Promoting Physical Activity and Reducing Sedentary Behavior to Prevent Chronic Diseases

A topical collection in Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This collection belongs to the section "Sports Medicine".

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Editors

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Interests: physical activity epidemiology; physical activity interventions; emerging technology applications; physical activity measurement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Human Sciences, The University of Minnesota at Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
Interests: psychological correlates of physical activity; technology-based physical activity promotion; motor skill enhancement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear colleagues,

Decreased physical activity participation and increased sedentary behavior increase the risks of developing chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes among various populations. Regular participation in physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior play a significant role in health promotion and disease prevention across the lifespan. More specifically, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity helps to build and maintain healthy bones and muscles; reduces the risk of developing obesity and chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease; and diminishes symptoms of depression and anxiety, thereby promoting cardiorespiratory fitness and psychological well-being. However, globally, 81% of adolescents aged 11–17 years and approximately 23% of adults aged 18 and over are insufficiently physically active. In fact, physical inactivity is one of the 10 leading risk factors for global mortality, which is on the rise in many countries, adding to the burden of non-communicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes) and affecting general health worldwide. Therefore, the study of promotion of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior to prevent chronic diseases has become an emerging trend in the field, as more and more researchers have conducted investigations in this area of inquiries in the past few decades. In response, we invite investigators to contribute original research articles and review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the relationships between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and health outcomes among various populations. In this Special Issue, we are particularly interested in articles examining the effects of physical activity programs on health promotion and disease prevention, as well as correlates and determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior across the lifespan through experimental and observational research designs.

Dr. Zan Gao
Dr. Jung Eun Lee
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • correlation studies
  • disease prevention
  • feasibility study
  • health outcomes
  • health promotion
  • health-related physical fitness
  • longitudinal cohort study
  • mental health
  • motor skills
  • randomized controlled trial
  • physical activity
  • sedentary behaviors

Published Papers (14 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

8 pages, 239 KiB  
Editorial
Promoting Physical Activity and Reducing Sedentary Behavior to Prevent Chronic Diseases during the COVID Pandemic and Beyond
by Zan Gao and Jung Eun Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4666; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164666 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Physical activity is defined as any physical motion produced by skeletal muscle that causes a notable increase in energy used compared to at rest [...] Full article
14 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Sprint Interval Exercise Improves Cognitive Performance Unrelated to Postprandial Glucose Fluctuations at Different Levels of Normobaric Hypoxia
by On-Kei Lei, Shengyan Sun, Jinlei Nie, Qingde Shi and Zhaowei Kong
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113159 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine cognition response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) against different levels of hypoxia. Research design and methods: 26 recreational active males performed SIE (20 × 6 s of all-out cycling bouts, 15 s of passive [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine cognition response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) against different levels of hypoxia. Research design and methods: 26 recreational active males performed SIE (20 × 6 s of all-out cycling bouts, 15 s of passive recovery) under normoxia (FIO2: 0.209), moderate hypoxia (FIO2: 0.154), and severe hypoxia (FIO2: 0.112) in a single-blinded crossover design. Cognitive function and blood glucose were assessed before and after 0, 10, 30, and 60 min of the SIE. Heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, the Borg 6–20-point scale) during each SIE trial were recorded before and immediately after every five cycling bouts, and after 0, 10, 30, and 60 min of the SIE. Results: All the three SIE trials had a significantly faster overall reaction time in the Stroop test at 10 min after exercise as compared to that of the baseline value (p = 0.003, ƞ2 = 0.606), and returned to normal after 60 min. The congruent RT at 10 min after SIE was significantly shorter than that of the baseline (p < 0.05, ƞ2 = 0.633), while the incongruent RT at both 10 min and 30 min were significantly shorter than that measured at baseline (p < 0.05, ƞ2 = 0.633). No significant differences in terms of accuracy were found across the three trials at any time points (p = 0.446, ƞ2 = 0.415). Blood glucose was significantly reduced at 10 min and was sustained for at least 60 min after SIE when compared to pre-exercise in all trials (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Acute SIE improved cognitive function regardless of oxygen conditions, and the sustained improvement following SIE could last for at least 10–30 min and was unaffected by the altered blood glucose level. Full article
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21 pages, 566 KiB  
Systematic Review
Physical Activity, Positive and Negative Symptoms of Psychosis, and General Psychopathology among People with Psychotic Disorders: A Meta-Analysis
by Ernest Swora, Monika Boberska, Ewa Kulis, Nina Knoll, Jan Keller and Aleksandra Luszczynska
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102719 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3724
Abstract
Objective: Existing reviews provided evidence for the associations between higher physical activity (PA) and lower negative symptoms of psychosis among people with schizophrenia. This meta-analysis goes beyond existing syntheses and investigates associations between PA, positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, as well as [...] Read more.
Objective: Existing reviews provided evidence for the associations between higher physical activity (PA) and lower negative symptoms of psychosis among people with schizophrenia. This meta-analysis goes beyond existing syntheses and investigates associations between PA, positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, as well as symptoms of general psychopathology (referring mostly to cognitive functioning) among people with schizophrenia, but also other psychotic disorders. The moderating roles of the type of diagnosis and the type of exercise intervention were explored. Methods: The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018118236). Six electronic databases were searched; n = 27 experimental and observational studies were included, and psychotic symptoms-related data were recorded in one direction (higher values indicate better mental health and lower symptomatology). Results: Higher levels of PA (or participating in PA interventions) were associated with better mental health, that is, lower levels of positive symptoms (all studies: r = 0.170; experimental studies: SMD = 0.677), negative symptoms (all studies: r = 0.214; experimental studies: SMD = 0.838), and general psychopathology (all studies: r = 0.451; experimental studies: SMD = 1.511). The type of diagnosis (schizophrenia vs. other psychotic disorders) did not moderate these associations. Conclusions: We found a consistent pattern of associations between higher levels of PA and lower positive, negative, and general psychopathology symptoms in people with schizophrenia and those with other psychotic disorders. Full article
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11 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Change of Working Schedule on Health Behaviors: Evidence from the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2005–2019)
by Saemi Jung, Seung-Yeon Lee and Wanhyung Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(6), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11061725 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
This study investigated whether changes in work schedule are associated with health behavior changes. We used data from the Korea Labor and Income Panel Survey from 2005 to 2019. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the association between changes of [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether changes in work schedule are associated with health behavior changes. We used data from the Korea Labor and Income Panel Survey from 2005 to 2019. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the association between changes of work schedules (day–day, day–shift, shift–day, and shift–shift) and health behaviors. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for general and socioeconomic characteristics. Fixed daytime work was observed for 25,716 person-years, and fixed shift work was observed for 2370 person-years out of the total 4046 participants during a 14 year period. Workers who changed their work schedule from fixed daytime to shift work and from shift to fixed daytime work contributed to 670 and 739 person-years, respectively. Considering continuous fixed daytime workers as a reference group, continuous exposure to shift work (aOR 1.11, CI 1.01–1.26) and changes from fixed daytime to shift work (aOR 1.18, CI 1.05–1.44) were significantly associated with an increased risk of changing either smoking or drinking behavior to unhealthy patterns. The results of our study suggest that workers who work irregular shift times, in contrast to those with more standard, regular work schedules, are at a higher risk of changing smoking and/or drinking behavior to unhealthy patterns. Full article
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14 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Associated Risk Factors with Low Back Pain in White-Collar Workers—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Urszula Żywień, Katarzyna Barczyk-Pawelec and Tomasz Sipko
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(5), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051275 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of soft tissue and the curvatures of the spine in a sitting position and to estimate associated physical risk factors with low back pain (LBP) in young adults. Subjects: [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of soft tissue and the curvatures of the spine in a sitting position and to estimate associated physical risk factors with low back pain (LBP) in young adults. Subjects: White-collar workers (n= 139), both women (n = 51) and men (n = 88) were separated into a control group (n = 82) and a low-intensity LBP (NRS < 3) (n = 57). Methods: The PPTs were tested utilizing the Wagner algometer. The curvatures of the spine were measured employing the photogrammetric method. In the logistic regression model, the odds ratio (OR) was estimated with ±95% confidence interval (CI) indicating the probability of the reported LBP. Results: The PPTs of soft tissue (OR = 1.1; CI = 1.02–1.19; p < 0.05) and the angle of the thoracolumbar spine in the everyday, habitual sitting position (OR = 1.19; CI = 1.05–1.34; p < 0.05) were associated with low-intensity LBP in female subjects. Additionally, the low intensity LBP were associated with the angles of the torso (OR = 1.14; CI = 1.01–1.29; p < 0.05) and the lumbosacral spine in the corrected sitting position (OR = 1.06; CI = 0.98–1.15; p > 0.05) and BMI (OR = 1.56; CI = 0.84–2.90; p > 0.05) in male subjects. Conclusion: Individual risk factors were associated with the low-intensity LBP only in females utilizing the PPT and the thoracolumbar angle in the habitual sitting position study factors. Men from the LBP group did not effectively correct the lumbosacral angle. Therefore, re-educated, self-corrected posture with specific postural training would be expected to improve proprioception in postural control capacity and result in decreasing pain. Full article
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16 pages, 5551 KiB  
Article
Changes in Fat Oxidation and Body Composition after Combined Exercise Intervention in Sedentary Obese Chinese Adults
by Jingguo Cao, Siman Lei, Tong Zhao, Yuting Xie, Zunqiang Zhou, Sulin Cheng and Xiuqiang Wang
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041086 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
(1) Background: Evidence suggests that aerobic exercise and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) might increase fat oxidation and reduce fat. However, limited research has examined the effects of combining progressive aerobic exercise and HIIT interventions in sedentary adults with overweight and obesity, and differences [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Evidence suggests that aerobic exercise and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) might increase fat oxidation and reduce fat. However, limited research has examined the effects of combining progressive aerobic exercise and HIIT interventions in sedentary adults with overweight and obesity, and differences in its effects between men and women remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined progressive aerobic exercise and HIIT (CAEH) on fat oxidation and fat reduction in sedentary Chinese adults and compare sex differences in sedentary adults after seven weeks. (2) Methods: Eighty-four sedentary obese adults were enrolled and allocated to two groups in baseline (experimental (EXP) group:42; control (CON) group:42), and fifty-six subjects (EXP:31; CON:25) completed the experiments and were included in the final analysis. Subjects in the EXP group performed CAEH three times per week for seven weeks. Subjects in the CON group were advised to continue with their normal daily activities. Anthropometric, lipid profile, cardiorespiratory fitness, and fat oxidation outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention. (3) Results: After seven weeks of the CAEH intervention, compared with the CON group, the EXP group showed significant increases in fat oxidation at rest (FO_rest) (+0.03 g/min, p < 0.01), maximal fat oxidation (MFO) (+0.05 g/min, p < 0.01), and maximal oxygen intake (VO2max) (+3.2 mL/kg/min, p < 0.01). The changes in the percentages of the FO_rest (+57%) and the VO2max (+16%) were significantly greater (+20%, +6%) in males than in females (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). The body mass index (BMI) (−1.2 kg/m2, p < 0.01), body fat percentage (−3.2%, p < 0.001), visceral fat area (−12.8 cm2, p < 0.001), and total cholesterol (TC) levels (−0.4 mmol/L, p < 0.05) were significantly decreased in the EXP group. (4) Conclusions: Seven weeks of the CAEH intervention effectively improved FO_rest, MFO, and VO2max in sedentary obese adults, and the improvements in FO_rest and VO2max were more pronounced in males than in females. CAEH also improved body composition and TC levels in sedentary obese adults. Full article
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12 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
The Combined Effects of Television Viewing and Physical Activity on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Kardiovize Study
by Geraldo A. Maranhao Neto, Iuliia Pavlovska, Anna Polcrova, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Maria M. Infante-Garcia, Jose Medina-Inojosa, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez and Juan P. Gonzalez-Rivas
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030545 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2155 subjects (25–64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2155 subjects (25–64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. TVV was classified as low (<2 h/day), moderate (2–4), and high (≥4). PA was classified as insufficient, moderate, and high. To assess the independent association of TVV/PA categories with cardiometabolic variables, multiple linear regression was used. After adjustments, significant associations were: High TVV/insufficient PA with body mass index (BMI) (β = 2.61, SE = 0.63), waist circumference (WC) (β = 7.52, SE = 1.58), body fat percent (%BF) (β = 6.24, SE = 1.02), glucose (β = 0.25, SE = 0.12), triglycerides (β = 0.18, SE = 0.05), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) (β = −0.10, SE = 0.04); high TVV/moderate PA with BMI (β = 1.98, SE = 0.45), WC (β = 5.43, SE = 1.12), %BF (β = 5.15, SE = 0.72), triglycerides (β = 0.08, SE = 0.04), total cholesterol (β = 0.21, SE = 0.10), low density protein (LDL-c) (β = 0.19, SE = 0.08), and HDL-c (β = −0.07, SE = 0.03); and moderate TVV/insufficient PA with WC (β = 2.68, SE = 1.25), %BF (β = 3.80, SE = 0.81), LDL-c (β = 0.18, SE = 0.09), and HDL-c (β = −0.07, SE = 0.03). Independent of PA levels, a higher TVV was associated with higher amounts of adipose tissue. Higher blood glucose and triglycerides were present in subjects with high TVV and insufficient PA, but not in those with high PA alone. These results affirm the independent cardiometabolic risk of sedentary routines even in subjects with high-levels of PA. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2022

18 pages, 2089 KiB  
Review
The Dilemma of Analyzing Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Wrist Accelerometer Data: Challenges and Opportunities
by Zan Gao, Wenxi Liu, Daniel J. McDonough, Nan Zeng and Jung Eun Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5951; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245951 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5601
Abstract
Physical behaviors (e.g., physical activity and sedentary behavior) have been the focus among many researchers in the biomedical and behavioral science fields. The recent shift from hip- to wrist-worn accelerometers in these fields has signaled the need to develop novel approaches to process [...] Read more.
Physical behaviors (e.g., physical activity and sedentary behavior) have been the focus among many researchers in the biomedical and behavioral science fields. The recent shift from hip- to wrist-worn accelerometers in these fields has signaled the need to develop novel approaches to process raw acceleration data of physical activity and sedentary behavior. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the best practices for analyzing wrist-worn accelerometer data to accurately predict individuals’ energy expenditure and the times spent in different intensities of free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior. To this end, accurately analyzing and interpreting wrist-worn accelerometer data has become a major challenge facing many clinicians and researchers. In response, this paper attempts to review different methodologies for analyzing wrist-worn accelerometer data and offer cutting edge, yet appropriate analysis plans for wrist-worn accelerometer data in the assessment of physical behavior. In this paper, we first discuss the fundamentals of wrist-worn accelerometer data, followed by various methods of processing these data (e.g., cut points, steps per minute, machine learning), and then we discuss the opportunities, challenges, and directions for future studies in this area of inquiry. This is the most comprehensive review paper to date regarding the analysis and interpretation of free-living physical activity data derived from wrist-worn accelerometers, aiming to help establish a blueprint for processing wrist-derived accelerometer data. Full article
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21 pages, 3828 KiB  
Review
Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Functional Performance before and after Lower Limb Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Matic Sašek, Žiga Kozinc, Stefan Löfler, Christian Hofer and Nejc Šarabon
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5885; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245885 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Patients after joint arthroplasty tend to be less physically active; however, studies measuring objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in these patients provide conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess objectively measured PA, SB and performance at periods [...] Read more.
Patients after joint arthroplasty tend to be less physically active; however, studies measuring objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in these patients provide conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess objectively measured PA, SB and performance at periods up to and greater than 12 months after lower limb arthroplasty. Two electronic databases (PubMed and Medline) were searched to identify prospective and cross-sectional studies from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2020. Studies including objectively measured SB, PA or specific performance tests in patients with knee or hip arthroplasty, were included in the analyses both pre- and post-operatively. The risk of bias was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). After identification and exclusion, 35 studies were included. The data were analyzed using the inverse variance method with the random effects model and expressed as standardized mean difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. In total, we assessed 1943 subjects with a mean age of 64.9 (±5.85). Less than 3 months post-operative, studies showed no differences in PA, SB and performance. At 3 months post-operation, there was a significant increase in the 6 min walk test (6MWT) (SMD 0.65; CI: 0.48, 0.82). After 6 months, changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (SMD 0.33; CI: 0.20, 0.46) and the number of steps (SMD 0.45; CI: 0.34, 0.54) with a large decrease in the timed-up-and-go test (SMD −0.61; CI: −0.94, −0.28) and increase in the 6MWT (SMD 0.62; CI: 0.26–0.98) were observed. Finally, a large increase in MVPA (SMD 0.70; CI: 0.53–0.87) and a moderate increase in step count (SMD 0.52; CI: 0.36, 0.69) were observed after 12 months. The comparison between patients and healthy individuals pre-operatively showed a very large difference in the number of steps (SMD −1.02; CI: −1.42, −0.62), but not at 12 months (SMD −0.75; −1.89, 0.38). Three to six months after knee or hip arthroplasty, functional performance already exceeded pre-operative levels, yet PA levels from this time period remained the same. Although PA and functional performance seemed to fully restore and exceed the pre-operation levels at six to nine months, SB did not. Moreover, PA remained lower compared to healthy individuals even longer than twelve months post-operation. Novel rehabilitation protocols and studies should focus on the effects of long-term behavioral changes (increasing PA and reducing SB) as soon as functional performance is restored. Full article
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13 pages, 941 KiB  
Article
Investigating Relationships between Preschool Children’s Perceived Competence, Motor Skills, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Lagged Panel Model
by Suryeon Ryu, Jung Eun Lee, Wenxi Liu, Daniel J. McDonough and Zan Gao
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5620; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235620 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Background: Motor skill competence (MSC) and perceived competence (PC) are primary correlates that are linked with physical activity (PA) participation, yet there is limited evidence of the mutual longitudinal or temporal associations between these variables in preschoolers. Therefore, this study’s purpose was to [...] Read more.
Background: Motor skill competence (MSC) and perceived competence (PC) are primary correlates that are linked with physical activity (PA) participation, yet there is limited evidence of the mutual longitudinal or temporal associations between these variables in preschoolers. Therefore, this study’s purpose was to examine the bidirectional relationships between MSC and PA, MSC and PC, and PC and PA in preschoolers over time. Methods: The final sample were 61 preschoolers (Mage = 4.45 years, ranging from 4 to 5) from two underserved schools. MSC was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2). PC was assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. PA was assessed using ActiGraph GT9X Link accelerometers during three consecutive school days. All assessments of MSC, PC, and PA were measured in identical conditions at schools at the baseline (T1) and the end of the eighth week (T2). We employed a cross-lagged model approach to understand the bidirectional relationships between MSC, PC, and PA. Results: The results showed that T1 MSC significantly predicted T2 MSC (p < 0.01) and T1 MSC significantly predicted T2 PA only in girls (p = 0.03). Additionally, a cross-lagged effect of T1 MSC and T2 PC was only observed in boys (p = 0.03). Lastly, a significant association for T1 moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and T2 PC was only observed in girls (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Bidirectional relationships between the variables were not observed in preschoolers. However, significant gender differences were observed in each cross-lagged model. Full article
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12 pages, 884 KiB  
Article
Effect of a 6-Week Physical Education Intervention on Motor Competence in Pre-School Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
by Rubén Navarro-Patón, Juan Luis Martín-Ayala, Mariacarla Martí González, Alba Hernández and Marcos Mecías-Calvo
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091936 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of an intervention program performed by a specialist in physical education (PE) to contribute to the development of motor competence (MC) in pre-school children with motor development problems. The sample consisted of 28 [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of an intervention program performed by a specialist in physical education (PE) to contribute to the development of motor competence (MC) in pre-school children with motor development problems. The sample consisted of 28 children (12 from the intervention group and 16 from the control group) aged between 4.1 and 5.9 years (mean = 4.71 ± 0.54) who were in the fifth and sixth grades of pre-school education in two schools from Lugo, Spain. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was used for data collection. The data revealed that, in the pre- and post-test intervention groups, there are statistically significant differences in manual dexterity (p < 0.001; d = 2.63), aiming and catching (p < 0.002; d = 1.13), balance (p < 0.001; d = 1.68), total test score (p < 0.001; d = 3.30) and total percentile score (p < 0.001; d = 1.88). Between the control and intervention post-test groups, significant differences were found in manual dexterity (p = 0.015; η2 = 0.22), aiming and catching (p = 0.003; η2 = 0.32), balance (p = 0.050; η2 = 0.15), total test score (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.47) and total percentile score (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.48). Based on the results obtained, a specific MC program implemented by a PE specialist contributed to the improvement of manual dexterity, aiming and catching and balance, as well as a better percentile in the general MC of pre-school children diagnosed with motor skill problems. Full article
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14 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
A Combined Multidisciplinary Intervention for Health Promotion in the Workplace: A Pilot Study
by Venerando Rapisarda, Emanuele Cannizzaro, Martina Barchitta, Ermanno Vitale, Diana Cinà, Fabrizia Minciullo, Serena Matera, Massimo Bracci, Antonella Agodi and Caterina Ledda
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071512 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a joint health promotion intervention on a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. The HCWs were assessed at three different times, i.e., time zero (T0), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a joint health promotion intervention on a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. The HCWs were assessed at three different times, i.e., time zero (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). The following parameters were measured at a medical examination: physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), routine laboratory tests, plicometric analysis, work ability index (WAI), and body image dissatisfaction (BID). Among the 447 HCWs, 38 HCWs were included in the study; 45% (n = 17) were male. At T12, the average blood pressure, waist/hip ratio (WHR) index, BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride level, and blood glucose values were reduced. The levels of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet had progressively increased. The WAI showed a significant shift from low to good work performance at T12, as well as BID score. This is the first study that has analyzed work performance in relation to a workplace health promotion through a multidisciplinary approach. This health promotion intervention that combined diet and sport activity has led to a significant change in HCWs’ lifestyles and body perceptions, as well as their ability to work. This project highlights the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach and the workplace setting in health promotion programs. Full article
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12 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Implementing a Tai Chi Program in an Assisted Living Facility: Reducing Fall Risks and Improving Quality of Life
by Yingying Chen, Deborah Ringdahl, Rachel Trelstad-Porter and Olga V. Gurvich
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061277 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
One in four American older adults fall every year, resulting in injuries, death, and significant financial burden. Although fall etiology is multifactorial, the medical problems and aging factors that lead to unsteady gait and imbalance represent one of the major fall risks among [...] Read more.
One in four American older adults fall every year, resulting in injuries, death, and significant financial burden. Although fall etiology is multifactorial, the medical problems and aging factors that lead to unsteady gait and imbalance represent one of the major fall risks among older adults. A growing number of research studies support the health benefits of regular Tai Chi (TC) practice including improved physical, cognitive, and psychological function. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to assess the feasibility of establishing a 12-week (45 min per session) Tai Chi (TC) program (Sun Style Tai Chi) in a 75 bed assisted living facility as well as to evaluate the potential of the TC program to improve the fear of falling and functional mobility (as proxy for fall risk) and quality of life (QoL). A nurse who was a certified TC instructor taught the program. Twenty-three participants, 96% female and 96% white, mean (SD) age 83 (±7) years, attended one or more TC classes. Class attendance, self-reported questionnaires (e.g., fear of falling, QoL), and objective measure Timed Up and Go (TUG) were used to collect data. Nine participants (39%) completed 9 out of 12 sessions. Eleven participants (48%) completed both pre- and post-intervention measurements and twelve (52%) provided feedback on a post-intervention satisfaction survey. Participants showed 20% improvement in fear of falling (mean relative change) and 21% decrease (mean relative change) in TUG test (p = 0.001) with no clinically important changes in QoL. This quality improvement project suggested that TC is a feasible exercise that might have the potential to reduce risk of falls in older adults, and the program was well accepted with no serious or other adverse events reported. Further research studies are needed to examine the potential effects of TC programs with an appropriately powered RCT and longer intervention period. Full article
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Article
Screen Time and Parents’ Education Level Are Associated with Poor Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The PASOS Study
by Julia Wärnberg, Napoleón Pérez-Farinós, Juan Carlos Benavente-Marín, Santiago Felipe Gómez, Idoia Labayen, Augusto G. Zapico, Narcis Gusi, Susana Aznar, Pedro Emilio Alcaraz, Miguel González-Valeiro, Lluís Serra-Majem, Nicolás Terrados, Josep A. Tur, Marta Segú, Camille Lassale, Clara Homs, Maddi Oses, Marcela González-Gross, Jesús Sánchez-Gómez, Fabio Jiménez-Zazo, Elena Marín-Cascales, Marta Sevilla-Sánchez, Estefanía Herrera-Ramos, Susana Pulgar, María del Mar Bibiloni, Olga Sancho-Moron, Helmut Schröder and F. Javier Barón-Lópezadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040795 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6583
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate if screen time and parents’ education levels are associated with adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study analyzed a representative sample of 3333 children and adolescents (8 to 16 years) included in the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate if screen time and parents’ education levels are associated with adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study analyzed a representative sample of 3333 children and adolescents (8 to 16 years) included in the Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS) study in Spain (which ran from March 2019 to February 2020). Data on screen time (television, computer, video games, and mobile phone) per day, Mediterranean diet adherence, daily moderate or vigorous physical activity, and parents’ education levels were gathered using questionnaires. A descriptive study of the variables according to sex and parents’ education level was performed. Logistic regression models (adjusted by sex and weight status) were fitted to evaluate the independent association between screen time and Kids’ level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED) index, as well as some of its items. A greater amount of screen time was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet; a lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts; and a greater consumption of fast food, sweets, and candies. A lower parents’ education level was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to promote the responsible, limited use of screen time, especially in children with parents with a lower education level. Full article
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