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Screen Time and Parents’ Education Level Are Associated with Poor Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The PASOS Study

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Epi-Phaan Research Group, School of Health Sciences, Universidad de Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 29071 Málaga, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Epi-Phaan Research Group, School of Medicine, Universidad de Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 29071 Málaga, Spain
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Programs, Gasol Foundation, Sant Boi de Llobregat, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
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GREpS, Health Education Research Group, Nursing and Physiotherapy Department, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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ELIKOS Group, Institute for Innovation and Sustainable Development in Food Chain (IS-FOOD), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
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ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Didactics of Language, Arts and Physical Education, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Caceres, Spain
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PAFS Research Group, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha-Toledo Campus, 45071 Toledo, Spain
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Research Center for High Performance Sport, San Antonio Catholic University of Murcia, 30830 Murcia, Spain
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Faculty of Sport Sciences, San Antonio Catholic University of Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
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Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Universidade da Coruña, 15179 A Coruña, Spain
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Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
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Regional Unit of Sports Medicine–Municipal Sports Foundation of Avilés and Health Research Institute of the Principality of Asturias (ISPA), 33401 Avilés, Spain
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Research Group of Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands and IDISBA, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Probitas Foundation, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
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Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Hospital del Mar Institute for Medical Research (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Global Research on Wellbeing (GRoW), Blanquerna Ramon Llull University Faculty of Health Sciences, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jaakko Tuomilehto and Zan Gao
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040795
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
The aim of this study is to evaluate if screen time and parents’ education levels are associated with adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study analyzed a representative sample of 3333 children and adolescents (8 to 16 years) included in the Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS) study in Spain (which ran from March 2019 to February 2020). Data on screen time (television, computer, video games, and mobile phone) per day, Mediterranean diet adherence, daily moderate or vigorous physical activity, and parents’ education levels were gathered using questionnaires. A descriptive study of the variables according to sex and parents’ education level was performed. Logistic regression models (adjusted by sex and weight status) were fitted to evaluate the independent association between screen time and Kids’ level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED) index, as well as some of its items. A greater amount of screen time was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet; a lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts; and a greater consumption of fast food, sweets, and candies. A lower parents’ education level was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to promote the responsible, limited use of screen time, especially in children with parents with a lower education level. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen time; education level; eating pattern; Mediterranean diet screen time; education level; eating pattern; Mediterranean diet
MDPI and ACS Style

Wärnberg, J.; Pérez-Farinós, N.; Benavente-Marín, J.C.; Gómez, S.F.; Labayen, I.; G. Zapico, A.; Gusi, N.; Aznar, S.; Alcaraz, P.E.; González-Valeiro, M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Terrados, N.; Tur, J.A.; Segú, M.; Lassale, C.; Homs, C.; Oses, M.; González-Gross, M.; Sánchez-Gómez, J.; Jiménez-Zazo, F.; Marín-Cascales, E.; Sevilla-Sánchez, M.; Herrera-Ramos, E.; Pulgar, S.; Bibiloni, M.d.M.; Sancho-Moron, O.; Schröder, H.; Barón-López, F.J. Screen Time and Parents’ Education Level Are Associated with Poor Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The PASOS Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 795. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040795

AMA Style

Wärnberg J, Pérez-Farinós N, Benavente-Marín JC, Gómez SF, Labayen I, G. Zapico A, Gusi N, Aznar S, Alcaraz PE, González-Valeiro M, Serra-Majem L, Terrados N, Tur JA, Segú M, Lassale C, Homs C, Oses M, González-Gross M, Sánchez-Gómez J, Jiménez-Zazo F, Marín-Cascales E, Sevilla-Sánchez M, Herrera-Ramos E, Pulgar S, Bibiloni MdM, Sancho-Moron O, Schröder H, Barón-López FJ. Screen Time and Parents’ Education Level Are Associated with Poor Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The PASOS Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(4):795. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040795

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wärnberg, Julia, Napoleón Pérez-Farinós, Juan C. Benavente-Marín, Santiago F. Gómez, Idoia Labayen, Augusto G. Zapico, Narcis Gusi, Susana Aznar, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Miguel González-Valeiro, Lluís Serra-Majem, Nicolás Terrados, Josep A. Tur, Marta Segú, Camille Lassale, Clara Homs, Maddi Oses, Marcela González-Gross, Jesús Sánchez-Gómez, Fabio Jiménez-Zazo, Elena Marín-Cascales, Marta Sevilla-Sánchez, Estefanía Herrera-Ramos, Susana Pulgar, María d.M. Bibiloni, Olga Sancho-Moron, Helmut Schröder, and F. J. Barón-López. 2021. "Screen Time and Parents’ Education Level Are Associated with Poor Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The PASOS Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 4: 795. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040795

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