Special Issue "The Ability-Personality Integration"

A special issue of Journal of Intelligence (ISSN 2079-3200).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Matthias Ziegler

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 18, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 30 2093 9361
Interests: personality and intelligence; intelligence and performance; learning and individual differences; educational measurement; personality structure
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Roberto Colom

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: intelligence; cognition; working memory; neuroimage; neuroscience
Guest Editor
Mr. Kai T. Horstmann

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 18, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: person-situation-interactions; affect and situational perception; behavioral consistency; states and traits
Guest Editor
Ms. Caroline Wehner

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 18, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: narcissism and relationships; similarity in personality; friendship development
Guest Editor
Ms. Doreen Bensch

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 18, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: intelligence; faking; psychological assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Individual differences research focused in cognitive abilities and personality traits has been relatively successful in predicting human behavior. Very early on, interindividual difference researchers included a wide array of different constructs including personality traits and cognitive abilities. For example, Cattell (1987) proposed a theory of cognitive development which also integrated personality traits. Later, Ackerman (1996) and Ziegler, Danay, Heene, Asendorpf, and Bühner (2012) developed similarly integrative models. These models address the complex dynamic interplay between cognitive abilities and personality, which is particularly relevant from a developmental perspective.

However, despite these efforts, there is still little sustained theory and research aimed at integrating both psychological trait foci. In fact, it sometimes appears as if two only slightly overlapping traditions have developed, each using the constructs of the other tradition only as control variables. This is unfortunate because scientists acknowledge the high relevance of addressing the interactions between cognition and personality for enhancing our understanding of human behavior.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to bring these two traditions back to the discussion table and to underscore the relevance of an integrative perspective for both individual differences and developmental research (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, 2006; Zhang and Ziegler, 2015).

We invite papers presenting empirical studies testing models including cognitive abilities and personality traits, along with theoretical proposals based on available evidence. Psychometric, information processing, and biological perspectives are welcome.

We believe in transparency and open science principles. Therefore, we will adhere to the requirements listed here under Section 2.2: http://opennessinitiative.org/PRO_Initiative_RSOS.pdf

Prof. Dr. Matthias Ziegler
Prof. Dr. Roberto Colom
Mr. Kai T. Horstmann
Ms. Caroline Wehner
Ms. Doreen Bensch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Intelligence is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Mind-Personality Relations from Childhood to Early Adulthood
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was
[...] Read more.
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three times, and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9 to 16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice versa, especially in the 9- to 11-year period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N = 247). Network, hierarchical network, and structural equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions except emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Stronger Together: Personality, Intelligence and the Assessment of Career Potential
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Personality and intelligence have a long history in applied psychology, with research dating back more than 100 years. In line, early developments in industrial-organizational psychology were largely founded on the predictive power of personality and intelligence measures vis-à-vis career-related outcomes. However, despite a
[...] Read more.
Personality and intelligence have a long history in applied psychology, with research dating back more than 100 years. In line, early developments in industrial-organizational psychology were largely founded on the predictive power of personality and intelligence measures vis-à-vis career-related outcomes. However, despite a wealth of evidence in support of their utility, the concepts, theories, and measures of personality and intelligence are still widely underutilized in organizations, even when these express a commitment to making data-driven decisions about employees and leaders. This paper discusses the value of personality and intelligence to understand individual differences in career potential, and how to increase the adoption of theories and tools for evaluating personality and intelligence in real-world organizational contexts. Although personality and intelligence are distinct constructs, the assessment of career potential is incomplete without both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Open AccessArticle The Enriching Interplay between Openness and Interest: A Theoretical Elaboration of the OFCI Model and a First Empirical Test
Received: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Openness-Fluid-Crystallized-Intelligence (OFCI) model posits long-term relations between Openness and cognitive abilities and has been successfully tested with longitudinal data. However, research on the developmental interplay between cognitive abilities and personality exists only sparsely. The current paper focuses on a theoretical development of
[...] Read more.
The Openness-Fluid-Crystallized-Intelligence (OFCI) model posits long-term relations between Openness and cognitive abilities and has been successfully tested with longitudinal data. However, research on the developmental interplay between cognitive abilities and personality exists only sparsely. The current paper focuses on a theoretical development of the OFCI model which suggests micro-level mechanisms underlying the long-term development. Specifically, within-situation relations between Openness, interests, situational perception, cognitive abilities, and emotions are proposed to explain longitudinal relations between Openness and cognitive abilities. Using experience sampling, selected parts of this elaboration were empirically scrutinized in a first test of the proposed ideas. Openness and specific interest both varied substantially across situations and covaried systematically. In interaction with an indicator of fluid intelligence, this covariation was related to an indicator of crystallized intelligence. The paper contributes to theorizing the intertwined development of personality and cognitive abilities, and highlights the importance of within-situation research for explaining long-term development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Dissociation between Adult Intelligence and Personality with Respect to Maltreatment Episodes and Externalizing Behaviors Occurring in Childhood
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Here we analyze the simultaneous relationships among five variables. Two refer to childhood (episodes of various forms of maltreatment and externalizing behaviors), whereas three refer to early adulthood (intelligence, personality, and socialization difficulties). The 120 individuals considered for the present report were invited
[...] Read more.
Here we analyze the simultaneous relationships among five variables. Two refer to childhood (episodes of various forms of maltreatment and externalizing behaviors), whereas three refer to early adulthood (intelligence, personality, and socialization difficulties). The 120 individuals considered for the present report were invited from the 650 schoolchildren participating in the Longitudinal Study of Intelligence and Personality (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The complete sample was recruited in 2002 (T1; mean age = 10.0; standard deviation (SD) = 2.2) and 120 were tested again in 2014-17 (T2; mean age = 23.5; SD = 2.2). Externalizing behaviors were registered at T1, whereas the remaining variables were obtained at T2. These were the main results: (1) externalizing behaviors predict future social effectiveness (as estimated by the general factor of personality derived from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and socialization difficulties computed from the socialization scale (SOC)) and future intelligence performance (as assessed by a set of fluid and crystallized tests); (2) episodes of self-reported childhood maltreatment predict social effectiveness, but not intelligence; (3) maltreatment and externalizing behaviors are unrelated; and (4) social effectiveness (personality) and intelligence are unrelated. Therefore, the findings support the dissociation between adult intelligence and personality with respect to maltreatment episodes and externalizing behaviors occurring in childhood. Implications of these findings for social policies aimed at preventing adult socially ineffective personalities are underscored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Relation of Personality and Intelligence—What Can the Brunswik Symmetry Principle Tell Us?
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Personality and intelligence are defined as hierarchical constructs, ranging from broad g-factors to (domain-)specific constructs. The present study investigated whether different combinations of hierarchical levels lead to different personality-intelligence correlations. Based on the integrative data analysis approach, we combined a total of
[...] Read more.
Personality and intelligence are defined as hierarchical constructs, ranging from broad g-factors to (domain-)specific constructs. The present study investigated whether different combinations of hierarchical levels lead to different personality-intelligence correlations. Based on the integrative data analysis approach, we combined a total of five data sets. The focus of the first study (N = 682) was an elaborated measurement of personality (NEO-PI-R), which was applied with a relatively short intelligence test (Intelligence Structure Test 2000 R). In the second study (N = 413), a comprehensive measurement of intelligence (Berlin Intelligence Structure test) was used with a shorter personality questionnaire (NEO-FFI). In line with the Brunswik symmetry principle, the findings emphasize that personality-intelligence correlations varied greatly across the hierarchical levels of constructs considered in the analysis. On average, Openness showed the largest relation with intelligence. We recommend for future studies to investigate personality-intelligence relations at more fine-grained levels based on elaborated measurements of both personality and intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Relationships between Personality and Cognitive Ability: A Facet-Level Analysis
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A growing body of research supports the notion that cognitive abilities and personality are systematically related. However, this research has focused largely on global personality dimensions and single—often equally global—markers of cognitive ability. The present study offers a more fine-grained perspective. Specifically, it
[...] Read more.
A growing body of research supports the notion that cognitive abilities and personality are systematically related. However, this research has focused largely on global personality dimensions and single—often equally global—markers of cognitive ability. The present study offers a more fine-grained perspective. Specifically, it is one of the first studies to comprehensively investigate the associations between both fluid and crystallized intelligence with Big Five personality domains as well as their facets. Based on a heterogeneous sample of the adult population in Germany (N = 365), our study yielded three key findings. First, personality was more strongly related to crystallized intelligence than to fluid intelligence. This applied both to the total variance explained and to the effect sizes of most of the Big Five domains and facets. Second, facets explained a larger share of variance in both crystallized and fluid intelligence than did domains. Third, the associations of different facets of the same domain with cognitive ability differed, often quite markedly. These differential associations may substantially reduce—or even suppress—the domain-level associations. Our findings clearly attest to the added value of a facet-level perspective on the personality–cognitive ability interface. We discuss how such a fine-grained perspective can further theoretical understanding and enhance prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Personality and Intelligence Interact in the Prediction of Academic Achievement
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Personality predicts academic achievement above and beyond intelligence. However, studies investigating the possible interaction effects between personality and intelligence when predicting academic achievement are scarce, as is the separate investigation of broad personality factors versus narrow personality facets in this context. Two studies
[...] Read more.
Personality predicts academic achievement above and beyond intelligence. However, studies investigating the possible interaction effects between personality and intelligence when predicting academic achievement are scarce, as is the separate investigation of broad personality factors versus narrow personality facets in this context. Two studies with 11th grade students (Study 1: N = 421; Study 2: N = 243) were conducted to close this research gap. The students completed the Intelligence-Structure-Test 2000 R measuring general reasoning ability, and a well-established personality inventory based on the Five Factor Model. Academic achievement was operationalized via Grade Point Average. Using hierarchical regression and moderation analyses, Study 1 revealed that Conscientiousness interacted with intelligence when predicting academic achievement: there was a stronger association between intelligence and academic achievement when students scored higher on the Conscientiousness scale. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 and also found a moderation effect of Neuroticism (stronger association between intelligence and academic achievement with lower values on the Neuroticism scale). Analyses at the facet level revealed much more differentiated results than did analyses at the domain level, suggesting that investigating personality facets should be preferred over investigating personality domains when predicting academic achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Search for Personality–Intelligence Relations: Methodological and Conceptual Issues
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prior to empirical investigation of trait level measures, it had been suggested that, on balance, well-adjusted individuals tended to have a higher level of intelligence than poorly adjusted individuals. The underlying inference was that there should be positive correlations found between personality traits
[...] Read more.
Prior to empirical investigation of trait level measures, it had been suggested that, on balance, well-adjusted individuals tended to have a higher level of intelligence than poorly adjusted individuals. The underlying inference was that there should be positive correlations found between personality traits associated with “adjustment” and intelligence, at least at the level of general mental abilities. Over the last several decades, empirical research has suggested that, while there are sources of common variance among personality and intellectual ability measures, the relations are more scattered and provide few general findings (other than broad assessments of neuroticism and so-called engagement traits and intellectual abilities). The status of the empirical research foundation is briefly reviewed. Conceptual and methodological issues, such as non-linear relations, typical and maximal behaviors, contextualized assessment, and missing linkages are discussed in an effort to explore personality and intelligence traits in a manner that might better reveal underlying relations between these domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Does Intraindividual Variability of Personality States Improve Perspective Taking? An Ecological Approach Integrating Personality and Social Cognition
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
PDF Full-text (1874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research integrating cognitive abilities and personality has focused on the role of personality traits. We propose a theory on the role of intraindividual variability of personality states (hereafter state variability) on perspective taking, in particular, the ability to infer other peoples’ mental states.
[...] Read more.
Research integrating cognitive abilities and personality has focused on the role of personality traits. We propose a theory on the role of intraindividual variability of personality states (hereafter state variability) on perspective taking, in particular, the ability to infer other peoples’ mental states. First, we review the relevant research on personality psychology and social cognition. Second, we propose two complementary routes by which state variability relates to anchoring and adjustment in perspective taking. The first route, termed ego-dispersion, suggests that an increased state variability decreases egocentric bias, which reduces anchoring. The second route, termed perspective-pooling, suggests that an increased state variability facilitates efficient adjustment. We also discuss how our theory can be investigated empirically. The theory is rooted in an ecological interpretation of personality and social cognition, and flags new ways for integrating these fields of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Ability Tests Measure Personality, Personality Tests Measure Ability: Disentangling Construct and Method in Evaluating the Relationship between Personality and Ability
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although personality and cognitive ability are separate (sets of) constructs, we argue and demonstrate in this article that their effects are difficult to tease apart, because personality affects the performance on cognitive tests and cognitive ability affects the item responses on personality assessments.
[...] Read more.
Although personality and cognitive ability are separate (sets of) constructs, we argue and demonstrate in this article that their effects are difficult to tease apart, because personality affects the performance on cognitive tests and cognitive ability affects the item responses on personality assessments. Cognitive ability is typically measured with tests of items with correct answers; personality is typically measured with rating-scale self-reports. Oftentimes conclusions regarding the personality–ability relationship have as much to do with measurement methods as with the construct similarities and differences. In this article, we review key issues that touch on the relationship between cognitive ability and personality. These include the construct-method distinction, sources of test score variance, the maximal vs. typical performance distinction, and the special role for motivation in low-stakes testing. We review a general response model for cognitive and personality tests that recognizes those sources of test score variance. We then review the approaches for measuring personality through performance (objective personality tests, grit game, coding speed, economic preferences, and confidence), test and survey behavior (survey effort, response time, and item position effects), and real-world behavior (study time, registration latency, behavior residue, and social media). We also discuss ability effects on personality tests, indicated by age and cognitive ability effects, anchoring vignette rating errors, and instructions to ‘fake good’. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for our understanding of personality and ability differences, and suggestions for integrating the fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Low Correlations between Intelligence and Big Five Personality Traits: Need to Broaden the Domain of Personality
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The correlations between the measures of cognitive abilities and personality traits are known to be low. Our data based on the popular Big Five model of intelligence show that the highest correlations (up to r = 0.30) tend to occur with the Openness
[...] Read more.
The correlations between the measures of cognitive abilities and personality traits are known to be low. Our data based on the popular Big Five model of intelligence show that the highest correlations (up to r = 0.30) tend to occur with the Openness to Experience. Some recent developments in the studies of intelligence (e.g., emotional intelligence, complex problem solving and economic games) indicate that this link may become stronger in future. Furthermore, our studies of the processes in the “no-man’s-land” between intelligence and personality suggest that the non-cognitive constructs are correlated with both. These include the measures of social conservatism and self-beliefs. Importantly, the Big Five measures do not tap into either the dark traits associated with social conservatism or self-beliefs that are known to be good predictors of academic achievement. This paper argues that the personality domain should be broadened to include new constructs that have not been captured by the lexical approach employed in the development of the Big Five model. Furthermore, since the measures of confidence have the highest correlation with cognitive performance, we suggest that the trait of confidence may be a driver that leads to the separation of fluid and crystallized intelligence during development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessReply gP for What is Common between Developing Intelligence and Personality: Response to the Commentators
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three are the main postulates of our article under discussion: First, both human intelligence and personality are hierarchically organized, with a general factor at the apex of each hierarchy, i. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Open AccessComment Commentary on Demetriou et al. (2018): Methodological and Theoretical Considerations
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article “Mind-Personality Relations from Childhood to Early Adulthood” attempts to investigate the relation between cognitive ability (GMA) and personality, especially how these two concepts are related during childhood, and whether they may exert influence on each other during development. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Open AccessComment Mind-Personality Relations: Comment on Demetriou et al., 2018
Received: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article by Demetriou et al. [1] represents an impressive documentation of the relations between intellectual ability constructs and personality constructs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ability-Personality Integration)
Back to Top