Special Issue "Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Peter N. Lipke
Website
Guest Editor
Biology Department, City University of New York Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
Interests: Role of functional amyloids in cell adhesion; Structure and function of cell adhesion proteins in eukaryotes; Role of fungal cell adhesion proteins in pathogenesis; Structure, evolution, and biosynthesis of fungal cell walls; Discovery of wall-targeted antifungal drugs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Clarissa J. Nobile
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA
Interests: microbial communities; Candida; biofilms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Cell adhesion proteins and glycans in fungi mediate cell–cell binding, as well as attachment to abiotic surfaces, epithelia, and other microbes.  However, there has not been any recent work that integrates all of these roles into a more comprehensive picture. We will be co-editing a Special Issue of the Journal of Fungi on the theme of adhesion in the lifestyle and pathogenesis of fungi. The areas we anticipate covering will include the structure and function of fungal adhesins, their activities in pathogenic and commensal host-fungal interactions, and the roles of microbial communities, such as biofilms in the ‘lifestyle’ and pathogenesis of fungi.  

We hope you will participate by submitting a high-quality research paper or review article for inclusion in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Peter N. Lipke
Prof. Dr. Clarissa J. Nobile
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Glycoprotein
  • Cell wall
  • Biofilms
  • β-glucan
  • Mannoproteins
  • Chitin
  • Cell-cell signalling
  • Proteomics
  • Transcriptome
  • Yeast-to-hyphal transition

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Do Pentraxins Bind to Fungi in Invasive Human Gastrointestinal Candidiasis?
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030111 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Tissue from 13 autopsy cases with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis was studied for the binding of the pentraxins, C-reactive protein (CRP), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) to fungal surfaces. Invasive candidal infection was demonstrated using a hematoxylin and eosin stain [...] Read more.
Tissue from 13 autopsy cases with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis was studied for the binding of the pentraxins, C-reactive protein (CRP), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) to fungal surfaces. Invasive candidal infection was demonstrated using a hematoxylin and eosin stain and a Gomori methenamine silver stain (GMS). Immunohistochemistry was performed with CRP and PTX3 monoclonal antibodies and did not demonstrate CRP or PTX3 bound to fungi (0 of 13 cases), although CRP was extensively deposited on human tissue. A polyclonal antibody to SAP showed that SAP was bound to fungi in 12 of 13 cases. Although all three pentraxins have been reported to bind to fungi or bacteria, only SAP was bound to filamentous and yeast forms of Candida in human tissue, as detected by immunohistochemistry. SAP was abundantly present on fungi and may have affected the host innate immune response to the invading fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Fungal MAPK Pathway Targets on the Cell Wall
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030093 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The fungal cell wall is an extracellular organelle that provides structure and protection to cells. The cell wall also influences the interactions of cells with each other and surfaces. The cell wall can be reorganized in response to changing environmental conditions and different [...] Read more.
The fungal cell wall is an extracellular organelle that provides structure and protection to cells. The cell wall also influences the interactions of cells with each other and surfaces. The cell wall can be reorganized in response to changing environmental conditions and different types of stress. Signaling pathways control the remodeling of the cell wall through target proteins that are in many cases not well defined. The Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase pathway that controls filamentous growth in yeast (fMAPK) was required for normal growth in media containing the cell wall perturbing agent Calcofluor White (CFW). A mass spectrometry (MASS-SPEC) approach and analysis of expression profiling data identified cell wall proteins and modifying enzymes whose levels were influenced by the fMAPK pathway. These include Flo11p, Flo10p, Tip1p, Pry2p and the mannosyltransferase, Och1p. Cells lacking Flo11p or Och1p were sensitive to CFW. The identification of cell wall proteins controlled by a MAPK pathway may provide insights into how signaling pathways regulate the cell wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Biological Roles of Protein-Coding Tandem Repeats in the Yeast Candida Albicans
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030078 - 29 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Tandem repeat (TR) DNA mutates faster than other DNA by insertion and deletion of repeats. Large parts of eukaryotic proteomes are encoded by ORFs containing protein-coding TRs (TR-ORFs, pcTRs) with largely unknown biological consequences. We explored these in the yeast Candida albicans, [...] Read more.
Tandem repeat (TR) DNA mutates faster than other DNA by insertion and deletion of repeats. Large parts of eukaryotic proteomes are encoded by ORFs containing protein-coding TRs (TR-ORFs, pcTRs) with largely unknown biological consequences. We explored these in the yeast Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen. We found that almost half of C. albicans’ proteins are encoded by TR-ORFs. pcTR frequency differed only moderately between different gene (GO) categories. Bioinformatic predictions of genome-wide mutation rates and clade-specific differences in pcTR allele frequencies indicated that pcTRs (i) significantly increase the genome-wide mutation rate; (ii) significantly impact on fitness and (iii) allow the evolution of selectively advantageous clade-specific protein variants. Synonymous mutations reduced the repetitiveness of many amino acid repeat-encoding pcTRs. A survey, in 58 strains, revealed that in some pcTR regions in which repetitiveness was not significantly diminished by synonymous mutations the habitat predicted which alleles were present, suggesting roles of pcTR mutation in short-term adaptation and pathogenesis. In C. albicans pcTR mutation apparently is an important mechanism for mutational advance and possibly also rapid adaptation, with synonymous mutations providing a mechanism for adjusting mutation rates of individual pcTRs. Analyses of Arabidopsis and human pcTRs showed that the latter also occurs in other eukaryotes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
An In Vitro Model for Candida albicans–Streptococcus gordonii Biofilms on Titanium Surfaces
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020066 - 04 Jun 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental [...] Read more.
The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental implants. Most of these infections are mixed species in nature and associated with a biofilm mode of growth. Here, after optimization of different parameters including cell density, growth media, and incubation conditions, we have developed an in vitro model of C. albicans–S. gordonii mixed-species biofilms on titanium discs that is relevant to infections of peri-implant diseases. Our results indicate a synergistic effect for the development of biofilms when both microorganisms were seeded together, confirming the existence of beneficial, mutualistic cross-kingdom interactions for biofilm formation. The morphological and architectural features of these dual-species biofilms formed on titanium were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Mixed biofilms formed on titanium discs showed a high level of resistance to combination therapy with antifungal and antibacterial drugs. This model can serve as a platform for further analyses of complex fungal/bacterial biofilms and can also be applied to screening of new drug candidates against mixed-species biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Significance of Lipids to Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans: An Emerging Perspective
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040140 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Candida albicans, the dimorphic opportunistic human fungal pathogen, is capable of forming highly drug-resistant biofilms in the human host. Formation of biofilm is a multistep and multiregulatory process involving various adaptive mechanisms. The ability of cells in a biofilm to alter membrane [...] Read more.
Candida albicans, the dimorphic opportunistic human fungal pathogen, is capable of forming highly drug-resistant biofilms in the human host. Formation of biofilm is a multistep and multiregulatory process involving various adaptive mechanisms. The ability of cells in a biofilm to alter membrane lipid composition is one such adaptation crucial for biofilm development in C. albicans. Lipids modulate mixed species biofilm formation in vivo and inherent antifungal resistance associated with these organized communities. Cells in C. albicans biofilms display phase-dependent changes in phospholipid classes and in levels of lipid raft formation. Systematic studies with genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be manipulated are limited in C. albicans. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated on the impact that alterations in phospholipids may have on the biofilm forming ability of C. albicans in the human host. This review may provide the requisite impetus to analyze lipids from a therapeutic standpoint in managing C. albicans biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Going with the Flo: The Role of Flo11-Dependent and Independent Interactions in Yeast Mat Formation
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040132 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Strains of the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are able to generate a multicellular structure called a mat on low percentage (0.3%) agar plates are given a selective advantage over strains that cannot exhibit this phenotype. This environment may exhibit some similarities to [...] Read more.
Strains of the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are able to generate a multicellular structure called a mat on low percentage (0.3%) agar plates are given a selective advantage over strains that cannot exhibit this phenotype. This environment may exhibit some similarities to the rotting fruit on which S. cerevisiae often grows in nature. Mat formation occurs when the cells spread over the plate as they grow, and cells in the center of the biofilm aggregate to form multicellular structures that resemble a floral pattern. This multicellular behavior is dependent on the cell surface flocculin Flo11. This review covers recent information on the structure of Flo11 and how this likely impacts mat formation as well as how variegated expression of Flo11 influences mat formation. Finally, it also discusses several Flo11-independent genetic factors that control mat formation, such as vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes, cell wall signaling components, and heat shock proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Adhesins of Yeasts: Protein Structure and Interactions
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040119 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
The ability of yeast cells to adhere to other cells or substrates is crucial for many yeasts. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can switch from a unicellular lifestyle to a multicellular one. A crucial step in multicellular lifestyle adaptation is self-recognition, self-interaction, and [...] Read more.
The ability of yeast cells to adhere to other cells or substrates is crucial for many yeasts. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can switch from a unicellular lifestyle to a multicellular one. A crucial step in multicellular lifestyle adaptation is self-recognition, self-interaction, and adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Infectious yeast diseases such as candidiasis are initiated by the adhesion of the yeast cells to host cells. Adhesion is accomplished by adhesin proteins that are attached to the cell wall and stick out to interact with other cells or substrates. Protein structures give detailed insights into the molecular mechanism of adhesin-ligand interaction. Currently, only the structures of a very limited number of N-terminal adhesion domains of adhesins have been solved. Therefore, this review focuses on these adhesin protein families. The protein architectures, protein structures, and ligand interactions of the flocculation protein family of S. cerevisiae; the epithelial adhesion family of C. glabrata; and the agglutinin-like sequence protein family of C. albicans are reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Tipping the Balance: C. albicans Adaptation in Polymicrobial Environments
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030112 - 18 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Candida albicans is a pleiomorphic fungus which co-exists with commensal bacteria in mucosal and skin sites of mammalian hosts. It is also a major co-isolated organism from polymicrobial systemic infections, with high potential for morbidity or mortality in immunocompromised patients. Traditionally, resident mucosal [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is a pleiomorphic fungus which co-exists with commensal bacteria in mucosal and skin sites of mammalian hosts. It is also a major co-isolated organism from polymicrobial systemic infections, with high potential for morbidity or mortality in immunocompromised patients. Traditionally, resident mucosal bacteria have been thought to antagonize C. albicans in its ability to colonize or cause infection. However, recent investigations have revealed synergistic relationships with certain bacterial species that colonize the same mucosal sites with C. albicans. Such relationships broaden the research landscape in pathogenesis but also contribute to clinical challenges in the prevention or treatment of mucosal candidiasis. This review sheds light on interactions of C. albicans and mucosal bacteria, with special emphasis on the effects of the resident bacterial microbiota on C. albicans physiology as they relate to its adaptation in mucosal sites as a commensal colonizer or as a pathogenic organism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Cryptococcal Traits Mediating Adherence to Biotic and Abiotic Surfaces
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030088 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Several species in the genus Cryptococcus are facultative intracellular pathogens capable of causing disease associated with high mortality and morbidity in humans. These fungi interact with other organisms in the soil, and these interactions may contribute to the development of adaptation mechanisms that [...] Read more.
Several species in the genus Cryptococcus are facultative intracellular pathogens capable of causing disease associated with high mortality and morbidity in humans. These fungi interact with other organisms in the soil, and these interactions may contribute to the development of adaptation mechanisms that function in virulence by promoting fungal survival in animal hosts. Fungal adhesion molecules, also known as adhesins, have been classically considered as cell-surface or secreted proteins that play critical roles in microbial pathogenesis or in biofilm formation as structural components. Pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. differ from other pathogenic yeasts in having a polysaccharide capsule that covers the cell wall surface and precludes interactions of those structures with host cell receptors. Hence, pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. use unconventional tools for surface attachment. In this essay, we review the unique traits and mechanisms favoring adhesion of Cryptococcus spp. to biotic and abiotic surfaces. Knowledge of the traits that mediate adherence could be exploited in the development of therapeutic, biomedical, and/or industrial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Candida glabrata’s Genome Plasticity Confers a Unique Pattern of Expressed Cell Wall Proteins
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020067 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia, and its ability to adhere to different host cell types, to microorganisms, and to medical devices are important virulence factors. Here, we consider three characteristics that confer extraordinary advantages to C. glabrata within [...] Read more.
Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia, and its ability to adhere to different host cell types, to microorganisms, and to medical devices are important virulence factors. Here, we consider three characteristics that confer extraordinary advantages to C. glabrata within the host. (1) C. glabrata has a large number of genes encoding for adhesins most of which are localized at subtelomeric regions. The number and sequence of these genes varies substantially depending on the strain, indicating that C. glabrata can tolerate high genomic plasticity; (2) The largest family of CWPs (cell wall proteins) is the EPA (epithelial adhesin) family of adhesins. Epa1 is the major adhesin and mediates adherence to epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. Several layers of regulation like subtelomeric silencing, cis-acting regulatory regions, activators, nutritional signaling, and stress conditions tightly regulate the expression of many adhesin-encoding genes in C. glabrata, while many others are not expressed. Importantly, there is a connection between acquired resistance to xenobiotics and increased adherence; (3) Other subfamilies of adhesins mediate adherence to Candida albicans, allowing C. glabrata to efficiently invade the oral epithelium and form robust biofilms. It is noteworthy that every C. glabrata strain analyzed presents a unique pattern of CWPs at the cell surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Adhesins in Candida glabrata
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020060 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking [...] Read more.
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans. An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S. cerevisiae, which revealed a correlation between the number of adhesin-encoding genes and pathogenicity. The adhesins are involved in the first steps during an infection; they are the first point of contact with the host. For several of these adhesins, their importance in adherence to different substrates and subsequent biofilm formation was demonstrated in vitro or in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of C. glabrata adhesins during adhesion and biofilm formation both, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
What We Do Not Know about Fungal Cell Adhesion Molecules
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020059 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 23
Abstract
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from [...] Read more.
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves. A catalog of known adhesins shows some common features: high Ser/Thr content, tandem repeats, N- and O-glycosylations, GPI anchors, dibasic sequence motifs, and potential amyloid-forming sequences. However, none of these features is universal. Known ligands include proteins and glycans on homologous cells and host cells. Existing and novel tools can exploit the availability of genome sequences to identify and characterize new fungal adhesins. These include bioinformatics tools and well-established yeast surface display models, which could be coupled with an adhesion substrate array. Thus, new knowledge could be exploited to answer key questions in fungal ecology, animal and plant pathogenesis, and roles of biofilms in infection and biomass turnover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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