Special Issue "Marine Oil Spills 2018"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Merv Fingas

Spill Science, Edmonton, Alberta T6W 1J6, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: oil spill remote sensing; oil spill dynamics and behaviour; oil spills; oil properties; oil analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine oil spills have received a great deal of attention again since the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010. Since then, there has been extensive research on various aspects of oil spills. The purpose of the invited Special Issue is to publish the most exciting research with respect to the above subjects and to provide a rapid turn-around time regarding reviewing and publishing, and to disseminate the articles freely for research, teaching, and reference purposes.

High quality papers are encouraged, for publication, directly related to various aspects, as mentioned below. Novel techniques for the study are encouraged.

  • Topics—marine oil spills
  • Fate and effects
  • Analytical techniques
  • Behavior and modeling
  • Case studies
  • Cleanup and countermeasures
  • Effects on wildlife
Dr. Merv Fingas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oil spills
  • fate and effects
  • analytical techniques
  • behavior and modeling
  • case studies
  • cleanup and countermeasures
  • effects on wildlife

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Marine Oil Spills 2018
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7040082
Received: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Major oil spills can attract the attention of the public and the media [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Oil Spill Scenarios in the Kotor Bay: Results from High Resolution Numerical Simulations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020054
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
A major threat for marine and coastal environment comes from oil spill accidents. Such events have a great impact on both the ecosystem and on the economy, and the risk increases over time due to increasing ship traffic in many sensitive areas. In [...] Read more.
A major threat for marine and coastal environment comes from oil spill accidents. Such events have a great impact on both the ecosystem and on the economy, and the risk increases over time due to increasing ship traffic in many sensitive areas. In recent years, numerical simulation of oil spills has become an affordable tool for the analysis of the risk and for the preparation of contingency plans. However, in coastal areas, the complexity of the bathymetry and of the orography requires an adequate resolution of sea and wind flows. For this reason, we present, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the first study on the subject adopting Large Eddy Simulations for both the low-atmosphere and sea dynamics in order to provide highly-resolved marine surface current and wind stress to the oil slick model, within a one-way coupling procedure. Such approach is applied to the relevant case of Kotor Bay (UNESCO heritage since 1979), in Montenegro, which is a semi-closed basin surrounded by mountains that is subject to an intense ship traffic for touristic purposes. Oil spill spots are tracked along ship paths, in two wind scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Method to Estimate the Probability of Oil Spill Contact to Environmental Resources in the Gulf of Mexico
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020041
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) model is a tool used by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) to evaluate oil spill risks to biological, physical, and socioeconomic resources that could be exposed to oil spill contact from oil and gas leasing, [...] Read more.
The oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) model is a tool used by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) to evaluate oil spill risks to biological, physical, and socioeconomic resources that could be exposed to oil spill contact from oil and gas leasing, exploration, or development on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Using long-term hindcast winds and ocean currents, the OSRA model generates hundreds of thousands of trajectories from hypothetical oil spill locations and derives the probability of contact to these environmental resources in the U.S. OCS. This study generates probability of oil spill contact maps by initiating trajectories from hypothetical oil spill points over the entire planning areas in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (GOM) OCS and tabulating the contacts over the entire waters in the GOM. Therefore, a probability of oil spill contact database that stores information of the spill points and contacts can be created for a given set of wind and current data such that the probability of oil spill contact to any environmental resources from future leasing areas can be estimated without a rerun of the OSRA model. The method can be applied to other OCS regions and help improve BOEM’s decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Oil Slick Characterization Using a Statistical Region-Based Classifier Applied to UAVSAR Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020036
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
During emergency responses to oil spills on the sea surface, quick detection and characterization of an oil slick is essential. The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in general and polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) in particular to detect and discriminate mineral oils from look-alikes [...] Read more.
During emergency responses to oil spills on the sea surface, quick detection and characterization of an oil slick is essential. The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in general and polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) in particular to detect and discriminate mineral oils from look-alikes is known. However, research exploring its potential to detect oil slick characteristics, e.g., thickness variations, is relatively new. Here a Multi-Source Image Processing System capable of processing optical, SAR and PolSAR data with proper statistical models was tested for the first time for oil slick characterization. An oil seep detected by NASA`s Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in the Gulf of Mexico was used as a study case. This classifier uses a supervised approach to compare stochastic distances between different statistical distributions (fx) and hypothesis tests to associate confidence levels to the classification results. The classifier was able to detect zoning regions within the slick with high global accuracies and low uncertainties. Two different classes, likely associated with the thicker and thinner oil layers, were recognized. The best results, statistically equivalent, were obtained using different data formats: polarimetric, intensity pair and intensity single-channel. The presence of oceanic features in the form of oceanic fronts and internal waves created convergence zones that defined the shape, spreading and concentration of the thickest layers of oil. The statistical classifier was able to detect the thicker oil layers accumulated along these features. Identification of the relative thickness of spilled oils can increase the oil recovery efficiency, allowing better positioning of barriers and skimmers over the thickest layers. Decision makers can use this information to guide aerial surveillance, in situ oil samples collection and clean-up operations in order to minimize environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Bayesian Statistics of Wide-Band Radar Reflections for Oil Spill Detection on Rough Ocean Surface
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010012
Received: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a probabilistic approach which uses nadir-looking wide-band radar to detect oil spills on rough ocean surface. The proposed approach combines a single-layer scattering model with Bayesian statistics to evaluate the probability of detection of oil slicks, within a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a probabilistic approach which uses nadir-looking wide-band radar to detect oil spills on rough ocean surface. The proposed approach combines a single-layer scattering model with Bayesian statistics to evaluate the probability of detection of oil slicks, within a plausible range of thicknesses, on seawater. The difference between several derived detection algorithms is defined in terms of the number of frequencies used (within C-to-X-band ranges), as well as of the number of radar observations. Performance analysis of all three types of detectors (single-, dual- and tri-frequency) is done under different surface-roughness scenarios. Results show that the probability of detecting an oil slick with a given thickness is sensitive to the radar frequency. Multi-frequency detectors prove their ability to overcome the performance of the single- and dual-frequency detectors. Higher probability of detection is obtained when using multiple observations. The roughness of the ocean surface leads to a loss in the reflectivity values, and therefore decreases the performance of the detectors. A possible way to make use of the drone systems in the contingency planning is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
An Operational Marine Oil Spill Forecasting Tool for the Management of Emergencies in the Italian Seas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010001
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Oil extraction platforms are potential sources of oil spills. For this reason, an oil spill forecasting system was set up to support the management of emergencies from the oil fields in the Italian seas. The system provides ready-to-use products to the relevant response [...] Read more.
Oil extraction platforms are potential sources of oil spills. For this reason, an oil spill forecasting system was set up to support the management of emergencies from the oil fields in the Italian seas. The system provides ready-to-use products to the relevant response agencies and optimizes the anti-pollution resources by assessing hazards and risks related to this issue. The forecasting system covers seven working oil platforms in the Sicily Channel and middle/low Adriatic Sea. It is composed of a numerical chain involving nested ocean models from regional to coastal spatial scales and an oil spill model. The system provides two online services, one automatic and a second dedicated to possible real emergencies or exercises on risk preparedness and responding. The automatic service produces daily short-term simulations of hypothetical oil spill dispersion, transport, and weathering processes from each extraction platform. Products, i.e., risk maps, animations, and a properly called bulletin, are available on a dedicated web-portal. The hazard estimations are computed by performing geo-statistical analysis on the daily forecasts database. The second service is activated in near-real-time producing oil spill simulations for the following 48 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Refined Analysis of RADARSAT-2 Measurements to Discriminate Two Petrogenic Oil-Slick Categories: Seeps versus Spills
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040153
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Our research focuses on refining the ability to discriminate two petrogenic oil-slick categories: the sea surface expression of naturally-occurring oil seeps and man-made oil spills. For that, a long-term RADARSAT-2 dataset (244 scenes imaged between 2008 and 2012) is analyzed to investigate oil [...] Read more.
Our research focuses on refining the ability to discriminate two petrogenic oil-slick categories: the sea surface expression of naturally-occurring oil seeps and man-made oil spills. For that, a long-term RADARSAT-2 dataset (244 scenes imaged between 2008 and 2012) is analyzed to investigate oil slicks (4562) observed in the Gulf of Mexico (Campeche Bay, Mexico). As the scientific literature on the use of satellite-derived measurements to discriminate the oil-slick category is sparse, our research addresses this gap by extending our previous investigations aimed at discriminating seeps from spills. To reveal hidden traits of the available satellite information and to evaluate an existing Oil-Slick Discrimination Algorithm, distinct processing segments methodically inspect the data at several levels: input data repository, data transformation, attribute selection, and multivariate data analysis. Different attribute selection strategies similarly excel at the seep-spill differentiation. The combination of different Oil-Slick Information Descriptors presents comparable discrimination accuracies. Among 8 non-linear transformations, the Logarithm and Cube Root normalizations disclose the most effective discrimination power of almost 70%. Our refined analysis corroborates and consolidates our earlier findings, providing a firmer basis and useful accuracies of the seep-spill discrimination practice using information acquired with space-borne surveillance systems based on Synthetic Aperture Radars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Usefulness of Chemical Dispersant to Treat Surface Spills of Oil Sands Products
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040128
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the use of chemical dispersant to treat an oil spill after the initial release. The natural and chemically enhanced dispersion of four oil products (dilbit, dilynbit, synbit and conventional crude) were investigated in a wave tank. Experiments were conducted in [...] Read more.
This study examines the use of chemical dispersant to treat an oil spill after the initial release. The natural and chemically enhanced dispersion of four oil products (dilbit, dilynbit, synbit and conventional crude) were investigated in a wave tank. Experiments were conducted in spring and summer to capture the impact of temperature, and the conditions in the tank were of breaking waves with a wave height of 0.4 m. The results showed that natural dispersion effectiveness (DE) was less than 10%. But the application of dispersant increased the DE by an order of magnitude with a statistically significant level (p < 0.05). Season (spring versus summer) had an effect on chemical DE of all oils, except for the conventional oil. Thus, the DE of dilbit products is highly dependent on the season/temperature. A model was fitted to the DE as a function of oil viscosity for the chemically dispersed oil, and the correlation was found to be very good. The model was then combined with a previous model compiled by the author predicting oil viscosity as a function of time, to produce a model that predicts the DE as function of time. Such a relation could be used for responders tackling oil spills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Different Approaches to Protect the Marine and Coastal Environment from Oil Spills
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040125
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine pollution has many different sources. This study focuses on oil spills that may occur after a ship collision or during oil extraction and other oil tanker activities. The most critical oil spill accidents are presented, followed by the regulatory framework on maritime [...] Read more.
Marine pollution has many different sources. This study focuses on oil spills that may occur after a ship collision or during oil extraction and other oil tanker activities. The most critical oil spill accidents are presented, followed by the regulatory framework on maritime oil spill management. Among the measures taken towards the protection of the marine and coastal environment from oil pollution are floating booms and barriers, oil collecting materials and vessels, absorbent materials, chemical dispersants, other chemicals, physical degradation, biodegradation, on-site oil burning. These measures may assist coastal facilities and local authorities in their strategic development of oil spill mitigation planning and response towards coastal and marine protection from oil spills. In the present paper, the aim is to rank the approaches of dealing with the oil spill by means of a multicriteria method. The theoretical background of the selected multicriteria method, called PROMETHEE, is briefly presented; necessary to understand the ranking of the treatment approaches as well as the subsequent findings of the possible criteria for the analysis. Almost all of the scenarios evaluated rank floating booms and barriers as the most suitable methods to deal with oil spill containment, followed by oil collecting materials and vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Modeling Study on the Oil Spill of M/V Marathassa in Vancouver Harbour
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030106
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The M/V Marathassa oil spill occurred on 8 April 2015 in the English Bay. In the present study, the trajectory and the transport mechanism of the spilled oil have been studied by using the three-dimensional and particle-based Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) [...] Read more.
The M/V Marathassa oil spill occurred on 8 April 2015 in the English Bay. In the present study, the trajectory and the transport mechanism of the spilled oil have been studied by using the three-dimensional and particle-based Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) model forced by the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). FVCOM provided the hydrodynamic variables used by the oil spill model of OSCAR. The results showed that the fraction of the oil on the water surface and on the shoreline, as well as the amount of oil recovered were affected by the time of the initial release, the overall duration of the discharge, wind and recovery actions. The hindcast study of the M/V Marathassa oil spill showed that the likely starting time for the discharge was between 14:00 and 15:00, on 8 April 2015. The release may have lasted for a relatively long time (assumed to be 22 h in this study). The results of modeling in this study were found reasonably acceptable allowing for further application in risk assessment studies in the English Bay and Vancouver Harbour. The trajectory of the spill was mainly controlled by the tidal currents, which were strongly sensitive to the local coastline and topography of First Narrows and that in the central harbour. The model results also suggested that a high-resolution model, which was able to resolve abrupt changes in the coastlines and topography, was necessary to simulate the oil spill in the harbour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of the 2003 Foss Barge - Point Wells Oil Spill: A Comparison between BLOSOM and GNOME Oil Spill Models
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030104
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL’s) Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model (BLOSOM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) are compared. Increasingly complex simulations are used to assess similarities and differences between [...] Read more.
The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL’s) Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model (BLOSOM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) are compared. Increasingly complex simulations are used to assess similarities and differences between the two models’ components. The simulations presented here are forced by ocean currents from a Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) implementation that has excellent skill in representing tidal motion, and with observed wind data that compensates for a coarse vertical ocean model resolution. The comprehensive comparison between GNOME and BLOSOM presented here, should aid modelers in interpreting their results. Beyond many similarities, aspects where both models are distinct are highlighted. Some suggestions for improvement are included, e.g., the inclusion of temporal interpolation of the forcing fields (BLOSOM) or the inclusion of a deflection angle option when parameterizing wind-driven processes (GNOME). Overall, GNOME and BLOSOM perform similarly, and are found to be complementary oil spill models. This paper also sheds light on what drove the historical Point Wells spill, and serves the additional purpose of being a learning resource for those interested in oil spill modeling. The increasingly complex approach used for the comparison is also used, in parallel, to illustrate the approach an oil spill modeler would typically follow when trying to hindcast or forecast an oil spill, including detailed technical information on basic aspects, like choosing a computational time step. We discuss our successful hindcast of the 2003 Point Wells oil spill that, to our knowledge, had remained unexplained. The oil spill models’ solutions are compared to the historical Point Wells’ oil trajectory, in time and space, as determined from overflight information. Our hindcast broadly replicates the correct locations at the correct times, using accurate tide and wind forcing. While the choice of wind coefficient we use is unconventional, a simplified analytic model supported by observations, suggests that it is justified under this study’s circumstances. We highlight some of the key oceanographic findings as they may relate to other oil spills, and to the regional oceanography of the Salish Sea, including recommendations for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Implications of Oil Exploration off the Gulf Coast of Florida
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6020030
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
In the United States (U.S.), oil exploration and production remain critical economic engines for local, state, and federal economies. Recently, the U.S. Department of the Interior expressed interest in expanding offshore oil production by making available lease areas in the U.S. Gulf of [...] Read more.
In the United States (U.S.), oil exploration and production remain critical economic engines for local, state, and federal economies. Recently, the U.S. Department of the Interior expressed interest in expanding offshore oil production by making available lease areas in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. West Coast and East Coast, as well as offshore Alaska. With the promise of aiding in energy independence, these new lease areas could help solidify the U.S. as one of the world’s largest oil-producing countries, while at the same time bolstering the local and regional energy job sectors. Of all the newly proposed lease areas, the Gulf Coast of Florida is particularly contentious. Opponents of drilling in the area cite the sensitive ecosystems and the local and state tourism economy that depends heavily on the numerous beaches lining Florida’s coast. In this analysis, we use a data-driven spatial analytic approach combined with advanced oil spill modeling to determine the potential impact of oil exploration off of Florida’s Gulf Coast given a loss-of-control event. It is determined that plume behavior varies drastically depending on the location of the spill but that overall impacts are comparable across all spill scenario sites, highlighting the necessity of contingency-type analyses. Implications for spill response are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Oil Droplet Transport under Non-Breaking Waves: An Eulerian RANS Approach Combined with a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010007
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oil droplet transport under a non-breaking deep water wave field is investigated herein using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were solved to simulate regular waves in the absence of wind stress, and the resulting water velocities agreed with Stokes [...] Read more.
Oil droplet transport under a non-breaking deep water wave field is investigated herein using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were solved to simulate regular waves in the absence of wind stress, and the resulting water velocities agreed with Stokes theory for waves. The RANS velocity field was then used to predict the transport of buoyant particles representing oil droplets under the effect of non-locally generated turbulence. The RANS eddy viscosity exhibited an increase with depth until reaching a maximum at approximately a wave height below the mean water level. This was followed by a gradual decrease with depth. The impact of the turbulence was modeled using the local value of eddy diffusivity in a random walk framework with the added effects of the gradient of eddy diffusivity. The vertical gradient of eddy viscosity increased the residence time of droplets in the water column region of high diffusivity; neglecting the gradient of eddy diffusivity resulted in a deviation of the oil plume centroid by more than a half a wave height after 10 wave periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Environmental Decision Support Systems for Monitoring Small Scale Oil Spills: Existing Solutions, Best Practices and Current Challenges
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010019
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, large oil spills have received widespread media attention, while small and micro oil spills are usually only acknowledged by the authorities and local citizens who are directly or indirectly affected by these pollution events. However, small oil spills represent the [...] Read more.
In recent years, large oil spills have received widespread media attention, while small and micro oil spills are usually only acknowledged by the authorities and local citizens who are directly or indirectly affected by these pollution events. However, small oil spills represent the vast majority of oil pollution events. In this paper, multiple oil spill typologies are introduced, and existing frameworks and methods used as best practices for facing them are reviewed and discussed. Specific tools based on information and communication technologies are then presented, considering in particular those which can be used as integrated frameworks for the specific challenges of the environmental monitoring of smaller oil spills. Finally, a prototype case study actually designed and implemented for the management of existing monitoring resources is reported. This case study helps improve the discussion over the actual challenges of early detection and support to the responsible parties and stakeholders in charge of intervention and remediation operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Main Development Problems of Vulnerability Mapping of Sea-Coastal Zones to Oil Spills
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040115
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vulnerability mapping of sea-coastal zones is an important element of oil spill response plans, environmental support for offshore projects, and the integrated management of the marine environment. The creation of such maps is a complex scientific problem. In their development, it is necessary [...] Read more.
Vulnerability mapping of sea-coastal zones is an important element of oil spill response plans, environmental support for offshore projects, and the integrated management of the marine environment. The creation of such maps is a complex scientific problem. In their development, it is necessary to take into account differences in the nature of biotic and abiotic components existing in the cartographic area, dissimilarities in their relative vulnerability and significance, the seasonal variability of ecosystem components, and other factors. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the main elements of international and Russian methods of mapping the vulnerability of sea-coastal zones to oil spills, and the development problems of such maps, including problems of using rank (ordinal) values, and to note possible solutions. Based on the analysis of key existing international and Russian approaches to vulnerability mapping, it was concluded that almost all methods of map calculations use rank (ordinal) values. However, arithmetic operations cannot be performed with them, as they lead to incorrect results. The paper shortly describes the main problems of mapping the vulnerability of sea-coastal zones to oil (the choice of the map scales and season limits for them, differences in the units of biota abundance, the calculation of relative vulnerability coefficients for the considered biotic components, the summation of the vulnerability of objects of different types, etc.). For some problems, possible solutions are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018) Printed Edition available
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