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Article

Fruit Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems for Smallholder Farmers in Northwest Vietnam—A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment

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World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Vietnam, 249A Thuy Khue Street, Thuy Khue Ward, Tay Ho District, Hanoi, Vietnam
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Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7043, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
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World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Headquarters, UN Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110451
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 12 November 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
Rapid expansion of unsustainable farming practices in upland areas of Southeast Asia threatens food security and the environment. This study assessed alternative agroforestry systems for sustainable land management and livelihood improvement in northwest Vietnam. The performance of fruit tree-based agroforestry was compared with that of sole cropping, and farmers’ perspectives on agroforestry were documented. After seven years, longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.)-maize-forage grass and son tra (Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne)-forage grass systems had generated 2.4- and 3.5-fold higher average annual income than sole maize and sole son tra, respectively. Sole longan gave no net profit, due to high investment costs. After some years, competition developed between the crop, grass, and tree components, e.g., for nitrogen, and the farmers interviewed reported a need to adapt management practices to optimise spacing and pruning. They also reported that agroforestry enhanced ecosystem services by controlling surface runoff and erosion, increasing soil fertility and improving resilience to extreme weather. Thus, agroforestry practices with fruit trees can be more profitable than sole-crop cultivation within a few years. Integration of seasonal and fast-growing perennial plants (e.g., grass) is essential to ensure quick returns. Wider adoption needs initial incentives or loans, knowledge exchange, and market links. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit tree-based agroforestry; economic benefits; ecosystem services; farmer perspectives; resource competition; systems improvement; uptake and expansion fruit tree-based agroforestry; economic benefits; ecosystem services; farmer perspectives; resource competition; systems improvement; uptake and expansion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Do, V.H.; La, N.; Mulia, R.; Bergkvist, G.; Dahlin, A.S.; Nguyen, V.T.; Pham, H.T.; Öborn, I. Fruit Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems for Smallholder Farmers in Northwest Vietnam—A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment. Land 2020, 9, 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110451

AMA Style

Do VH, La N, Mulia R, Bergkvist G, Dahlin AS, Nguyen VT, Pham HT, Öborn I. Fruit Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems for Smallholder Farmers in Northwest Vietnam—A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment. Land. 2020; 9(11):451. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Do, Van H., Nguyen La, Rachmat Mulia, Göran Bergkvist, A. S. Dahlin, Van T. Nguyen, Huu T. Pham, and Ingrid Öborn. 2020. "Fruit Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems for Smallholder Farmers in Northwest Vietnam—A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment" Land 9, no. 11: 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110451

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