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Article

Earthworm Diversity, Forest Conversion and Agroforestry in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Forest Plant, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Soil, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Soil Ecology, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Ecology and Biological Resources, Graduate University of Technology and Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Biology, School of Education, Can Tho University, Can Tho 900000, Vietnam
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Climate Change and Development Program, Vietnam-Japan University, Vietnam National University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16155, Indonesia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2021, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010036
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
The conversion of natural forests to different land uses still occurs in various parts of Southeast Asia with poor records of impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity. We quantified such impacts on earthworm diversity in two communes of Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Both communes are situated within buffer zones of a nature reserve where remaining natural forests are under threat of continued conversion. We identified 25 different earthworm species, out of which 21 were found in natural forests, 15 in agroforestry, 14 in planted forests, and seven each in annual croplands and home gardens. Out of the six species that were omnipresent inhabitants of all observed habitats, Pontoscolex corethrurus largely dominated habitats with intensive anthropogenic activities but was rare in natural forests. Natural and regenerated forests had a much denser earthworm population in the top 10 cm of soil rather than in deeper soil layers. We conclude that the conversion of natural forests into different land uses has reduced earthworm diversity which can substantially affect soil health and ecosystem functions in the two communes. Protection of the remaining natural forests is urgent, while the promotion of a tree-based farming system such as agroforestry can reconcile earthworm conservation and local livelihoods. View Full-Text
Keywords: land-use change; belowground biodiversity; soil engineers; Pontoscolex corethrurus; natural habitats; planted forest land-use change; belowground biodiversity; soil engineers; Pontoscolex corethrurus; natural habitats; planted forest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mulia, R.; Hoang, S.V.; Dinh, V.M.; Duong, N.B.T.; Nguyen, A.D.; Lam, D.H.; Thi Hoang, D.T.; van Noordwijk, M. Earthworm Diversity, Forest Conversion and Agroforestry in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. Land 2021, 10, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010036

AMA Style

Mulia R, Hoang SV, Dinh VM, Duong NBT, Nguyen AD, Lam DH, Thi Hoang DT, van Noordwijk M. Earthworm Diversity, Forest Conversion and Agroforestry in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. Land. 2021; 10(1):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mulia, Rachmat, Sam V. Hoang, Van M. Dinh, Ngoc B.T. Duong, Anh D. Nguyen, Dang H. Lam, Duyen T. Thi Hoang, and Meine van Noordwijk. 2021. "Earthworm Diversity, Forest Conversion and Agroforestry in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam" Land 10, no. 1: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010036

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