

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Guest Editor
Language Acquisition, Multilingualism, and Cognition Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo ON N2L 3C5, Canada
Interests: bilingualism/multilingualism; language acquisition; psycholinguistics; neurolinguistics; translation, interpreting, and cognition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For multilinguals, acquiring and processing language is similar to other cognitive skills: they are grounded in mechanisms of sensory processing and motor control (Paradis, 2019). Recent clinical and experimental research on multilingualism have introduced innovative neuroimaging measures and psychological methods that have significantly shed light on what we know (and don’t know) about how multiple languages are processed, represented, and controlled in the mind/brain (Schwieter, 2019).

Since the 1990s and 2000s, a plethora of behavioral and neurological research has demonstrated that for multilinguals, all languages are active to some degree in the mind, even when only using one. Furthermore, the need for the mind to manage the ongoing competition that arises from this parallel activation has been shown to affect cognition (e.g., executive functioning) (Giovannoli et al., 2020), modify the structure and functioning of the brain (e.g., changes in the areas where language control and executive control overlap) (Costa and Sebastián-Gallés, 2014), and slow the onset or progression of cognitive and neural decline (Bialystok, 2017).

The goal of this Special Issue is to bring together state-of-the art papers that examine the cognitive and neurological consequences of multilingualism through an exploration of how two or more languages are processed, represented, and/or controlled in one brain/mind. Papers are invited, either theoretically or empirically oriented, to present new findings, frameworks, and/or methodologies on these topics. We request that, prior to submitting a manuscript, interested authors initially submit a proposed title and an abstract of 400–600 words summarizing their intended contribution. Please send it to the guest editor ([email protected]). Abstracts will be reviewed by the guest editor for the purposes of ensuring proper fit within the scope of the Special Issue. Full manuscripts will undergo double-blind peer-review.

Prof. Dr. John W. Schwieter
Guest Editor

Tentative completion schedule:

• Abstract submission deadline: September 15, 2021
• Notification of abstract acceptance: October 15, 2021
• Full manuscript deadline: March 15, 2022

References

  1. Bialystok, E. (2017). The bilingual adaptation: How minds accommodate experience. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 233-262.
  2. Costa, A., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2014). How does the bilingual experience sculpt the brain? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15, 336-345.
  3. Giovannoli, J., Martella, D., Federico, F., Pirchio, S., & Casagrande, M. (2020). The impact of bilingualism on executive functions in children and adolescents: A systematic review based on the PRISMA method. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(574789).
  4. Paradis, M. (2019). Special foreword. In J. W. Schwieter (Ed.), The handbook of the neuroscience of multilingualism (pp. xxxiii-xxxvii). Malden, MA/Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell.
  5. Schwieter, J. W. (Ed.). (2019). The handbook of the neuroscience of multilingualism. Malden, MA/Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Languages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bilingualism
  • multilingualism
  • neurolinguistics
  • psycholinguistics
  • language and brain
  • language and mind

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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28 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Emotion Word Processing in Immersed Spanish-English/English-Spanish Bilinguals: An ERP Study
by Anna B. Cieślicka and Brenda L. Guerrero
Languages 2023, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages8010042 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
We conducted a lexical decision task to measure Spanish-English/English-Spanish bilinguals’ behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological (EPN, Early Posterior Negativity and LPC, Late Positive Complex) responses to English emotion words and their Spanish translation equivalents. Bilingual participants varied in age of acquisition (AoA of Spanish/English: [...] Read more.
We conducted a lexical decision task to measure Spanish-English/English-Spanish bilinguals’ behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological (EPN, Early Posterior Negativity and LPC, Late Positive Complex) responses to English emotion words and their Spanish translation equivalents. Bilingual participants varied in age of acquisition (AoA of Spanish/English: early, late), language status (L1 Spanish, L1 English) and language dominance (English-dominant, Spanish-dominant, balanced) but were all highly immersed bicultural individuals, uniformly more proficient in English than Spanish. Behavioral data showed faster and more accurate responses to English than Spanish targets; however, the emotion effect was only present for Spanish, with positive Spanish words recognized significantly faster than those that were negative or neutral. In the electrophysiological data, the emotion response was affected by language of the target stimulus, with English targets eliciting larger EPN amplitudes than Spanish targets. The reverse effect was found on the LPC component, where Spanish targets elicited a higher positivity than English targets. Dominance did not turn out to be a significant predictor of bilingual performance. Results point to the relevance of proficiency in modulating bilingual lexical processing and carry implications for experimental design when examining immersed bilinguals residing in codeswitching environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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28 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
Is There an Effect of Diglossia on Executive Functions? An Investigation among Adult Diglossic Speakers of Arabic
by Najla Alrwaita, Lotte Meteyard, Carmel Houston-Price and Christos Pliatsikas
Languages 2022, 7(4), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040312 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
Recent studies investigating whether bilingualism has effects on cognitive abilities beyond language have produced mixed results, with evidence from young adults typically showing no effects. These inconclusive patterns have been attributed to many uncontrolled factors, including linguistic similarity and the conversational contexts the [...] Read more.
Recent studies investigating whether bilingualism has effects on cognitive abilities beyond language have produced mixed results, with evidence from young adults typically showing no effects. These inconclusive patterns have been attributed to many uncontrolled factors, including linguistic similarity and the conversational contexts the bilinguals find themselves in, including the opportunities they get to switch between their languages. In this study, we focus on the effects on cognition of diglossia, a linguistic situation where two varieties of the same language are spoken in different and clearly separable contexts. We used linear mixed models to compare 32 Arabic diglossic young adults and 38 English monolinguals on cognitive tasks assessing the executive function domains of inhibition, and switching. Results revealed that, despite both groups performing as expected on all tasks, there were no effects of diglossia in any of these domains. These results are discussed in relation to the Adaptive Control Hypothesis. We propose that any effects on executive functions that could be attributed to the use of more than one language or language variety may not be readily expected in contexts with limited opportunities for switching between them, especially in younger adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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10 pages, 386 KiB  
Article
The Nature and Function of Languages
by Franco Fabbro, Alice Fabbro and Cristiano Crescentini
Languages 2022, 7(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040303 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8410
Abstract
Several studies in philosophy, linguistics and neuroscience have tried to define the nature and functions of language. Cybernetics and the mathematical theory of communication have clarified the role and functions of signals, symbols and codes involved in the transmission of information. Linguistics has [...] Read more.
Several studies in philosophy, linguistics and neuroscience have tried to define the nature and functions of language. Cybernetics and the mathematical theory of communication have clarified the role and functions of signals, symbols and codes involved in the transmission of information. Linguistics has defined the main characteristics of verbal communication by analyzing the main tasks and levels of language. Paleoanthropology has explored the relationship between cognitive development and the origin of language in Homo sapiens. According to Daniel Dor, language represents the most important technological invention of human beings. Seemingly, the main function of language consists of its ability to allow the sharing of the mind’s imaginative products. Following language’s invention, human beings have developed multiple languages and cultures, which, on the one hand, have favored socialization within communities and, on the other hand, have led to an increase in aggression between different human groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
17 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
Emotion Processing in a Highly Proficient Multilingual Sub-Saharan African Population: A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation
by Dana M. Basnight-Brown, Asiya Ayoob and Jeanette Altarriba
Languages 2022, 7(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040280 - 2 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Research using traditional experimental paradigms (e.g., Priming, Stroop and Simon tasks), narratives and interview type data have revealed that bilingual speakers process and express emotion differently in their two languages. In the current study, both a qualitative and quantitative approach were taken to [...] Read more.
Research using traditional experimental paradigms (e.g., Priming, Stroop and Simon tasks), narratives and interview type data have revealed that bilingual speakers process and express emotion differently in their two languages. In the current study, both a qualitative and quantitative approach were taken to investigate how individuals who know and regularly use several languages process emotion in each of their languages. In Experiment 1, emotional stimuli in the L2 and L3 was quantitatively investigated using an Affective Simon Task. Participants consisted of Sub-Saharan African multilinguals who had acquired Kiswahili (L2) after their mother tongue (L1), followed by English (L3). The results revealed no difference in the way emotion and emotion-laden words were processed in the two languages (Kiswahili and English). However, significant Affective Simon Effects emerged for positive emotion and emotion-laden words, suggesting that these multilinguals largely process positive emotions in their L2 and L3. In Experiment 2, narrative data generated by multilinguals was used to determine how language selection was influenced by context and type of emotional situation. Themes that emerged within the qualitative analysis revealed that one’s L1 was the more emotional language when expressing negative emotions, while the L2 and L3 were reported to be used more frequently when expressing positive emotions, or when discussing more sensitive or embarrassing topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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29 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Language Control and Intra-Sentential Codeswitching among Bilingual Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder
by Aviva Soesman, Joel Walters and Sveta Fichman
Languages 2022, 7(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040249 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2356
Abstract
The present study investigated bilingual language control among preschool children in a sentence repetition task containing unilingual stimuli and codeswitched stimuli within prepositional phrases (PPs). Cross-language errors, that is, codeswitches that were not part of the stimulus sentences, were taken as evidence of [...] Read more.
The present study investigated bilingual language control among preschool children in a sentence repetition task containing unilingual stimuli and codeswitched stimuli within prepositional phrases (PPs). Cross-language errors, that is, codeswitches that were not part of the stimulus sentences, were taken as evidence of difficulties in language control. Specifically, we investigated cross-language errors as a function of stimulus sentence type (codeswitched or unilingual), CS site within the PP, directionality (English or Hebrew stimulus sentences), and group status (children with typical language development (TLD), and children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)). We also examined cross-language errors in terms of word class and locus in the sentence. The participants were 65 English (home language)–Hebrew (societal language) bilinguals with TLD and 13 with DLD, ages 5;5–6;10 (M = 5;11). Stimulus sentences contained five codeswitch conditions within prepositional phrases, for example, a codeswitched preposition (P) or a codeswitched preposition, determiner and noun (P+DET+N), and a ‘no switch’ condition. The stimuli were 36 English and 36 Hebrew sentences (+24 fillers) matched for semantic content and syntax. English sentences contained switches to Hebrew, and Hebrew sentences contained switches to English. The results showed more cross-language errors for codeswitched than unilingual sentence stimuli. The children with TLD showed a directionality effect, producing more cross-language errors in Hebrew sentence stimuli than in English, but the children with DLD did not. The children with DLD had more cross-language errors than their peers with TLD for English stimuli. Most cross-language errors appeared in the sentence-final, adverbial temporal phrase. Findings are discussed in terms of language co-activation and competition in order to account for the difference in performance on unilingual versus codeswitched stimuli and in light of sociopragmatic and psycholinguistic factors to account for the directionality effect among children with TLD and the lack thereof among children with DLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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19 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Reading Comprehension in French L2/L3 Learners: Does Syntactic Awareness Matter?
by Juwairia Sohail, Kathleen Hipfner-Boucher, Hélène Deacon and Xi Chen
Languages 2022, 7(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030211 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
This study examines the contributions of syntactic awareness to reading comprehension, both within and across languages, in third-grade children learning French as a second (L2) or third language (L3). Participants were 72 non-francophone children enrolled in a Canadian French immersion program in which [...] Read more.
This study examines the contributions of syntactic awareness to reading comprehension, both within and across languages, in third-grade children learning French as a second (L2) or third language (L3). Participants were 72 non-francophone children enrolled in a Canadian French immersion program in which all academic instruction is in French. Children completed measures of reading comprehension, syntactic awareness, word reading, vocabulary, and reading-related control variables in both English and French. Regression analyses examining within-language relations revealed that French syntactic awareness made a significant unique contribution to French reading comprehension after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, language status (French as either L2 or L3), word reading, and vocabulary. Furthermore, French syntactic awareness contributed across languages to English reading comprehension, after accounting for English controls (word reading, vocabulary, syntactic awareness) in addition to nonverbal reasoning and language status. In sharp contrast, measures of English syntactic awareness made no unique contribution to reading comprehension in either English or French after the aforementioned controls. These findings add to theoretical models of reading comprehension by highlighting the importance of syntactic awareness in the language of instruction in supporting bilingual children’s reading comprehension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
28 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Code-Switching Experience on the Neural Response Elicited to a Sentential Code Switch
by Angélique M. Blackburn and Nicole Y. Y. Wicha
Languages 2022, 7(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030178 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4878
Abstract
Switching between languages, or codeswitching, is a cognitive ability that multilinguals can perform with ease. This study investigates whether codeswitching during sentence reading affects early access to meaning, as indexed by the robust brain response called the N400. We hypothesize that the brain [...] Read more.
Switching between languages, or codeswitching, is a cognitive ability that multilinguals can perform with ease. This study investigates whether codeswitching during sentence reading affects early access to meaning, as indexed by the robust brain response called the N400. We hypothesize that the brain prioritizes the meaning of the word during comprehension with codeswitching costs emerging at a different stage of processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish–English balanced bilinguals (n = 24) read Spanish sentences containing a target noun that could create a semantic violation, codeswitch or both. Self-reported frequency of daily codeswitching was used as a regressor to determine if the cost of reading a switch is modulated by codeswitching experience. A robust N400 to semantic violations was followed by a late positive component (LPC). Codeswitches modulated the left anterior negativity (LAN) and LPC, but not the N400, with codeswitched semantic violations resulting in a sub-additive interaction. Codeswitching experience modulated the LPC, but not the N400. The results suggest that early access to semantic memory during comprehension happens independent of the language in which the words are presented. Codeswitching affects a separate stage of comprehension with switching experience modulating the brain’s response to experiencing a language switch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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17 pages, 1142 KiB  
Article
Cultural Experience Influences Multisensory Emotion Perception in Bilinguals
by Peiyao Chen, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim and Viorica Marian
Languages 2022, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010012 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3869
Abstract
Emotion perception frequently involves the integration of visual and auditory information. During multisensory emotion perception, the attention devoted to each modality can be measured by calculating the difference between trials in which the facial expression and speech input exhibit the same emotion (congruent) [...] Read more.
Emotion perception frequently involves the integration of visual and auditory information. During multisensory emotion perception, the attention devoted to each modality can be measured by calculating the difference between trials in which the facial expression and speech input exhibit the same emotion (congruent) and trials in which the facial expression and speech input exhibit different emotions (incongruent) to determine the modality that has the strongest influence. Previous cross-cultural studies have found that individuals from Western cultures are more distracted by information in the visual modality (i.e., visual interference), whereas individuals from Eastern cultures are more distracted by information in the auditory modality (i.e., auditory interference). These results suggest that culture shapes modality interference in multisensory emotion perception. It is unclear, however, how emotion perception is influenced by cultural immersion and exposure due to migration to a new country with distinct social norms. In the present study, we investigated how the amount of daily exposure to a new culture and the length of immersion impact multisensory emotion perception in Chinese-English bilinguals who moved from China to the United States. In an emotion recognition task, participants viewed facial expressions and heard emotional but meaningless speech either from their previous Eastern culture (i.e., Asian face-Mandarin speech) or from their new Western culture (i.e., Caucasian face-English speech) and were asked to identify the emotion from either the face or voice, while ignoring the other modality. Analyses of daily cultural exposure revealed that bilinguals with low daily exposure to the U.S. culture experienced greater interference from the auditory modality, whereas bilinguals with high daily exposure to the U.S. culture experienced greater interference from the visual modality. These results demonstrate that everyday exposure to new cultural norms increases the likelihood of showing a modality interference pattern that is more common in the new culture. Analyses of immersion duration revealed that bilinguals who spent more time in the United States were equally distracted by faces and voices, whereas bilinguals who spent less time in the United States experienced greater visual interference when evaluating emotional information from the West, possibly due to over-compensation when evaluating emotional information from the less familiar culture. These findings suggest that the amount of daily exposure to a new culture and length of cultural immersion influence multisensory emotion perception in bilingual immigrants. While increased daily exposure to the new culture aids with the adaptation to new cultural norms, increased length of cultural immersion leads to similar patterns in modality interference between the old and new cultures. We conclude that cultural experience shapes the way we perceive and evaluate the emotions of others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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15 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Being a Student or at Home: Does Topic Influence How Bilinguals Process Words in Each Language?
by Veniamin Shiron, Huanhuan Liu and Angela de Bruin
Languages 2021, 6(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6030150 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
Research has assessed how language use differences between bilinguals (e.g., whether two languages are used approximately equally often or not) influence language processing. However, first (L1) and second (L2) language use might also differ within bilinguals, depending on the topic of conversation. For [...] Read more.
Research has assessed how language use differences between bilinguals (e.g., whether two languages are used approximately equally often or not) influence language processing. However, first (L1) and second (L2) language use might also differ within bilinguals, depending on the topic of conversation. For example, a Mandarin–English bilingual studying in North America or the UK might talk about exams in English but about their childhood in Mandarin. In this study, we therefore examined how topics associated with either the L1 or L2 can influence language processing. Twenty-nine Mandarin–English students in North America/the UK completed a lexical decision task in single-language contexts (all words/pseudowords in one language) and in dual-language contexts (alternating between Mandarin and English). Half of the words referred to L1-associated topics (childhood and family life) and half were L2-associated (studying and life at university). Topic influenced L2 processing, with L2-associated topics being processed faster than topics associated with the L1 in single- and dual-language contexts. In contrast, topic did not influence L1 processing. This suggests that L2 processing might not only be influenced by differences between bilinguals but also by differences within bilinguals. In contrast, L1 processing might be less susceptible to influences of topic-specific language use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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Review

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14 pages, 370 KiB  
Review
A Selective Review of Event-Related Potential Investigations in Second and Third Language Acquisition of Syntax
by Tanja Angelovska and Dietmar Roehm
Languages 2023, 8(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages8010090 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1927
Abstract
The aim of this contribution is to highlight the role and relevance of neurolinguistics accounts for second and third language syntactic acquisition/processing. This chapter begins with a brief historical overview of the field of experimental psychology and the birth of the EEG methodology. [...] Read more.
The aim of this contribution is to highlight the role and relevance of neurolinguistics accounts for second and third language syntactic acquisition/processing. This chapter begins with a brief historical overview of the field of experimental psychology and the birth of the EEG methodology. We then provide a general introduction of the ERP methodology and the language-related ERP components, explaining what they show and how they are to be interpreted. A special focus is given on the clear distinction between behavioral measurements in contrast to real-time measures and the leading role of ERPs is elaborated on. We then provide a selective narrative review of existing L2 and L3 syntax acquisition studies with the EEG methodology within the domain of syntax that we consider relevant for deriving implications for language instructed settings. We discuss results from EEG studies on second and third language syntactic acquisition/processing and finally, highlight several conclusions important for the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
15 pages, 425 KiB  
Review
What Can Aphasia Tell Us about How the First-Acquired Language Is Instantiated in the Brain?
by Mira Goral
Languages 2022, 7(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040283 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Recent neurolinguistic theories converge on the hypothesis that the languages of multilingual people are processed as one system in the brain. One system for the multiple languages is also at the core of a translanguaging framework of multilingualism—a framework that focuses on each [...] Read more.
Recent neurolinguistic theories converge on the hypothesis that the languages of multilingual people are processed as one system in the brain. One system for the multiple languages is also at the core of a translanguaging framework of multilingualism—a framework that focuses on each speaker’s complete linguistic repertoire rather than on the separate languages they know. However, evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests at least some nonoverlapping activations of the first-acquired language (L1) and other (non-L1) languages of multilingual people, especially when the age of acquisition and/or levels of proficiency differ across the languages. Neurolinguistic studies of acquired language disorders have demonstrated that in multilingual people who experience language impairments due to brain lesion, L1 may be less impaired or better recovered than non-L1. This paper explores the evidence available to date from the study of acquired language impairment regarding this potential primacy of the first-acquired language. Findings suggest that L1 may be better preserved in many instances of language impairment, challenging the theory of a single system for multiple languages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
23 pages, 647 KiB  
Review
Bilingualism, Culture, and Executive Functions: Is There a Relationship?
by Wenhan Xie, Jeanette Altarriba and Bee Chin Ng
Languages 2022, 7(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040247 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4505
Abstract
The relationship between executive functions (EF) and bilingualism has dominated debate in the field. This debate was characterised by optimism for a bilingual advantage until the last decade, when a steady stream of articles reported failure to find a consistently positive effect for [...] Read more.
The relationship between executive functions (EF) and bilingualism has dominated debate in the field. This debate was characterised by optimism for a bilingual advantage until the last decade, when a steady stream of articles reported failure to find a consistently positive effect for bilingualism. In addition to addressing concerns about study quality, this turn of events has spurred research into other variables that may explain the conflicting findings. While recent studies have focused on sociodemographic variables and interactional contexts such as age, code-switching frequency, and socioeconomic class to account for various group and individual differences, the impact of culture is seldom scrutinised. This paper examines the possible effect of culture among bilingual studies on EF by first contextualising how bilingual EF are studied and outlining the absence of culture as a macro variable, followed by a discussion on how culture and language are often conflated. This paper directs attention to the small but emerging research that tracks the importance of culture as a separate variable from language. This review discusses why macro culture and individual monoculturalism or biculturalism need to be carefully elucidated as a factor that can interact with the bilingual experience in shaping EF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
20 pages, 783 KiB  
Review
Regulation and Control: What Bimodal Bilingualism Reveals about Learning and Juggling Two Languages
by Anne Therese Frederiksen and Judith F. Kroll
Languages 2022, 7(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030214 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
In individuals who know more than one language, the languages are always active to some degree. This has consequences for language processing, but bilinguals rarely make mistakes in language selection. A prevailing explanation is that bilingualism is supported by strong cognitive control abilities, [...] Read more.
In individuals who know more than one language, the languages are always active to some degree. This has consequences for language processing, but bilinguals rarely make mistakes in language selection. A prevailing explanation is that bilingualism is supported by strong cognitive control abilities, developed through long-term practice with managing multiple languages and spilling over into more general executive functions. However, not all bilinguals are the same, and not all contexts for bilingualism provide the same support for control and regulation abilities. This paper reviews research on hearing sign–speech bimodal bilinguals who have a unique ability to use and comprehend their two languages at the same time. We discuss the role of this research in re-examining the role of cognitive control in bilingual language regulation, focusing on how results from bimodal bilingualism research relate to recent findings emphasizing the correlation of control abilities with a bilingual’s contexts of language use. Most bimodal bilingualism research has involved individuals in highly English-dominant language contexts. We offer a critical examination of how existing bimodal bilingualism findings have been interpreted, discuss the value of broadening the scope of this research and identify long-standing questions about bilingualism and L2 learning which might benefit from this perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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Other

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13 pages, 947 KiB  
Concept Paper
On Path Diagrams and the Neurophenomenal Field in Bilinguals
by David William Green
Languages 2022, 7(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040260 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Conversation is a major site for our use of language. Each conversation elicits a distinct subjective experience: a specific and dynamic phenomenal field, and it is this field that controls our communicative actions. We cannot hope to understand the neural bases of conversation [...] Read more.
Conversation is a major site for our use of language. Each conversation elicits a distinct subjective experience: a specific and dynamic phenomenal field, and it is this field that controls our communicative actions. We cannot hope to understand the neural bases of conversation without relating these to the phenomenal field. We need a neurophenomenology of the bilingual speaker. I propose and illustrate an approach involving path diagrams together with retrospective experience sampling to capture the richness of the phenomenal field as a speaker talks through an issue of concern, and relate this process to large-scale attentional networks. The proposal offers a general approach to developing a neurophenomenology of the bilingual speaker and listener. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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