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Article

Groundwater-Extracting Rice Production in the Rejoso Watershed (Indonesia) Reducing Urban Water Availability: Characterisation and Intervention Priorities

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World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Bogor 16001, Indonesia
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Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Institut de physique du globe de Paris, Université de Paris, CNRS, 75005 Paris, France
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Laboratoire GéoSciences Réunion, Université de La Réunion, 97744 Saint Denis, France
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HydroSciences Montpellier (HSM), Université Montpellier, IRD, CNR, 34090 Montpellier, France
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Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Study Group Agroforestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krish Jayachandran
Land 2021, 10(6), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060586
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 1 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services)
Production landscapes depend on, but also affect, ecosystem services. In the Rejoso watershed (East Java, Indonesia), uncontrolled groundwater use for paddies reduces flow of lowland pressure-driven artesian springs that supply drinking water to urban stakeholders. Analysis of the water balance suggested that the decline by about 30% in spring discharge in the past decades is attributed for 47 and 53%, respectively, to upland degradation and lowland groundwater abstraction. Consequently, current spring restoration efforts support upland agroforestry development while aiming to reduce lowland groundwater wasting. To clarify spatial and social targeting of lowland interventions five clusters (replicable patterns) of lowland paddy farming were distinguished from spatial data on, among other factors, reliance on river versus artesian wells delivering groundwater, use of crop rotation, rice yield, fertiliser rates and intensity of rodent control. A survey of farming households (461 respondents), complemented and verified through in-depth interviews and group discussions, identified opportunities for interventions and associated risks. Changes in artesian well design, allowing outflow control, can support water-saving, sustainable paddy cultivation methods. With rodents as a major yield-reducing factor, solutions likely depend on more synchronized planting calendars and thus on collective action for effectiveness at scale. Interventions based on this design are currently tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: artesian wells; ecosystem services; landscape approach; Oryza; paddy cultivation; restoration; rodents; sustainable intensification; water balance; Mount Bromo-Tengger artesian wells; ecosystem services; landscape approach; Oryza; paddy cultivation; restoration; rodents; sustainable intensification; water balance; Mount Bromo-Tengger
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khasanah, N.; Tanika, L.; Pratama, L.D.Y.; Leimona, B.; Prasetiyo, E.; Marulani, F.; Hendriatna, A.; Zulkarnain, M.T.; Toulier, A.; van Noordwijk, M. Groundwater-Extracting Rice Production in the Rejoso Watershed (Indonesia) Reducing Urban Water Availability: Characterisation and Intervention Priorities. Land 2021, 10, 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060586

AMA Style

Khasanah N, Tanika L, Pratama LDY, Leimona B, Prasetiyo E, Marulani F, Hendriatna A, Zulkarnain MT, Toulier A, van Noordwijk M. Groundwater-Extracting Rice Production in the Rejoso Watershed (Indonesia) Reducing Urban Water Availability: Characterisation and Intervention Priorities. Land. 2021; 10(6):586. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khasanah, Ni’matul, Lisa Tanika, Lalu D.Y. Pratama, Beria Leimona, Endro Prasetiyo, Fitri Marulani, Adis Hendriatna, Mukhammad T. Zulkarnain, Alix Toulier, and Meine van Noordwijk. 2021. "Groundwater-Extracting Rice Production in the Rejoso Watershed (Indonesia) Reducing Urban Water Availability: Characterisation and Intervention Priorities" Land 10, no. 6: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060586

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