For several decades air pollution in Krakow has been a serious and an unresolved environmental and social problem. The causes of high concentration of particulate matter, such as PM10 and PM2.5 in Krakow are both natural and anthropogenic. Nevertheless, the sources of dust pollution have not been fully determined yet. The main source of dust in Krakow is local emissions, however, particles from adjacent areas might also contribute significantly to the pollution. Transboundary dust should also be taken into account while investigating the problem. The aim of the study is to determine what type of particles are present in the atmospheric air in Krakow and to make an attempt at determining their sources. The analytical method applied in the study was the Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). In addition, the HYSPLIT model was used for data analysis and for determination of particles source areas. The analysis of individual dust particles indicates that they are very diverse in terms of chemical composition and particle size. Moreover, the analysis shows that the particles are of various origins, such as anthropogenic and natural, as well as that some of them are formed in the air by chemical reactions. The analysis of particulate matter demonstrates that the majority of it consists of particles with a diameter of less than 1 μm. The concentration of very fine soot particles (nanoparticles) seems to be the highest, however, spherical aluminosilicate particles such as iron and titanium oxides are also found.
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