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Article

Sustainable Agroforestry Landscape Management: Changing the Game

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Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University and Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands
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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16155, Indonesia
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Agroforestry Research Group, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran no 1, Malang 65145, Indonesia
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Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Information Technology Group, Social Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Centre for Applied Risk Management (UARM), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
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Applied Climatology, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
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Research Centre for Population, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jakarta 12190, Indonesia
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Rural Sociology, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), 66095-903 Belém/PA, Brazil
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Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Raden Rahmat, Malang 65163, Indonesia
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Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany
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CIRAD, UPR GREEN, F-34398 Montpellier, France
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Water Resources Management, Wageningen University & Research, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Faculty of Engineering, Busitema University, 236 Tororo, Uganda
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Tropenbos Suriname, University Campus (CELOS Building), Paramaribo, Suriname
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Environmental Policy, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
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Tropenbos Indonesia, Bogor 16163, Indonesia
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Centre for Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(8), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080243
Received: 28 June 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
Location-specific forms of agroforestry management can reduce problems in the forest–water–people nexus, by balancing upstream and downstream interests, but social and ecological finetuning is needed. New ways of achieving shared understanding of the underlying ecological and social-ecological relations is needed to adapt and contextualize generic solutions. Addressing these challenges between thirteen cases of tropical agroforestry scenario development across three continents requires exploration of generic aspects of issues, knowledge and participative approaches. Participative projects with local stakeholders increasingly use ‘serious gaming’. Although helpful, serious games so far (1) appear to be ad hoc, case dependent, with poorly defined extrapolation domains, (2) require heavy research investment, (3) have untested cultural limitations and (4) lack clarity on where and how they can be used in policy making. We classify the main forest–water–people nexus issues and the types of land-use solutions that shape local discourses and that are to be brought to life in the games. Four ‘prototype’ games will be further used to test hypotheses about the four problems identified constraining game use. The resulting generic forest–water–people games will be the outcome of the project “Scenario evaluation for sustainable agroforestry management through forest-water-people games” (SESAM), for which this article provides a preview.
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Keywords: boundary work; ecohydrology; forest–water–people nexus; landscape approach; participatory methods; scenario evaluation; social-ecological systems; tropical forests boundary work; ecohydrology; forest–water–people nexus; landscape approach; participatory methods; scenario evaluation; social-ecological systems; tropical forests
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Noordwijk, M.; Speelman, E.; Hofstede, G.J.; Farida, A.; Abdurrahim, A.Y.; Miccolis, A.; Hakim, A.L.; Wamucii, C.N.; Lagneaux, E.; Andreotti, F.; Kimbowa, G.; Assogba, G.G.C.; Best, L.; Tanika, L.; Githinji, M.; Rosero, P.; Sari, R.R.; Satnarain, U.; Adiwibowo, S.; Ligtenberg, A.; Muthuri, C.; Peña-Claros, M.; Purwanto, E.; van Oel, P.; Rozendaal, D.; Suprayogo, D.; Teuling, A.J. Sustainable Agroforestry Landscape Management: Changing the Game. Land 2020, 9, 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080243

AMA Style

van Noordwijk M, Speelman E, Hofstede GJ, Farida A, Abdurrahim AY, Miccolis A, Hakim AL, Wamucii CN, Lagneaux E, Andreotti F, Kimbowa G, Assogba GGC, Best L, Tanika L, Githinji M, Rosero P, Sari RR, Satnarain U, Adiwibowo S, Ligtenberg A, Muthuri C, Peña-Claros M, Purwanto E, van Oel P, Rozendaal D, Suprayogo D, Teuling AJ. Sustainable Agroforestry Landscape Management: Changing the Game. Land. 2020; 9(8):243. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080243

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Noordwijk, Meine, Erika Speelman, Gert J. Hofstede, Ai Farida, Ali Y. Abdurrahim, Andrew Miccolis, Arief L. Hakim, Charles N. Wamucii, Elisabeth Lagneaux, Federico Andreotti, George Kimbowa, Gildas G.C. Assogba, Lisa Best, Lisa Tanika, Margaret Githinji, Paulina Rosero, Rika R. Sari, Usha Satnarain, Soeryo Adiwibowo, Arend Ligtenberg, Catherine Muthuri, Marielos Peña-Claros, Edi Purwanto, Pieter van Oel, Danaë Rozendaal, Didik Suprayogo, and Adriaan J. Teuling. 2020. "Sustainable Agroforestry Landscape Management: Changing the Game" Land 9, no. 8: 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9080243

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