Special Issue "Selected Papers from the Sixth International Symposium on Marine Propulsors"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kourosh Koushan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
SINTEF Ocean and Department of Marine Technology, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Otto Nielsens vei 10, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Tel. +47 411 05 297
Interests: propulsors (propellers, thrusters, waterjets); energy saving devices; cavitation; ventilation of propulsors; artificial intelligence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Sverre Steen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Marine Technology, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Otto Nielsens vei 10, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Tel. +47 73 59 58 61; Fax: +47 73 59 55 28
Interests: Ship Design; Marine hydrodynamics; Experimental hydrodynamics; Cavitation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine propulsors are key components of the many thousand ships operating in oceans, lakes, and rivers around the world. The performance of the propulsors is vital for the efficiency, environmental impact, safety, and comfort of ships. New types of propulsors, with electric drive, flexible blades, and multi-stage propellers, require new knowledge and improved tools. Innovative propulsor types using renewable energy from waves or winds are also becoming commercialised. Marine renewable rotating devices are used to gain energy from the water current. The improvement of computational fluid dynamics presents new opportunities for advanced design and performance prediction, and new instrumentation and data collection techniques enable more advanced experimental techniques. This Special Issue of the Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is devoted to bringing the latest developments in research and technical developments regarding marine propulsors and marine renewable rotating devices to the benefit of both academics and industry. This issue includes extended selected papers from the 6th International Symposium on Marine Propulsors, as well as other contributions.

To know more, visit the symposium website www.marinepropulsors.com

Prof. Dr. Kourosh Koushan
Prof. Dr. Sverre Steen
Guest Editors text

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Propellers
  • Waterjets
  • Unconventional propulsors (azimuthing, SPP, rim drive, etc.)
  • Renewable energy-based propulsors
  • Energy-saving devices
  • Cavitation, noise, and vibration
  • Propulsor dynamics
  • Propulsion in seaways
  • Propulsion in off-design conditions
  • Renewable energy-rotating devices

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental and Numerical Study of Pre-Swirl Stators PSS
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010047 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
Energy saving within shipping is gaining more attention due to environmental awareness, financial incentives, and, most importantly, new regional and international rules, which limit the acceptable emission from the ships considerably. One of the measures is installation of energy saving devices (ESD). One [...] Read more.
Energy saving within shipping is gaining more attention due to environmental awareness, financial incentives, and, most importantly, new regional and international rules, which limit the acceptable emission from the ships considerably. One of the measures is installation of energy saving devices (ESD). One type of such a device, known as pre-swirl stator (PSS), consists of a number (usually 3 to 5) of fins, which are mounted right in front of the propeller. By modifying the inflow and swirl into the propeller, the fins of a PSS have the possibility to increase the total propulsion efficiency. However, at the same time, they may introduce additional resistance either due to changes in pressure distribution over the aft ship or due to its own resistance of fins. In this paper, the authors present experimental and numerical investigation of a PSS for a chemical tanker. Numerical analysis of the vessel with and without PSS is performed in the model and full scale. Model testing is performed with and without PSS to verify the power savings predicted numerically. Among other quantities, 3D wake field behind the hull is densely measured at different planes, starting from the PSS plane to the rudder stock plane. 3D wake measurements are also conducted with a running propeller. The measurements show considerable improvement in the performance of the vessel fitted with PSS. On the numerical side, analyses show that scale effect plays an important role in the ESD performance. Investigation of the scale effect on the vessel equipped with an ESD provides new insight for the community, which is investing more into the development of energy saving devices, and it offers valuable information for the elaboration of scaling procedures for such vessels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Towards a Realistic Estimation of the Powering Performance of a Ship with a Gate Rudder System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010043 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation on the scale effects associated with the powering performance of a Gate Rudder System (GRS) which was recently introduced as a novel energy-saving propulsion and maneuvring device. This new system was applied for the first time on a [...] Read more.
This paper presents an investigation on the scale effects associated with the powering performance of a Gate Rudder System (GRS) which was recently introduced as a novel energy-saving propulsion and maneuvring device. This new system was applied for the first time on a 2400 GT domestic container ship, and full-scale sea trials were conducted successfully in Japan, in 2017. The trials confirmed the superior powering and maneuvring performance of this novel system. However, a significant discrepancy was also noticed between the model test-based performance predictions and the full-scale measurements. The discrepancy was in the power-speed data and also in the maneuvring test data when these data were compared with the data of her sister container ship which was equipped with a conventional flap rudder. Twelve months after the delivery of the vessel with the gate rudder system, the voyage data revealed a surprisingly more significant difference in the powering performance based on the voyage data. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to take a further step towards an improved estimation of the powering performance of ships with a GRS with a specific emphasis on the scale effect issues associated with a GRS. More specifically, this study investigated the scale effects on the powering performance of a gate rudder system based on the analyses of the data from two tank tests and full-scale trials with the above-mentioned sister ships. The study focused on the corrections for the scale effects, which were believed to be associated with the drag and lift characteristics of the gate rudder blades due to the low Reynolds number experienced in model tests combined with the unique arrangement of this rudder and propulsion system. Based on the appropriate semi-empirical approaches that support model test and full-scale data, this study verified the scale effect phenomenon and presented the associated correction procedure. Also, this study presented an enhanced methodology for the powering performance prediction of a ship driven by a GRS implementing the proposed scale effect correction. The predicted powering performance of the subject container vessel with the GRS presented an excellent agreement with the full-scale trials data justifying the claimed scale effect and associated correction procedure, as well as the proposed enhanced methodology for the practical way of predicting the powering performance of a ship with the GRS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Time Domain Modeling of Propeller Forces due to Ventilation in Static and Dynamic Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010031 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamic effect on the propeller loading due to ventilation by using a simulation model that generates a time domain solution for propeller forces in varying operational conditions. For ventilation modeling, the simulation model applies [...] Read more.
This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamic effect on the propeller loading due to ventilation by using a simulation model that generates a time domain solution for propeller forces in varying operational conditions. For ventilation modeling, the simulation model applies a formula based on the idea that the change in lift coefficient due to ventilation computes the change in the thrust coefficient. It is discussed how dynamic effects, like hysteresis effects and blade frequency dynamics, can be included in the simulation model. Simulation model validation was completed by comparison with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations and model experiments. Experiments were performed for static and dynamic (heave motion) conditions in the large towing tank at the SINTEF Ocean in Trondheim and in the Marine Cybernetics Laboratories at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology). The main focus of this paper is to explain and validate the prediction model for thrust loss due to ventilation and out of water effects in static and dynamic heave conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Study of Supercavitation Bubble Development over Bodies in a Duct Flow
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010028 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Understanding the development and geometry of a supercavitation bubble is essential for the design of supercavitational vehicles as well as for prediction of bubble formation within machinery-related duct flows. The role of the cavitator (nose) of a body within the flow is significant [...] Read more.
Understanding the development and geometry of a supercavitation bubble is essential for the design of supercavitational vehicles as well as for prediction of bubble formation within machinery-related duct flows. The role of the cavitator (nose) of a body within the flow is significant as well. This research studied experimentally supercavitation bubble development and characteristics within a duct flow. Tests were conducted on cylindrical slender bodies (3 mm diameter) within a duct (about 20 mm diameter) at different water flow velocities. A comparison of supercavitation bubbles, developing on bodies with different nose geometries, was made. The comparison referred to the conditions of the bubbles’ creation and collapse, as well as to their shape and development. Various stages of the bubble development were examined for different cavitators (flat, spherical, and conical nose). It was found that the different cavitators produced similar bubble geometries, although at different flow velocities. The bubble appeared at the lowest velocity for the flat nose, then for the spherical nose, and at the highest velocity for the conical cavitator. In addition, a hysteresis phenomenon was observed, showing different bubble development paths for increasing versus decreasing the water flow velocity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Full-Scale Ship Self-Propulsion Performance with Direct Comparison to Statistical Sea Trail Results
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010024 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
Accurate prediction of the self-propulsion performance is one of the most important factors for the energy-efficient design of a ship. In general, the hydrodynamic performance of a full-scale ship could be achieved by model-scale simulation or towing tank tests with extrapolations. With the [...] Read more.
Accurate prediction of the self-propulsion performance is one of the most important factors for the energy-efficient design of a ship. In general, the hydrodynamic performance of a full-scale ship could be achieved by model-scale simulation or towing tank tests with extrapolations. With the development of CFD methods and computing power, directly predict ship performance with full-scale CFD is an important approach. In this article, a numerical study on the full-scale self-propulsion performance with propeller operating behind ship at model- and full-scale is presented. The study includes numerical simulations using the RANS method with a double-model and VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) model respectively and scale effect analysis based on overall performance, local flow fields and detailed vortex identification. The verification study on grid convergence is also performed for full-scale simulation with global and local mesh refinements. A series of sea trail tests were performed to collect reliable data for the validation of CFD predictions. The analysis of scale effect on hull-propeller interaction shows that the difference of hull boundary layer and flow separation is the main source of scale effect on ship wake. The results of the fluctuations of propeller thrust and torque along with circulation distribution and local flow field show that the propeller’s loading is significantly higher for model-scale ship. It is suggested that the difference of vortex evolution and interaction is more pronounced and has larger effects on the ship’s powering performance at model-scale than full-scale according to the simulation results. From the study on self-propulsion prediction, it could be concluded that the simplification on free surface treatment does not only affect the wave-making resistance for bare hull but also the propeller performance and propeller induced ship resistance which can be produced up to 5% uncertainty to the power prediction. Roughness is another important factor in full-scale simulation because it has up to an approximately 7% effect on the delivery power. As a result of the validation study, the numerical simulations of full-scale ship self-propulsion shows good agreement with the sea trail data especially for cases that have considered both roughness and free surface effects. This result will largely enhance our confidence to apply full-scale simulation in the prediction of ship’s self-propulsion performance in the future ship designs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Homogenous Isotropic Propeller Blades
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010021 - 03 Jan 2020
Abstract
Results of the fluid-structure co-simulations that were carried out as part of the FleksProp project are presented. The FleksProp project aims to establish better design procedures that take into account the hydroelastic behavior of marine propellers and thrusters. Part of the project is [...] Read more.
Results of the fluid-structure co-simulations that were carried out as part of the FleksProp project are presented. The FleksProp project aims to establish better design procedures that take into account the hydroelastic behavior of marine propellers and thrusters. Part of the project is devoted to establishing good validation cases for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations. More specifically, this paper describes the comparison of the numerical computations carried out on three propeller designs that were produced in both a metal and resin variant. The metal version could practically be considered rigid in model scale, while the resin variant would show measurable deformations. Both variants were then tested in open water condition at SINTEF Ocean’s towing tank. The tests were carried out at different propeller rotational speeds, advance coefficients, and pitch settings. The computations were carried out using the commercial software STAR-CCM+ and Abaqus. This paper describes briefly the experimental setup and focuses on the numerical setup and the discussion of the results. The simulations agreed well with the experiments; hence, the computational approach has been validated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Performance Evaluation of a Marine Solid Propellant Water-Breathing Ramjet Propulsor
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010008 - 20 Dec 2019
Abstract
This work analyzes and presents theoretical performance of a marine water-breathing ramjet propulsor. A conceptual scheme of the motor is shown, the equation of thrust is presented, and the dependence on cruise velocity and depth are discussed. Different propellant compositions, representing a wide [...] Read more.
This work analyzes and presents theoretical performance of a marine water-breathing ramjet propulsor. A conceptual scheme of the motor is shown, the equation of thrust is presented, and the dependence on cruise velocity and depth are discussed. Different propellant compositions, representing a wide variety of formulations suitable for propelling a water-breathing ramjet, are investigated. The theoretical results reveal that the specific impulse of a water-breathing ramjet can increase by as much as 30% compared to a standard rocket, when using a conventional hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellant, which does not react chemically with the water. When employing a water-reactive propellant containing metal particles such as magnesium or aluminum, the specific impulse may be more than doubled. The thrust coefficient of the propulsor was computed at different cruise velocities and depths and was found to be greater than the predictable drag even at significant depth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Rudder Existence on Propeller Eccentric Force
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(12), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120455 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
In order to design a safe shafting system in a ship, it is vital to precisely predict load on stern tube bearing. It is well known that load on stern tube bearing is directly influenced by the eccentric force of a propeller. In [...] Read more.
In order to design a safe shafting system in a ship, it is vital to precisely predict load on stern tube bearing. It is well known that load on stern tube bearing is directly influenced by the eccentric force of a propeller. In this paper, the effect of rudder existence on propeller eccentric force was studied based on numerical analysis with a 10,000 TEU class container vessel. To obtain propeller eccentric force, numerical simulations including propeller rotation motion using a sliding mesh technique were carried out. When a ship is turning, propeller eccentric force significantly changes compared to those of straight run. For starboard turning especially, the propeller vertical moment was decreased by about 50% due to the existence of a rudder compared to that without a rudder. In contrast, as for port turning, the results of simulations with and without a rudder were similar to each other. This difference is fundamentally due to the interaction between the direction of propeller rotation and the inflow direction to a propeller. Based on this study, it is inferred that the influence of appendages around a propeller need to be considered to ensure the reliable prediction of propeller eccentric force. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Transitional Flow on Model Propellers and Their Influence on Relative Rotative Efficiency
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(12), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120427 - 25 Nov 2019
Abstract
Unexpected low value of the relative rotative efficiency ηR is sometimes noted when scaling the towing tank model-test result with the ITTC-78 method to obtain the propulsive efficiency factors of propellers. The paper explains the causes of this phenomenon. The boundary layer [...] Read more.
Unexpected low value of the relative rotative efficiency ηR is sometimes noted when scaling the towing tank model-test result with the ITTC-78 method to obtain the propulsive efficiency factors of propellers. The paper explains the causes of this phenomenon. The boundary layer state of three propellers was studied by a paint test and a RANS method. The paint tests showed that the propellers in behind conditions at low Reynolds number (Rn) are covered mainly with laminar flow, which is different from open water tests conducted at a high Rn. Apart from that a moderate difference in Rn between the open water and the self-propulsion test may lead to a low ηR value, the paper points out that flow separation in behind conditions could be another significant reason for the drop of ηR for some propellers. Therefore, two factors will lead to an unexpected decrease of ηR: (1) A slightly lower open water torque interpolated from an open water test carried out at a high Rn and (2) a slightly higher torque in a self-propulsion test due to laminar flow separation near the trailing edge. The phenomenon is caused by the Rn scaled effect and closely associated with design philosophy like the blade section profile, the chord length, and chordwise load distribution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Morphing Hydrofoil Model Driven by Compliant Composite Structure and Internal Pressure
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(12), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120423 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this work, a collaborative experimental study has been conducted to assess the effect an imposed internal pressure has on the controlling the hydrodynamic performance of a compliant composite hydrofoil. It was expected that the internal pressure together with composite structures be suitable [...] Read more.
In this work, a collaborative experimental study has been conducted to assess the effect an imposed internal pressure has on the controlling the hydrodynamic performance of a compliant composite hydrofoil. It was expected that the internal pressure together with composite structures be suitable to control the hydrodynamic forces as well as cavitation inception and development. A new concept of morphing hydrofoil was developed and tested in the cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy Research Institute. The experiments were based on the measurements of hydrodynamic forces and hydrofoil deformations under various conditions of internal pressure. The effect on cavitation inception was studied too. In parallel to this experiment, a 2D numerical tool was developed in order to assist the design of the compliant hydrofoil shape. Numerically, the fluid-structure coupling is based on an iterative method under a small perturbation hypothesis. The flow model is based on a panel method and a boundary layer formulation and was coupled with a finite-element method for the structure. It is shown that pressure driven compliant composite structure is suitable to some extent to control the hydrodynamic forces, allowing the operational domain of the compliant hydrofoil to be extended according to the angle of attack and the internal pressure. In addition, the effect on the cavitation inception is pointed out. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Numerical Prediction and Analysis of Propeller Cavitation Benchmark Tests of YUPENG Ship Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(11), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7110387 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
The numerical simulation of propeller cavitation benchmark tests of YUPENG ship model is studied based on OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) platform, and the benchmark tests are introduced as well. The propeller cavitation shape and the hull pressure fluctuation are measured [...] Read more.
The numerical simulation of propeller cavitation benchmark tests of YUPENG ship model is studied based on OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) platform, and the benchmark tests are introduced as well. The propeller cavitation shape and the hull pressure fluctuation are measured and predicted, respectively. The uncertainty in hull pressure fluctuation measurement is also analyzed, and the analysis showed the uncertainty is below 10%. The cavitation shape and the hull pressure fluctuation predicted show quite good agreement with the observations and measured data, and the influences of the grid resolutions on the unsteady propeller cavitation and the hull pressure fluctuation are investigated as well. The monotonic convergence achieved and the quite small grid uncertainty illustrate the reliability of the numerical simulation methods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on Propulsion Performance by Varying Rake Distribution at the Propeller Tip
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(11), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7110386 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study provides a comparison of propulsion performance, with a particular focus on efficiency, by varying rake distribution at the tips of propellers. Owing to increased attention to environmental pollution, there is a significant interest in reducing the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) [...] Read more.
This study provides a comparison of propulsion performance, with a particular focus on efficiency, by varying rake distribution at the tips of propellers. Owing to increased attention to environmental pollution, there is a significant interest in reducing the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and SOx emissions by improving the performance in the field of shipbuilding. The forward (Kappel) and backward tip rake propellers have been widely used to improve efficiency, as well as to reduce fluctuating pressure from the tip vortex cavitation. As there is almost no parametric and design research on tip rake propellers, this systematic parametric study was conducted to identify the optimal configuration by the potential code. For this performance comparison the KP505 (KCS propeller) was chosen as the reference propeller as the tips of that propeller have no rake. The model test and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation confirmed the result by comparing the open water performances for the three optimally selected propellers (forward, backward, KP505). The differences of efficiency obtained from the potential analysis and the model test exhibit similar tendencies, but the result for the CFD is different. The difference would be investigated by changing the grid system around the tip as well as the turbulence model in the CFD analysis. An analysis of self-propulsion and pressure fluctuation is also expected to be conducted in the near future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Influence of the Hull Couple Motion on the Propeller Exciting Force Characteristics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(10), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7100330 - 23 Sep 2019
Abstract
The numerical calculation was performed for the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) hull-propeller-rudder system with different freedom hull motion by employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method and adopting the overset grid. Firstly, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics for a bare hull with the heave [...] Read more.
The numerical calculation was performed for the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) hull-propeller-rudder system with different freedom hull motion by employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method and adopting the overset grid. Firstly, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics for a bare hull with the heave and pitch motion is carried out. The results show that the space non-uniformity of a nominal wake in the disk plane with motion is comparable to the case without motion. However, the time non-uniformity increases sharply and it has a significant positive relationship with the motion amplitude. Then, the propeller exciting force is calculated in the case including single heave, single pitch and their couple motion. It was found that both the ship and propeller hydrodynamic performance deteriorated dramatically due to the hull motion. Furthermore, the spectrum peak at the motion frequency is dominant in all the peak values and the larger the amplitude is, the higher the motion frequency peak is expected to be. For the propeller bearing force, the effect of the different hull motions appears as linear superimposition. However, the superimposition of different hull motions enlarges the propeller-induced fluctuating pressure in a single motion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop