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Open AccessArticle

Agroforestry as Policy Option for Forest-Zone Oil Palm Production in Indonesia

1
Tropenbos Indonesia, Bogor 16163, Indonesia
2
Java Learning Centre (JAVLEC), Klidon, Yogyakarta 55581, Indonesia
3
Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Makassar 90243, Indonesia
4
World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16155, Indonesia
5
Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(12), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis and policy change. While spatial details of FZ-OP remain contested, we review literature on (1) the legal basis of the forest zone and its conversion, (2) social stratification in oil palm production (large-scale, plasma and independent growers), and (3) environmental consequences of forest conversion to FZ-OP, before discussing policy options in a range of social and ecological contexts. Policy options range from full regularization (as FZ-OP stands could meet international forest definitions), to conditional acceptance of diversified smallholder plantings in ‘agroforestry concessions’, to gradually phasing out FZ-OP and eviction/destruction. A nuanced and differentiated approach to FZ-OP is needed, as certification of legality along supply chains is vulnerable to illegal levies and corruption. Corporate actors trading internationally can avoid use of uncertified raw materials, effectively shifting blame and depressing farmgate prices for domestic-market palm oil, but this will not return forest conditions or stop further forest conversion. We discuss an agenda for follow-up policy research. View Full-Text
Keywords: certification; deforestation; palm oil; forest classification; Jambi; legality; independent smallholders; agroforestry concessions; Sumatra; West Kalimantan certification; deforestation; palm oil; forest classification; Jambi; legality; independent smallholders; agroforestry concessions; Sumatra; West Kalimantan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Purwanto, E.; Santoso, H.; Jelsma, I.; Widayati, A.; Nugroho, H.Y.S.H.; van Noordwijk, M. Agroforestry as Policy Option for Forest-Zone Oil Palm Production in Indonesia. Land 2020, 9, 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531

AMA Style

Purwanto E, Santoso H, Jelsma I, Widayati A, Nugroho HYSH, van Noordwijk M. Agroforestry as Policy Option for Forest-Zone Oil Palm Production in Indonesia. Land. 2020; 9(12):531. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531

Chicago/Turabian Style

Purwanto, Edi; Santoso, Hery; Jelsma, Idsert; Widayati, Atiek; Nugroho, Hunggul Y.S.H.; van Noordwijk, Meine. 2020. "Agroforestry as Policy Option for Forest-Zone Oil Palm Production in Indonesia" Land 9, no. 12: 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120531

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