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Open AccessArticle

Soil Organic Matter, Mitigation of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Cocoa–Based Agroforestry Systems

1
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 9245, Indonesia
2
Natural Resource Research and Development Center, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 9245, Indonesia
3
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang 65415, Indonesia
4
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 9245, Indonesia
5
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Bogor 16001, Indonesia
6
Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(9), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090323
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 4 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
Belowground roles of agroforestry in climate change mitigation (C storage) and adaptation (reduced vulnerability to drought) are less obvious than easy-to-measure aspects aboveground. Documentation on these roles is lacking. We quantified the organic C concentration (Corg) and soil physical properties in a mountainous landscape in Sulawesi (Indonesia) for five land cover types: secondary forest (SF), multistrata cocoa–based agroforestry (CAF) aged 4–5 years (CAF4), 10–12 years (CAF10), 17–34 years (CAF17), and multistrata (mixed fruit and timber) agroforest (MAF45) aged 45–68 years. With four replicate plots per cover type, we measured five pools of C-stock according to IPCC guidelines, soil bulk density (BD), macro porosity (MP), hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and available water capacity of the soil (AWC). The highest C-stock, in SF, was around 320 Mg ha−1, the lowest, 74 Mg ha−1, was in CAF4, with the older agroforestry systems being intermediate with 120 to 150 Mg ha−1. Soil compaction after forest conversion led to increased BD and reduced MP, Ks, and AWC. Older agroforestry partly recovered buffering: AWC per m of rooted soil profile increased by 5.7 mm per unit (g kg−1) increase of Corg. The restored AWC can support about a week’s worth of evapotranspiration without rain, assisting in climate change adaptation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa agroforestry; climate adaptation; soil restoration; soil organic carbon; soil macro-porosity; soil water availability; inceptisols cocoa agroforestry; climate adaptation; soil restoration; soil organic carbon; soil macro-porosity; soil water availability; inceptisols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gusli, S.; Sumeni, S.; Sabodin, R.; Muqfi, I.H.; Nur, M.; Hairiah, K.; Useng, D.; van Noordwijk, M. Soil Organic Matter, Mitigation of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Cocoa–Based Agroforestry Systems. Land 2020, 9, 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090323

AMA Style

Gusli S, Sumeni S, Sabodin R, Muqfi IH, Nur M, Hairiah K, Useng D, van Noordwijk M. Soil Organic Matter, Mitigation of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Cocoa–Based Agroforestry Systems. Land. 2020; 9(9):323. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gusli, Sikstus; Sumeni, Sri; Sabodin, Riyami; Muqfi, Ikram H.; Nur, Mustakim; Hairiah, Kurniatun; Useng, Daniel; van Noordwijk, Meine. 2020. "Soil Organic Matter, Mitigation of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Cocoa–Based Agroforestry Systems" Land 9, no. 9: 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090323

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