Special Issue "Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 39092

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anna Winiarczyk-Raźniak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Pedagogical University of Krakow, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
Interests: economic geography; social geography; quality of life; wellbeing (especially in cities); demographic and social composition of cities; economy of cities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on relationships that exist between the quality of urban space and quality of life in the city. The latter is the product of many different factors, including the vital role of humans’ surrounding environment. This is why efforts designed to enhance urban dwellers’ subjective sense of wellbeing as well as yield better results in terms of objective indicators measuring various aspects of quality of life need to consider the issue of the quality of urban space. This issue may be examined on a variety of levels ranging from urban ecology, community development, architecture, political climate, and living conditions. Differences in living conditions often become a source of conflict between different social groups in the city and may affect the direction of intra-metropolitan migrations.

The quality of life of urban residents varies quite significantly and is defined differently depending on population characteristics such as age, gender, education, and marital status. The ethnic composition of a city may also affect variances in the subjective sense of wellbeing of urban residents as well as their subjective choice of place of residence in the geographic space of a city.


Dr. Anna Winiarczyk-Raźniak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • quality of urban life
  • urban well-being
  • land use planning
  • sustainable urban development
  • urban economy
  • urban land
  • urban society
  • urban life conflict
  • urban land governance
  • intra-city migration
  • urban environment
  • social urban systems

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

Article
Urban Parks Hydrological Regime in the Context of Climate Change—A Case Study of Štěpánka Forest Park (Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic)
Land 2022, 11(3), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11030412 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a case study that was prepared as a basis for decision-making processes in the context of the impacts of global climate change. The article is focused on a very important part of the urban environment, namely urban [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a case study that was prepared as a basis for decision-making processes in the context of the impacts of global climate change. The article is focused on a very important part of the urban environment, namely urban forests. When taking planning measures in periurban forests, two realities must always be addressed, i.e., adaptation measures to mitigate the effects of climate change on the forest complex in question and its use to mitigate the effects of climate change in its surroundings must both be considered. It is a well-known fact that forest communities (of any kind) are on the one hand affected by the impacts of climate change, but on the other hand are able to mitigate its effects on their surroundings. The case study was of land near the town of Mladá Boleslav. The aim was to analyse the hydrological regime of the Štěpánka Forest Park, nicknamed “the lungs of Mladá Boleslav”. Modelling of the runoff coefficient was made for the whole park area, as well as for the part on the left bank of the Klenice River (forested part). The runoff conditions of the site and their subparameters are addressed in the study by comparing the current state with the modelled state after deforestation of the site, e.g., due to drought. As far as the spatial layout of the forest is concerned, it is absolutely essential to maintain an integrated stand on the site with a lower stem cover (fewer individuals per plot) and a lower regeneration period. These aspects of a growing matrix forest stand will ensure its sustainability, in particular the sustainable water management of the trees in the context of lower water reserves in the rhizosphere and the greater ability of younger individuals to adapt to changes in site conditions (replacement of stress-resistant types by resilient types). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Communication
The Nexus between Cultural Heritage Management and the Mental Health of Urban Communities
Land 2022, 11(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020304 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
In authorized cultural heritage management discourse, heritage sites can be included in local government heritage registers if their aesthetic, scientific, historic or social values are deemed significant. While notionally providing protection from major alterations and destruction for the benefit of future generations, such [...] Read more.
In authorized cultural heritage management discourse, heritage sites can be included in local government heritage registers if their aesthetic, scientific, historic or social values are deemed significant. While notionally providing protection from major alterations and destruction for the benefit of future generations, such listings primarily serve the present generation whose values they reflect. This paper considers the role that cultural heritage places play in terms of community identity and their contribution to a sense of place, to place attachment and, by implication, to personal and community mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
Article
The Origin of Dust Particles in Atmospheric Air in Krakow (Poland) (Atmospheric Background)
Land 2022, 11(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020155 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 736
Abstract
For several decades air pollution in Krakow has been a serious and an unresolved environmental and social problem. The causes of high concentration of particulate matter, such as PM10 and PM2.5 in Krakow are both natural and anthropogenic. Nevertheless, the sources of dust [...] Read more.
For several decades air pollution in Krakow has been a serious and an unresolved environmental and social problem. The causes of high concentration of particulate matter, such as PM10 and PM2.5 in Krakow are both natural and anthropogenic. Nevertheless, the sources of dust pollution have not been fully determined yet. The main source of dust in Krakow is local emissions, however, particles from adjacent areas might also contribute significantly to the pollution. Transboundary dust should also be taken into account while investigating the problem. The aim of the study is to determine what type of particles are present in the atmospheric air in Krakow and to make an attempt at determining their sources. The analytical method applied in the study was the Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). In addition, the HYSPLIT model was used for data analysis and for determination of particles source areas. The analysis of individual dust particles indicates that they are very diverse in terms of chemical composition and particle size. Moreover, the analysis shows that the particles are of various origins, such as anthropogenic and natural, as well as that some of them are formed in the air by chemical reactions. The analysis of particulate matter demonstrates that the majority of it consists of particles with a diameter of less than 1 μm. The concentration of very fine soot particles (nanoparticles) seems to be the highest, however, spherical aluminosilicate particles such as iron and titanium oxides are also found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Value and Quality in the Dialectics between Human and Urban Capital of the City Networks on the Land District Scale
Land 2022, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010034 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
This contribution proposes an inter-scalar and multi-polar analysis evaluation model of the territory of the Enna district, aimed at providing a robust axiological representation of the salient aspects of the general issue of internal areas, and therefore of the set of criticalities affecting [...] Read more.
This contribution proposes an inter-scalar and multi-polar analysis evaluation model of the territory of the Enna district, aimed at providing a robust axiological representation of the salient aspects of the general issue of internal areas, and therefore of the set of criticalities affecting them from the perspective of the human and urban capital they express. In the prospect of investigating the relations between urban and life quality—corresponding to the “city effect”—in the territorial context of each of the 20 municipalities of the Enna district, a hierarchical descriptive-valuation model was created, which coordinates a relevant amount of information units (data) and the corresponding attributes, indicators and indices that have been turned in aggregate value judgments attributed to each administrative land unit, from the perspectives of the criteria referred to as the main forms of the territorial capital. This is a multi-dimensional valuation model based on the Multi-Attribute Value Theory. Each survey and processing is mapped with different levels of detail at the scale of municipalities, census sections and cadastral land units. The outcome of this complex process of analysis and assessment provides multiple comparisons, revealing unexpected and sometimes counter-intuitive aspects in several municipalities, some of which are characterised by innovative prospects and opportunities for redevelopment of their historic centers. Correlations between information units at the different levels of the dendrogram have also indicated interesting trends and attitudes, whose comparisons can address territorial policies on both a local and provincial scale. Furthermore, the focus on the “cities network” is here assumed and proposed as the privileged point of observation of territory and the related aspects of the quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
The Influence of Subjective and Objective Characteristics of Urban Human Settlements on Residents’ Life Satisfaction in China
Land 2021, 10(12), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121400 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Under the guidance of people-oriented development concepts, improving residents’ life satisfaction has gradually become the goal of urban governance. Based on Chinese household tracking survey data and national socio-economic statistics, this study used the entropy method, multi-layer linear regression model and geographically weighted [...] Read more.
Under the guidance of people-oriented development concepts, improving residents’ life satisfaction has gradually become the goal of urban governance. Based on Chinese household tracking survey data and national socio-economic statistics, this study used the entropy method, multi-layer linear regression model and geographically weighted regression model and discusses the spatial heterogeneity of the impact of objective environmental characteristics and subjective perceived characteristics of urban residential environments on residents’ life satisfaction. It is of great importance to study the mechanisms through which subjective and objective characteristics of urban human settlements influence living satisfaction among residents. It is also important to discuss how to improve living satisfaction levels through the urban human settlements and to realize high-quality urban development. The research results show that in 2018, the overall level of life satisfaction among Chinese urban residents was relatively high. However, it is still necessary to continue to optimize the urban human settlements to improve residents’ life satisfaction. The objective characteristics of the urban human settlements, such as natural environmental comfort and environmental health, have a significant positive impact on residents’ life satisfaction. Residents’ subjective perceptions of government integrity, environmental protection, wealth gap, social security, medical conditions and medical level, as well as residents’ individual gender, age and health status also have a significant impact on residents’ life satisfaction. The direction and intensity of effects of different elements of the urban human settlements and residents’ personal attributes on urban residents’ life satisfaction have different characteristics in different regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Are Pueblos Mágicos Really Magic? Tourism Development Program in the Context of the Quality of Life of Town Residents
Land 2021, 10(12), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121342 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Among the countless attractions awaiting tourists in Mexico are towns characterized by an exceptional atmosphere, which in conjunction with natural environmental attractions, leads one to believe that these places are magical. The promotion of tourism in Mexico rests on the principle of cultural [...] Read more.
Among the countless attractions awaiting tourists in Mexico are towns characterized by an exceptional atmosphere, which in conjunction with natural environmental attractions, leads one to believe that these places are magical. The promotion of tourism in Mexico rests on the principle of cultural and environmental diversity and includes a development program called Pueblos Mágicos. This program is designed to help expand small towns’ tourism offering and to create new jobs in the service sector that normally accompanies tourism. This growth in the employment level is supposed to produce a direct impact on the lives of members of the local community in terms of their standard of living and quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to examine the effects of the implementation of this program in a comprehensive manner. The viewpoint examined is that of the local population and its living conditions. Employment levels in towns designated Pueblos Mágicos are examined in the paper, as is the rate of business development. A comprehensive index is used in the study to analyze these issues. The index of exclusion in the study also varies from town to town—both statically and over time. The paper also examines a number of other studies that have focused on the benefits and downsides of this program. Thus, the aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the introduction of the tourism development program Pueblos Mágicos (PPM) from the perspective of its impacts on the quality of life of the residents of the affected towns, based on statistical data such as job growth rates and marginalization, as well as a review of existing studies. Research has shown that the Pueblos Mágicos program has not substantially improved the quality of life of residents in Mexican towns designated Pueblos Mágicos. In fact, in some cases, the quality of life has, in some respects, declined over the course of the program’s functioning. However, it is conceivable that with a proper town vetting process the program may yet produce better results in terms of improvements in the quality of life of Pueblo Mágico town residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Description Relationship between Urban Space and Quality of Urban Life. A Geographical Approach
Land 2021, 10(12), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121337 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
The examination of the relationship between the construct of urban space and the construct of the quality of urban life is based on the knowledge that their common element is real physical space, i.e., the place. If the examination of the relationship between [...] Read more.
The examination of the relationship between the construct of urban space and the construct of the quality of urban life is based on the knowledge that their common element is real physical space, i.e., the place. If the examination of the relationship between the two constructs is to be meaningful, then both must be on the same comparative basis—that means quality. The paper consists of two parts—the first part, which is theoretical, takes the form of conceptualization of urban space and the quality of urban life, including the identification of elements which affect them. The result of conceptualizing urban space into a qualitative form is liveability. The result of conceptualizing the quality of urban life is a holistic quality of life in the city, containing two domains—subjective and objective. The second part of the paper is the application of both constructs in a concrete form, based on measuring the values of these indicators and also the analysis of the results. The measurement takes the form of liveability on the one hand and of satisfaction with the place and/or satisfaction with the quality of urban life on the other hand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
Article
Assessing the Preference and Restorative Potential of Urban Park Blue Space
Land 2021, 10(11), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111233 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Urban parks are essential parts of a city’s natural environment, and blue spaces of urban parks bring aesthetic and health benefits to people. However, the current blue spaces mainly focus on the marine environment or a giant water body scale at the urban [...] Read more.
Urban parks are essential parts of a city’s natural environment, and blue spaces of urban parks bring aesthetic and health benefits to people. However, the current blue spaces mainly focus on the marine environment or a giant water body scale at the urban or regional level. The urban park blue spaces (e.g., rivers, creeks, ponds) are relatively neglected. An experiment involving 10 different urban park blue spaces in Huanhuaxi park was conducted to assess urban park blue spaces’ aesthetic preference and restorative potential. The results indicated that (1) a water body with good water quality and natural visual form may be more attractive and have restorative potential; (2) blue spaces with high vegetation diversity are preferred, and artificial elements should be evaluated more carefully when added to the scene to avoid disharmony and conflict with the surrounding environment; (3) in practical design, the proportions of plants, buildings, topographical changes, and water should be coordinated to maintain the blue space’s landscape heterogeneity; (4) more leisure activities and interactions should be considered for better recovery; and (5) designers need to emphasize the balance of natural and man-made elements to enhance the visual quality of the water feature. This investigation is important for the management and development of leisure and natural resources in urban parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Relationship between Public Service Satisfaction and Intention of Continuous Residence of Younger Generations in Rural Areas: The Case of Jeonbuk, Korea
Land 2021, 10(11), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111203 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
This study examines the population decline of younger generations in rural areas, the factors that influence the intention of continuous residence, and how these influences differ based on regional economic potential. Previous studies on intention of continuous residence lack some discussion of the [...] Read more.
This study examines the population decline of younger generations in rural areas, the factors that influence the intention of continuous residence, and how these influences differ based on regional economic potential. Previous studies on intention of continuous residence lack some discussion of the role of local governments. Therefore, satisfaction with public services provided by local governments was considered as a main factor. Specifically, this study analyzed the effect of public service satisfaction on intention of continuous residence and compared this influence according to regional economic potential. This study selected respondents aged between 25 and 49 years in Jeonbuk Province, Korea. Data were collected from 980 people through an online survey, and multistage stratified sampling based on the number of residents by district and resident ages was applied to the sample design. To test the hypothesis, the study conducted a moderating effect analysis using the categorical moderator reflected by regional economic potential. The empirical analysis shows that housing support and residential environment management of public service satisfaction had positive effects on intention of continuous residence. Housing support services in particular had a stronger influence. In addition, the effect of housing support on intention of continuous residence was further strengthened in regions with low economic potential. The results of this study provide policy implications for developing countries facing a population decline in rural areas due to regional disparities between urban and rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Urban Environment during Post-War Reconstruction: Architectural Dominants and Nodal Points as Measures of Changes in an Urban Landscape
Land 2021, 10(10), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10101083 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after the World War II blitz, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. However, they could not alter everything: some urban [...] Read more.
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after the World War II blitz, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. However, they could not alter everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities—historical objects and spaces—necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity were preserved, often being completely reconstructed. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: (1) architectural dominants (landmarks) and (2) urban network nodes. For this purpose, (1) the changes in the number and rank of the spaces through which the landmarks expositions were carried out are compared, and (2) the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure, both these in the pre-war and in the present structures, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas are analyzed. The number of individual elements is compared and the changes in the structure of their arrangement are analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. A medium-scale European city (Bialystok) is used as the case study. Results of our analysis indicate that the post-war reconstruction led to a decrease in the number of elements of the urban grid (streets, nodal points), especially those of low rank. The rank of many others also decreased: 57% of all nodal points within the historical grid of the selected area does not exist in the post-war structure. The number of main rank directions of exposition decreased by 18% and in the subordinate group by 38%. The research is an attempt to construct a new criteria of evaluating changes in the quality of the cityscape, which is described in the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Satisfaction with Selected Indicators of the Quality of Urban Space by Polonia in the Greater Toronto Area
Land 2021, 10(8), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080778 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The main objective of this article is to determine the quality of life of Polonia living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), with particular emphasis on urban quality, which influences their assessment of the standard of living in this city. The presented results [...] Read more.
The main objective of this article is to determine the quality of life of Polonia living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), with particular emphasis on urban quality, which influences their assessment of the standard of living in this city. The presented results of the research are based on a survey questionnaire conducted with the participation of 583 respondents. The respondents evaluated, among others: accessibility to recreational tourism in the city, public transport, possibilities of finding a job, accessibility to housing and quality of the natural environment. Assessment of the selected indicators was correlated with the application of the statistical coefficient of the chi-squared test with particular sociodemographic characteristics of the examined respondents (with age, place of residence of the respondents (Toronto, suburbs) and their duration of residence in the GTA). On the basis of the formulated research hypotheses and conducted studies, it can be concluded—among others—that the satisfaction level with regard to accessibility to housing increases with age, that people living in the GTA suburbs rate accessibility to transportation lower than people living in Toronto and that people living in the GTA for more than 20 years rate accessibility to tourism, leisure and relaxation lower than people living in the GTA for a period shorter than 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
The Importance of the Sharing Economy in Improving the Quality of Life and Social Integration of Local Communities on the Example of Virtual Groups
Land 2021, 10(7), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070754 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The main objective of the article was to demonstrate and prove the role of the sharing economy in integrating local communities as well as in improving the quality of life of urban residents. The sharing economy is an alternative model of consumption entered [...] Read more.
The main objective of the article was to demonstrate and prove the role of the sharing economy in integrating local communities as well as in improving the quality of life of urban residents. The sharing economy is an alternative model of consumption entered around an access to given goods without the need to possess it. The concept fits excellently into the ideas that are at the core of the social economy. Internet groups operating in the area of the sharing economy were analysed for the purpose of the article. Their members either live in or have other bonds with Krakow. They are usually focused around issues important for local communities. In the research, a triangulation method was used, involving a desk analysis as well as a passive observation and a covered participative observation. Such choice of methods allowed for the topic of the impact that the sharing economy has on the integration and the quality of life of urban residents to be analysed. The research confirmed that the sharing economy; as a form of social innovation; influences the improvement of the quality of life. Online groups integrate local communities and have a significant impact on the quality of life of city residents (T1; T2; T3; T4). The bilateral nature of dependency between the sharing economy and the quality of life was noticed. Firstly; the sharing economy affects the shape and quality of the product or service that is the subject of the transaction. It is also crucial to create a general “ambience of a site” in the internet group; which supports and stimulates satisfaction of the needs related to the sense of individuality; authenticity and community. On the other hand; the sharing economy affects the satisfaction of residents through economic; psychological; political and social impacts as well as individual ones; related to, e.g., the development of creativity and the acquisition of new skills Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Architectural and Urban Attractiveness of Small Towns: A Case Study of Polish Coastal Cittaslow Towns on the Pomeranian Way of St. James
Land 2021, 10(7), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070724 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study on the attractiveness to tourists and natives of the cultural qualities of coastal towns on The Pomeranian Way of St. James that are members of the Cittaslow network. Attention to the quality of urban life [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a study on the attractiveness to tourists and natives of the cultural qualities of coastal towns on The Pomeranian Way of St. James that are members of the Cittaslow network. Attention to the quality of urban life is inscribed in the development policies of towns applying to join the Cittaslow movement. In order to join the network (apart from the size criterion), towns need to meet a minimum of 50% plus one of the 72 criteria grouped into seven categories. One of the category is Quality of Urban Life Policy, so the towns applying to join Cittaslow commit themselves to actions aimed at improving the quality of urban life. The study on the attractiveness of cultural qualities of towns to tourists and natives was conducted using the author’s BRB method, whose added value is its universality and the possibility to study small towns regardless of their membership in the Cittaslow network. BRB is an acronym that stands for BUILDINGS, RELATIONSHIPS, BALANCE, and comprises three scopes of activities: BUILDINGS (iconic building and important sites where the inhabitants and the tourists are present); RELATIONSHIPS (the visual effects of the relations between the inhabitants and the town) and BALANCE (solutions that implement modern technologies). This method enables identification of places that are important to the inhabitants, where urban life takes place and which are often created with the involvement of the inhabitants. These are often the same spaces as those that attract tourists and perhaps stimulate them the desire to visit the town again (BRB—be right back). The aim of the BRB method is shown the attractiveness of small towns. The study has shown that the characteristic feature of Polish Cittaslow towns is their diversity: the architectural attractiveness of three towns is high both to tourists and natives. On the other hand, the urban attractiveness of the examined towns is an insufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Physical Activities in Public Squares: The Impact of Companionship on Chinese Residents’ Health
Land 2021, 10(7), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070720 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Companionship is the most important social support factor in physical activities, but the influence of companionship on the daily physical activities of Chinese people in the square is not clear. The ordered logistic regression was conducted to identify the companionship and physical activities [...] Read more.
Companionship is the most important social support factor in physical activities, but the influence of companionship on the daily physical activities of Chinese people in the square is not clear. The ordered logistic regression was conducted to identify the companionship and physical activities associated with the physical and mental health of residents (n = 196). The results show that companionship has direct and indirect effects on mental health, and companionship acts on physical health through physical activity in public squares. Our research understands the use of public open space (POS) from the perspective of companionship and provides a new perspective for improving the sociality of POS design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
The Spatial Design Marketing Strategy of Global Franchises That Take into Consideration the Characteristics of Modern Consumers—A Study Involving the Global Coffee Companies of Starbucks and Blue Bottle
Land 2021, 10(7), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070716 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 5474
Abstract
Coffee shops are evolving into spaces that offer diverse experiences for consumers, with coffee acting as a medium. They are simple venues where people can drink coffee and enjoy and share their cultures with each other; moreover, coffee shops capture the consumers’ complex [...] Read more.
Coffee shops are evolving into spaces that offer diverse experiences for consumers, with coffee acting as a medium. They are simple venues where people can drink coffee and enjoy and share their cultures with each other; moreover, coffee shops capture the consumers’ complex individuality and values. Considering this trend, it is worth looking at the coffee shop in connection with spatial design marketing, as a place that has endless potential to effectively express the needs of modern consumers through spatial identity and story. Accordingly, this study is focused on global coffee franchises because a single brand can control factors other than spatial design, such as coffee price, quality, brand identity, and service. This study looks at global coffee franchises from the spatial design marketing perspective, to examine the value and importance of a space as not only one of the elements of spatial design, but also as a marketing agent. To this end, spatial design marketing will be presented for Starbucks and Blue Bottle, which are the front-runners of the global coffee franchise sector. This study also explores the meaning of directional space, within the global coffee franchises, a meaning that will be transformative in the future. This study is significant in that it derived three spatial marketing characteristics and six strategies that can enhance the spatial value of coffee shops and the experiential value of consumers. This was accomplished through an approach focused on Starbucks and Blue Bottle, the most representative global coffee franchises. Moreover, the presented spatial design marketing strategies are not only applicable to coffee franchises but also to various commercial spatial design fields, and are expected to be used as a business methodology that can satisfy the needs of modern consumers and increase the unique value of their brand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
The Influence of Elements of Cultural Heritage on the Image of Destinations, Using Four Polish Cities as an Example
Land 2021, 10(7), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070671 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Cultural heritage and its various elements are an important factor that supports the development of tourism in destinations. One of the key factors of a successful destination is its positive image that allows it to effectively attract visitors. This paper investigates the impact [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage and its various elements are an important factor that supports the development of tourism in destinations. One of the key factors of a successful destination is its positive image that allows it to effectively attract visitors. This paper investigates the impact of selected elements of material cultural heritage on the image of four Polish metropolitan destinations. The results indicate thathistorical and cultural heritage plays a more significantrole in creating an attractive image of a city than the city’s contemporary and post-industrial facilities. Cities perceived as historical areconsideredas much more attractive to spend free time in than cities predominantly associated with industrial functions. Moreover, the presented research results confirm a relationship between the familiarity of a destination and its positive image. These features have also been observed in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Relationship between Physical Environment Satisfaction, Neighborhood Satisfaction, and Quality of Life in Gyeonggi, Korea
Land 2021, 10(7), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070663 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between physical environment satisfaction, neighborhood satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) in Gyeonggi, Korea. As previous QoL studies have rarely dealt with residential environments or examined the interactions between the physical and social factors in residential environments, to [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between physical environment satisfaction, neighborhood satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) in Gyeonggi, Korea. As previous QoL studies have rarely dealt with residential environments or examined the interactions between the physical and social factors in residential environments, to close these knowledge gaps, this study took physical and social environment satisfaction factors as relevant influences on QoL. This study also verified the moderating effect of neighborhood satisfaction on QoL through physical environment satisfaction. This study analyzed a Quality of Life Survey that was conducted in Gyeonggi, Korea. The total number of samples in the survey was 20,000, covering all 31 districts in Gyeonggi Province. In addition, multistage stratified sampling based on the number of household members and housing types was applied to the sample design. This increases the representation of the data. As a result, it was found that higher satisfaction with the physical and neighborhood factors positively affected QoL, with satisfaction with the facilities having the most obvious effect. Neighborhood satisfaction was found to have a moderating effect between safety satisfaction and QoL. Many developing countries have tended to pursue quantitative growth with a focus on economic aspects, which has undermined overall urban sustainability. However, recent urban management has also emphasized qualitative growth, such as resident QoL, as being just as important for urban sustainability. Therefore, this study’s results have important policy implications for qualitative urban growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Power Two-Wheelers as an Element of Sustainable Urban Mobility in Europe
Land 2021, 10(6), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060618 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
Nowadays in Europe, there is a noticeable increase in the popularity of power two-wheelers (PTW). This is largely due to the increase in urban transport problems. The aim of the study was to present the changes in urban mobility in terms of the [...] Read more.
Nowadays in Europe, there is a noticeable increase in the popularity of power two-wheelers (PTW). This is largely due to the increase in urban transport problems. The aim of the study was to present the changes in urban mobility in terms of the use of power two-wheelers. In relation to this process, the activities of local authorities and organisations related to PTW traffic were also presented to adapt the city infrastructure to the traffic of two-track vehicles in selected European countries. The study used numerical data analysis methods and data from an online survey of motorcyclists in Poland as well as an online search of planning materials from the authorities of selected European cities. Based on the results obtained, communication by PTW vehicles can be considered one of the possibilities for developing alternative transport in cities. Their advantage is both high mobility and economic value. PTW vehicles are also a part of an exhaust reduction policy. The best solutions to promote this mode of transport are the reduction of parking fees and the availability of public service lanes. Supporting PTW communication is included in communication policies and brings especially positive spatial results in cities such as Barcelona, London or Vienna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Emergence of Centralized (Collective) and Decentralized (Individual) Environmentally Friendly Solutions during the Regeneration of a Residential Building in a Post-Socialist City
Land 2021, 10(5), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10050524 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Our paper deals with a micro-study of one residential building in the city center of Brno (Czech Republic) where we strived to identify and better understand the main factors behind the successful implementation of environmentally friendly solutions during the regeneration process. We followed [...] Read more.
Our paper deals with a micro-study of one residential building in the city center of Brno (Czech Republic) where we strived to identify and better understand the main factors behind the successful implementation of environmentally friendly solutions during the regeneration process. We followed the unique, complicated, and often conflictual story of the regeneration (conducted during the years 2010–2020) of the residential building, which was originally built in the 1930s. In total, 18 solutions were discussed—all four solutions on the state level of centralization were realized, only two of six solutions on the building level of centralization were materialized, and six of eight decentralized solutions were realized during the regeneration process. In the field of energy savings requiring high investments, a significant dominance of centralized solutions (on the state level) was identified. Centralized solutions on the building level such as heat pumps or solar panels were not realized. In the area of waste management and care for community greenery (that did not require large investments), we see as the most beneficial the promotion of decentralized solutions in the form of community-funded communal composting or the planting of new greenery. The formation of various regeneration options, which is discussed in detail, appeared as an integral instrument for dealing with conflicts among residents during the planning phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Social Perception and Urbanscape Identity of Flagship Cultural Developments in Szczecin (in the Re-Urbanization Context)
Land 2021, 10(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10040398 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
A growing number of urban interventions, such as culture-led regeneration strategies, has emerged alongside growing awareness of the concept of re-urbanization. These interventions evolve to create a holistic urban vision, with aims to promote social cohesion and strengthen local identity as opposed to [...] Read more.
A growing number of urban interventions, such as culture-led regeneration strategies, has emerged alongside growing awareness of the concept of re-urbanization. These interventions evolve to create a holistic urban vision, with aims to promote social cohesion and strengthen local identity as opposed to traditional goals of measuring the economic impact of new cultural developments. Szczecin’s, Poland urban strategy is focused on the expansion of culture—a condition for improving the quality of life and increasing the city’s attractiveness. This article assesses the potential for re-urbanization of Szczecin’s flagship cultural developments. Questionnaire surveys and qualitative research methods were used to assess the characteristics that distinguish cultural projects in the formal, location-related, functional, and symbolic layers, as well as examining their social perception. The results show that the strength of these indicators of urbanscape identity affects how the cultural developments are assessed by the society. Semiotic coherence and functional complexity of the structures have a significant impact on the sense of identification, while their monumentality and exposure contribute to the assessment of the impact on their surroundings. A development with a firm identity, embedded in the city’s tradition not only preserves the cultural heritage of the city but also makes inhabitants feel association with the new project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Multiple Pathways: The Influence Mechanism of Greenspace Exposure on Mental Health—A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
Land 2021, 10(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10040339 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Greenspace exposure (GSE) may have a positive impact on mental health. However, existing research lacks a classification analysis of the influence pathways of different GSE on mental health. Meanwhile, the research method is limited to the measurement of the green space ratio (GSR) [...] Read more.
Greenspace exposure (GSE) may have a positive impact on mental health. However, existing research lacks a classification analysis of the influence pathways of different GSE on mental health. Meanwhile, the research method is limited to the measurement of the green space ratio (GSR) based on remote sensing data, which ignores people’s real perception of greenspace. This paper aims to further expand the measurement method of GSE, taking Hangzhou, China as an example, and to reveal the influence mechanism of different GSE modes on mental health. We obtained the personal information, mental health, physical activity, and other data of the interviewees through a questionnaire (n = 461). Combined with a remote sensing satellite and the Baidu Street view database, the method of image interpretation and deep learning was used to obtain the GSR, green visual ratio (GVR), and green visual exposure (GVE). The structural equation model is used to analyze the relationship between different variables. The results showed that: (1) GSE has a certain positive effect on mental health; (2) there are differences in the influence mechanism of multiple measures of GSE on mental health—the GVR and GVE measures based on the interaction perspective between human and greenspace make the influence mechanism more complicated, and produce direct and indirect influence paths; and (3) greenspace perception, sense of community, and physical activity can act as mediators, and have indirect effects. Finally, we call for expanding the measurement index and methods of GSE and integrating them into the management and control practices of urban planning to promote the healthy development of communities and even cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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Article
Analysis on the Effect of the Mobility of Combustion Vehicles in the Environment of Cities and the Improvement in Air Pollution in Europe: A Vision for the Awareness of Citizens and Policy Makers
Land 2021, 10(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020184 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Today, the design and remodeling of urban environments is being sought in order to achieve green, healthy, and sustainable cities. The effect of air pollution in cities due to vehicle combustion gases is an important part of the problem. Due to the indirect [...] Read more.
Today, the design and remodeling of urban environments is being sought in order to achieve green, healthy, and sustainable cities. The effect of air pollution in cities due to vehicle combustion gases is an important part of the problem. Due to the indirect effect caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, political powers in Europe have imposed confinement measures for citizens by imposing movement restrictions in large cities. This indirect measure has given us a laboratory to show how the reduction in vehicle circulation affects in a short time the levels of air pollution in cities. Therefore, this article analyzes the effect in different European cities such as Milan, Prague, Madrid, Paris, and London. These cities have been chosen due to their large amount of daily road traffic that generates high levels of pollution; therefore, it can clearly show the fall in these pollutants in the air in the analyzed period. The results shown through this study indicate that the reduction in combustion vehicles greatly affects the levels of pollution in different cities. In these periods of confinement, there was an improvement in air quality where pollutant values dropped to 80% compared to the previous year. This should serve to raise awareness among citizens and political powers to adopt measures that induce sustainable transport systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Urban Space versus Quality of Urban Life)
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