Special Issue "Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Matthias Biebl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Campus Virchow Klinikum/Campus Charite Mitte, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
Interests: surgical oncology; upper GI cancer; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; clinical trials; minimally invasive surgery; robotic surgery
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Ibrahim Alkatout
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany
Interests: Gynecological Oncology, Endometriosis, Surgical Education, Surgical Training, Urogynecology, Neuropelveology, vNOTES, Robotic Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Minimally invasive surgery has become a common term in visceral as well as gynecologic surgery. Though it first started as an exerimental option for single procedures, it has since evolved almost into its own surgical speciality over the past 20 years. Today, being firmly established in every subspeciality of visceral surgery, it is now no longer a distinct skillset, but a fixed part of the armamentarium of surgical options available. On this journey, the continuing evolution of the technical equipment enabled minimally-invasive surgery to grow from a distinct technique applicable to operative interventions of low and mid-technical difficulty to reach highly complex operative fields, especially oncologic surgery. In every indication, the advantages of a minimally invasive approach include reduced intraoperative blood loss, less postoperative pain, and shorter rehabilitation times, as well as a marked reduction of overall and surgical postoperative morbidity. In the advent of modern oncologic treatment algorithms, these effects not only lower the immediate impact an operation has on the patient, but also become important key steps in reducing the side-effects of surgery. Thus, they enable surgery to become a module in modern multi-disciplinary cancer treatment, which blends into multimodular treatment at different times and prolongs and widens the treatment possibilities available to cancer patients. Also, minimally invasive surgery has been the motor of surgical innovation throughout the past decade, and different surgical approaches, techniques of tissue handling, and also information about tissue like live perfusion monitoring have evolved, enriched, and sometimes changed traditional knowledge about tissue management in surgery.

Lastly, the requirements to learn and refine not only open surgical but also different minimally invasive techniques on high levels deeply impact surgical training pathways. The integration of modern elearning tools, the ability as well as the need to adopt newly available techniques throughout a whole surgical career, and the availability of indefinite virtual training options will influence not only the training but also the definite skillset of modern surgeons in the field of gynecologic and visceral surgery.

With this Special Issue, the up-to-date status of the role of minimally invasive surgery in both gynecology and visceral surgery is presented.

Prof. Dr. Matthias Biebl
Prof. Ibrahim Alkatout
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Robotic surgery
  • Minimally invasive oncologic surgery
  • Surgical training

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Recent Advances in Laparoscopy
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010131 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
At the end of 2019, we received reports of abnormally high rates of severe pneumonia and mortality in a city named Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Incidence, Diagnosis and Repair of a Diaphragmatic Hernia Following Hepatic Surgery: A Single Center Analysis of 3107 Consecutive Liver Resections
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051011 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) after a liver resection (LR) is an uncommon but potentially severe complication. In this retrospective study, we aim to share our experience with DH in our hepatic surgery center. We retrospectively analyzed 3107 patients who underwent a liver resection between [...] Read more.
Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) after a liver resection (LR) is an uncommon but potentially severe complication. In this retrospective study, we aim to share our experience with DH in our hepatic surgery center. We retrospectively analyzed 3107 patients who underwent a liver resection between January 2012 and September 2019. The diagnosis of DH was based on clinical examination and radiological imaging and confirmed by intraoperative findings during surgical repair. Five out of 3107 (0.16%) patients after LR developed DH. Especially, all five DH patients had a major right-sided LR before (n = 716, 0.7%). The mean time interval between initial LR and occurrence of DH was 30 months (range 15 to 44 months). DH exclusively occurred after a right or extended right hepatectomy. Two patients underwent emergency surgery, three were asymptomatic, and DH was diagnosed in follow-up imaging. Three of these five treated patients (60%) developed DH recurrence: two of three (67%) patients after suture repair alone and the only patient after suture repair in combination with an absorbable mesh. The patient who was treated with a composite mesh implant did not show any signs of DH recurrence after 52 months of follow-up. In patients who develop DH after liver surgery, a mesh augmentation with nonresorbable material is generally recommended. In order to diagnose these patients in an early state, we recommend that special attention be paid and a prompt and targeted diagnostic examination of patients with abdominal complaints after right-sided liver resections take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Embryological Development and Topographic Anatomy of Pelvic Compartments—Surgical Relevance for Pelvic Lymphonodectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040708 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Background: The oncological outcome of surgery for the treatment of pelvic malignancies can be improved by performing pelvic lymphonodectomy. However, the extent and regions of lymph node harvest are debated and require profound knowledge of anatomy in order to avoid collateral damage. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The oncological outcome of surgery for the treatment of pelvic malignancies can be improved by performing pelvic lymphonodectomy. However, the extent and regions of lymph node harvest are debated and require profound knowledge of anatomy in order to avoid collateral damage. Methods: The embryological development and topographic anatomy of pelvic compartments in relation to pelvic lymphonodectomy for rectal, uterine, and prostate cancer are reviewed. Based on pre-dissected anatomical specimens, lymph node regions and drainage routes of the posterior and urogenital pelvic compartments are described in both genders. Anatomical landmarks are highlighted to identify structures at risk of injury during pelvic lymphonodectomy. Results: The ontogenesis of urogenital and anorectal compartments and their lymphatic supply are key factors for adequate lymphonodectomy, and have led to compartment-based surgical resection strategies. However, pelvic lymphonodectomy bears the risk of injury to somatic and autonomic nerves, vessels, and organs, depending on the regions and extent of surgery. Conclusion: Embryologically defined, compartment-based resection of pelvic malignancies and their lymphatic drainage routes are based on clearly delineated anatomical landmarks, which permit template-oriented pelvic lymphonodectomy. Comprehensive knowledge of pelvic anatomy, the exchange of surgical concepts between specialties, and minimally invasive techniques will optimize pelvic lymphonodectomy and reduce complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Predicting the Risk of Postoperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Minimally Invasive Resection of Primary Liver Tumors
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040685 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Minimal-invasive techniques are increasingly applied in clinical practice and have contributed towards improving postoperative outcomes. While comparing favorably with open surgery in terms of safety, the occurrence of severe complications remains a grave concern. To date, no objective predictive system has been established [...] Read more.
Minimal-invasive techniques are increasingly applied in clinical practice and have contributed towards improving postoperative outcomes. While comparing favorably with open surgery in terms of safety, the occurrence of severe complications remains a grave concern. To date, no objective predictive system has been established to guide clinicians in estimating complication risks as the relative contribution of general patient health, liver function and surgical parameters remain unclear. Here, we perform a single-center analysis of all consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic liver resection for primary hepatic malignancies since 2010. Among the 210 patients identified, 32 developed major complications. Several independent predictors were identified through a multivariate analysis, defining a preoperative model: diabetes, history of previous hepatectomy, surgical approach, alanine aminotransferase levels and lesion entity. The addition of operative time and whether conversion was required significantly improved predictions and were thus incorporated into the postoperative model. Both models were able to identify patients with major complications with acceptable performance (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for a preoperative model = 0.77 vs. postoperative model = 0.80). Internal validation was performed and confirmed the discriminatory ability of the models. An easily accessible online tool was deployed in order to estimate probabilities of severe complication without the need for manual calculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Surgical Performance Is Not Negatively Impacted by Wearing a Commercial Full-Face Mask with Ad Hoc 3D-Printed Filter Connection as a Substitute for Personal Protective Equipment during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030550 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
(1) Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages in the supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) have become apparent. The idea of using commonly available full-face diving (FFD) masks as a temporary solution was quickly spread across social media. However, it was unknown whether [...] Read more.
(1) Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages in the supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) have become apparent. The idea of using commonly available full-face diving (FFD) masks as a temporary solution was quickly spread across social media. However, it was unknown whether an FFD mask would considerably impair complex surgical tasks. Thus, we aimed to assess laparoscopic surgical performance while wearing an FFD mask as PPE. (2) Methods: In a randomized-controlled cross-over trial, 40 laparoscopically naive medical students performed laparoscopic procedures while wearing an FFD mask with ad hoc 3D-printed connections to heat and moisture exchange (HME) filters vs. wearing a common surgical face mask. The performance was evaluated using global and specific Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) checklists for suturing and cholecystectomy. (3) Results: For the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both global OSATS scores and specific OSATS scores for the quality of procedure were similar (Group 1: 25 ± 4.3 and 45.7 ± 12.9, p = 0.485, vs. Group 2: 24.1 ± 3.7 and 43.3 ± 7.6, p = 0.485). For the laparoscopic suturing task, the FFD mask group needed similar times to the surgical mask group (3009 ± 1694 s vs. 2443 ± 949 s; p = 0.200). Some participants reported impaired verbal communication while wearing the FFD mask, as it muffled the sound of speech, as well as discomfort in breathing. (4) Conclusions: FFD masks do not affect the quality of laparoscopic surgical performance, despite being uncomfortable, and may therefore be used as a substitute for conventional PPE in times of shortage—i.e., the global COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Usability of Indocyanine Green in Robot-Assisted Hepatic Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030456 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 503
Abstract
Recent developments in robotic surgery have led to an increasing number of robot-assisted hepatobiliary procedures. However, a limitation of robotic surgery is the missing haptic feedback. The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) may help in this context, which accumulates in hepatocellular cancers and [...] Read more.
Recent developments in robotic surgery have led to an increasing number of robot-assisted hepatobiliary procedures. However, a limitation of robotic surgery is the missing haptic feedback. The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) may help in this context, which accumulates in hepatocellular cancers and around hepatic metastasis. ICG accumulation may be visualized by a near-infrared camera integrated into some robotic systems, helping to perform surgery more accurately. We aimed to test the feasibility of preoperative ICG application and its intraoperative use in patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma and metastasis of colorectal cancer, but also of other origins. In a single-arm, single-center feasibility study, we tested preoperative ICG application and its intraoperative use in patients undergoing robot-assisted hepatic resections. Twenty patients were included in the final analysis. ICG staining helped in most cases by detecting a clear lesion or additional metastases or when performing an R0 resection. However, it has limitations if applied too late before surgery and in patients suffering from severe liver cirrhosis. ICG staining may serve as a beneficial intraoperative aid in patients undergoing robot-assisted hepatic surgery. Dose and time of application and standardized fluorescence intensity need to be further determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
The Shift from Multiport to Single Port Increases the Amount of Bleeding in Laparoscopic Major Hepatectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030374 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Background: Bleeding is a negative outcome predictor in liver surgery. Reduction in the abdominal wall trauma in major hepatectomy is challenging but might offer possible benefits for the patient. This study was conducted to assess hemostasis techniques in single-port major hepatectomies (SP-MajH) as [...] Read more.
Background: Bleeding is a negative outcome predictor in liver surgery. Reduction in the abdominal wall trauma in major hepatectomy is challenging but might offer possible benefits for the patient. This study was conducted to assess hemostasis techniques in single-port major hepatectomies (SP-MajH) as compared to multiport major hepatectomies (MP-MajH). Methods: The non-randomized study comprised 34 SP-MajH in selected patients; 14 MP-MajH served as the control group. Intraoperative blood loss and number of blood units transfused served as the primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints were complications and oncologic five-year outcome. Results: All resections were completed without converting to open surgery. Time for hepatectomy did not differ between SP-MajH and MP-MajH. Blood loss and number of patients with blood loss > 25 mL were significantly larger in MP-MajH (p = 0.001). In contrast, bleeding control was more difficult in SP-MajH, resulting in more transfusions (p = 0.008). One intestinal laceration (SP-MajH) accounted for the only intraoperative complication; 90-day mortality was zero. Postoperative complications were noted in total in 20.6% and 21.4% of patients for SP-MajH and MP-MajH, respectively. No incisional hernia occurred. During a median oncologic follow-up at 61 and 56 months (SP-MajH and MP-MajH), no local tumor recurrence was observed. Conclusions: SP-MajH requires sophisticated techniques to ensure operative safety. Substantial blood loss requiring transfusion is more likely to occur in SP-MajH than in MP-MajH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Intercostal Catheters for Postoperative Pain Management in VATS Reduce Opioid Consumption
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020372 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Background: Postoperative pain after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) affects patients’ recovery, postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS). Despite its relevance, there are no guidelines on optimal perioperative pain management. This study aims to analyse the effects of an additional intercostal catheter (ICC) [...] Read more.
Background: Postoperative pain after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) affects patients’ recovery, postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS). Despite its relevance, there are no guidelines on optimal perioperative pain management. This study aims to analyse the effects of an additional intercostal catheter (ICC) in comparison to a single shot intraoperative intercostal nerve block (SSINB). Methods: All patients receiving an anatomic VATS resection between June 2019 and May 2020 were analysed retrospectively. The ICC cohort included 51 patients, the SSINB cohort included 44 patients. Results: There was no difference in age, gender, comorbidities, or duration of surgery between cohorts. Pain scores on the first postoperative day, after chest drain removal, and highest pain score measured did not differ between groups. The overall amount of opioids (morphine equivalent: 3.034 mg vs. 7.727 mg; p = 0.002) as well as the duration of opioid usage (0.59 days vs. 1.25 days; p = 0.005) was significantly less in the ICC cohort. There was no difference in chest drain duration, postoperative complications, and postoperative LOS. Conclusions: Pain management with ICC reduces the amount of opioids and number of days with opioids patients require to achieve sufficient analgesia. In conclusion, ICC is an effective regional anaesthesia tool in postoperative pain management in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Implementation of Robotic Assistance in Pancreatic Surgery: Experiences from the First 101 Consecutive Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020229 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery has been implemented to overcome typical limitations of conventional laparoscopy such as lack of angulation, especially during creation of biliary and pancreatic anastomoses. With this retrospective analysis, we provide our experience with the first 101 consecutive robotic pancreatic [...] Read more.
Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery has been implemented to overcome typical limitations of conventional laparoscopy such as lack of angulation, especially during creation of biliary and pancreatic anastomoses. With this retrospective analysis, we provide our experience with the first 101 consecutive robotic pancreatic resection performed at our center. Distal pancreatectomies (RDP, N = 44), total pancreatectomies (RTP, N = 3) and pancreaticoduodenectomies (RPD, N = 54) were included. Malignancy was found in 45.5% (RDP), 66.7% (RTP) and 61% (RPD). Procedure times decreased from the first to the second half of the cohort for RDP (218 min vs. 128 min, p = 0.02) and RPD (378 min vs. 271 min, p < 0.001). Overall complication rate was 63%, 33% and 66% for RPD, RPT and RDP, respectively. Reintervention and reoperation rates were 41% and 17% (RPD), 33% and 0% (RTP) and 50% and 11.4% (RPD), respectively. The thirty-day mortality rate was 5.6% for RPD and nil for RTP and RDP. Overall complication rate remained stable throughout the study period. In this series, implementation of robotic pancreas surgery was safe and feasible. Final evaluation of the anastomoses through the median retrieval incision compensated for the lack of haptic feedback during reconstruction and allowed for secure minimally invasive resection and reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Prospective International Multicenter Pelvic Floor Study: Short-Term Follow-Up and Clinical Findings for Combined Pectopexy and Native Tissue Repair
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020217 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Efforts to use traditional native tissue strategies and reduce the use of meshes have been made in several countries. Combining native tissue repair with sufficient mesh applied apical repair might provide a means of effective treatment. The study group did perform and publish [...] Read more.
Efforts to use traditional native tissue strategies and reduce the use of meshes have been made in several countries. Combining native tissue repair with sufficient mesh applied apical repair might provide a means of effective treatment. The study group did perform and publish a randomized trial focusing on the combination of traditional native tissue repair with pectopexy or sacrocolpopexy and observed no severe or hitherto unknown risks for patients (Noé G.K. J Endourol 2015;29(2):210–215). The short-term follow-up of this international multicenter study carried out now is presented in this article. Material and Methods: Eleven clinics and 13 surgeons in four European counties participated in the trial. In order to ensure a standardized approach and obtain comparable data, all surgeons were obliged to follow a standardized approach for pectopexy, focusing on the area of fixation and the use of a prefabricated mesh (PVDF PRP 3 × 15 Dynamesh). The mesh was solely used for apical repair. All other clinically relevant defects were treated with native tissue repair. Colposuspension or TVT were used for the treatment of incontinence. Data were collected independently for 14 months on a secured server; 501 surgeries were registered and evaluated. Two hundred and sixty-four patients out of 479 (55.1%) returned for the physical examination and interview after 12–18 months. Main Outcome and Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 15 months. The overall success of apical repair was rated positively by 96.9%, and the satisfaction score was rated positively by 95.5%. A positive general recommendation was expressed by 95.1% of patients. Pelvic pressure was reduced in 95.2%, pain in 98.0%, and urgency in 86.0% of patients. No major complications, mesh exposure, or mesh complication occurred during the follow-up period. Conclusion: In clinical routine, pectopexy and concomitant surgery, mainly using native tissue approaches, resulted in high satisfaction rates and favorable clinical findings. The procedure may also be recommended for use by general urogynecological practitioners with experience in laparoscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Video Feedback and Video Modeling in Teaching Laparoscopic Surgery: A Visionary Concept from Kiel
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010163 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Learning curves for endoscopic surgery are long and flat. Various techniques and methods are now available for surgical endoscopic training, such as pelvitrainers, virtual trainers, and body donor surgery. Video modeling and video feedback are commonly used in professional training. We report, for [...] Read more.
Learning curves for endoscopic surgery are long and flat. Various techniques and methods are now available for surgical endoscopic training, such as pelvitrainers, virtual trainers, and body donor surgery. Video modeling and video feedback are commonly used in professional training. We report, for the first time, the application of video modeling and video feedback for endoscopic training in gynecology. The purpose is to present an innovative method of training. Attendees (residents and specialists) of minimally invasive surgery courses were asked to perform specific tasks, which were video recorded in a multimodular concept. Feedback was given later by an expert at a joint meeting. The attendees were asked to fill a questionnaire in order to assess video feedback given by the expert. The advantages of video feedback and video modeling for the development of surgical skills were given a high rating (median 84%, interquartile ranges (IQR) 72.5–97.5%, n = 37). The question as to whether the attendees would recommend such training was also answered very positively (median 100%, IQR 89.5–100%, n = 37). We noted a clear difference between subjective perception and objective feedback (58%, IQR 40.5–76%, n = 37). Video feedback and video modeling are easy to implement in surgical training setups, and help trainees at all levels of education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Initial Experience with the Safe Implementation of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME) as a Standardized Procedure for Low Rectal Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010072 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Introduction: The laparoscopic approach for TME is proven to be non-inferior in oncological outcome compared to open surgery. Anatomical limitations in the male and obese pelvis with resulting pathological shortcomings and high conversion rates were stimuli for alternative approaches. The transanal approach for [...] Read more.
Introduction: The laparoscopic approach for TME is proven to be non-inferior in oncological outcome compared to open surgery. Anatomical limitations in the male and obese pelvis with resulting pathological shortcomings and high conversion rates were stimuli for alternative approaches. The transanal approach for TME (TaTME) was introduced to overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of TaTME for mid and low rectal cancer at our center. Methods: TaTME is a hybrid procedure of simultaneously laparoscopic and transanal mesorectal excision. A retrospective analysis of all consecutive TaTME procedures performed at our center for mid and low rectal cancer between December 2014 and January 2020 was conducted. Results: A total of 157 patients underwent TaTME, with 72.6% receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Mean tumor height was 6.1 ± 2.3 cm from the anal verge, 72.6% of patients had undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and 34.2% of patients presented with a threatened CRM upon pretherapeutic MRI. Abdominal conversion rate was 5.7% with no conversion for the transanal dissection. Early anastomotic leakage occurred in 7.0% of the patients. Mesorectum specimen was complete in 87.3%, R1 resection rate was 4.5% (involved distal resection margin) and in 7.6%, the CRM was positive. The three-year local recurrence rate of 58 patients with a follow-up ≥ 36 months was 3.4%. Overall survival was 92.0% after 12 months, and 82.2% after 36 months. Conclusion: TaTME can be performed safely with acceptable long-term oncological outcome. Low rectal cancer can be well addressed by TaTME, which is an appropriate alternative with low conversion, local recurrence, adequate mesorectal quality and CRM positivity rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Minimal-Invasive Versus Open Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases: Bicentric Analysis of Postoperative Outcomes and Long-Term Survival Using Propensity Score Matching Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4027; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124027 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Minimal-invasive hepatectomy (MIH) has been increasingly performed for benign and malignant liver lesions with most promising short-term results. However, the oncological role of MIH in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) needs further investigation. Clinicopathological data of patients who underwent [...] Read more.
Minimal-invasive hepatectomy (MIH) has been increasingly performed for benign and malignant liver lesions with most promising short-term results. However, the oncological role of MIH in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) needs further investigation. Clinicopathological data of patients who underwent liver resection for CRLM between 2012 and 2017 at the Department of Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and the Inselspital Bern were assessed. Postoperative outcomes und long-term survivals of patients following MIH were compared with those after conventional open hepatectomy (OH) after 1:1 propensity score matching. During the study period, 229 and 91 patients underwent liver resection for CRLM at the Charité Berlin and the Inselspital Bern, respectively. Patients who underwent MIH in one of the two centers (n = 69) were compared with a matched cohort of patients who underwent OH. MIH was associated with lower complication rates (23% vs. 44%, p = 0.011), shorter length of intensive care unit stay (ICU, 1 vs. 2 days, p = 0.043), shorter length of hospital stay (7 vs. 11 days, p < 0.0001), and a reduced need for intraoperative transfusions (12% vs. 25%, p = 0.047) compared to OH. R0 status was achieved in 93% and 75% of patients after MIH and OH, respectively (p = 0.005). After a median follow-up of 31 months, MIH resulted in similar five-year overall survival (OS) rate (56% vs. 48%, p = 0.116) in comparison to OH. MIH for CRLM is associated with lower postoperative morbidity, shorter length of ICU and hospital stay, reduced need for transfusions, and comparable oncologic outcomes compared to the established OH. Our findings suggest that MIH should be considered as the preferred method for the treatment of curatively resectable CRLM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Hydroceles of the Canal of Nuck in Adults—Diagnostic, Treatment and Results of a Rare Condition in Females
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4026; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124026 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Nuck’s hydroceles, which develop in a protruding part of the parietal peritoneum into the female inguinal canal, are rare abnormalities and a cause of inguinal swelling, mostly resulting in pain. They appear when this evagination of the parietal peritoneum into the inguinal canal [...] Read more.
Nuck’s hydroceles, which develop in a protruding part of the parietal peritoneum into the female inguinal canal, are rare abnormalities and a cause of inguinal swelling, mostly resulting in pain. They appear when this evagination of the parietal peritoneum into the inguinal canal fails to obliterate. Our review of the literature on this topic included several case reports and two case series that presented cases of Nuck hydroceles which underwent surgical therapy. We present six consecutive cases of symptomatic hydroceles of Nuck’s canal from September 2016 to January 2020 at the Department of Surgery of Charité Berlin. Several of these patients had a long history of pain and consecutive consultations to outpatient clinics without diagnosis. These patients underwent laparoscopic or conventional excision and if needed simultaneous hernioplasty in our institution. Ultrasonography and/or Magnetic Resonance Imaging were used to display the cystic lesion in the inguinal area, providing the diagnosis of Nuck’s hydrocele. This finding was confirmed intraoperatively and by histopathological review. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) captures, intraoperative pictures and video of minimal invasive treatment are provided. Nuck’s hydroceles should be included in the differential diagnosis of an inguinal swelling. We recommend an open approach to external Type 1 Nuck´s hydroceles and a laparoscopic approach to intra-abdominal Type 2 Nuck hydroceles. Complex hydroceles like Type 3 have to be evaluated individually, as they are challenging and the surgical outcome is dependent on the surgeon’s skills. If inguinal channel has been widened by the presence of a Nuck’s hydrocele, a mesh plasty, as performed in hernia surgery, should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Increased Institutional Surgical Experience in Robot-Assisted Radical Hysterectomy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer Reduces Recurrence Rate: Results from a Nationwide Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3715; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113715 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of institutional surgical experience on recurrence following robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) for early stage cervical cancer. All women in Sweden who underwent an RRH for stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer at tertiary referral centers [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of institutional surgical experience on recurrence following robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) for early stage cervical cancer. All women in Sweden who underwent an RRH for stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer at tertiary referral centers from its implementation in December 2005 until June 2017 were identified using a Swedish nationwide register and local hospital registers. Registry data were controlled by a chart review of all women. Recurrence rates and patterns of recurrence were compared between early and late (≤50 vs. >50 procedures) institutional series. Six hundred and thirty-five women were included. Regression analysis identified a lower risk of recurrence with increased experience but without a clear cut off level. Among the 489 women who did not receive adjuvant radio chemotherapy (RC-T), the rate of recurrence was 3.6% in the experienced cohort (>50 procedures) compared to 9.3% in the introductory cohort (p < 0.05). This was also seen in tumors < 2 cm regardless of RC-T (p < 0.05), whereas no difference in recurrence was seen when analyzing all women receiving RC-T. In conclusion, the rate of recurrence following RRH for early stage cervical cancer decreased with increased institutional surgical experience, in tumors < 2 cm and in women who did not receive adjuvant RC-T. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Long-Term, Health-Related Quality of Life after Open and Robot-Assisted Ivor-Lewis Procedures—A Propensity Score-Matched Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3513; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113513 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
Esophagectomies are among the most invasive surgical procedures that highly influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Recent improvements have helped to achieve longer survival. Therefore, long-term postoperative HRQoL needs to be emphasized in addition to classic criterions like morbidity and mortality. We aimed [...] Read more.
Esophagectomies are among the most invasive surgical procedures that highly influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Recent improvements have helped to achieve longer survival. Therefore, long-term postoperative HRQoL needs to be emphasized in addition to classic criterions like morbidity and mortality. We aimed to compare short and long-term HRQoL after open transthoracic esophagectomies (OTEs) and robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomies (RAMIEs) in patients suffering from esophageal adenocarcinoma. Prospectively collected HRQoL-data (from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30)) were correlated with clinical courses. Only patients suffering from minor postoperative complications (Clavien–Dindo Classification of < 2) after R0 Ivor-Lewis-procedures were included. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status-score (ASA-score), tumor stage, and perioperative therapy were used for propensity score matching (PSM). Twelve RAMIE and 29 OTE patients met the inclusion criteria. RAMIE patients reported significantly better emotional and social function while suffering from significantly less pain and less physical impairment four months after surgery. The long-term follow up confirmed the results. Long-term postoperative HRQoL and self-perception partly exceeded the levels of the healthy reference population. Minor operative trauma by robotic approaches resulted in significantly reduced physical impairments while improving HRQoL and self-perception, especially in the long-term. However, further long-term results are warranted to confirm this positive trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Didactic Benefits of Surgery on Body Donors during Live Surgery Events in Minimally Invasive Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092912 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Background: Live surgery events serve as a valuable tool for surgical education, but also raise ethical concerns about patient safety and professional performance. In the present study, we evaluate the technical feasibility and didactic benefits of live surgery on body donors compared to [...] Read more.
Background: Live surgery events serve as a valuable tool for surgical education, but also raise ethical concerns about patient safety and professional performance. In the present study, we evaluate the technical feasibility and didactic benefits of live surgery on body donors compared to real patients. Methods: A live surgery session performed on a body donor’s cadaver embalmed in ethanol–glycerol–lysoformin was integrated into the live surgery program presented at a major gynecological convention of minimally invasive surgery. Surgical procedures carried out in real patients were paralleled in the body donor, including the dissection and illustration of surgically relevant anatomical landmarks. A standardized questionnaire was filled by the participants (n = 208) to evaluate the appropriateness, effectiveness, and benefits of this novel concept. Results: The live surgery event was appreciated as a useful educational tool. With regard to the use of body donors, authenticity was rated high (85.5%), and the overall value of body donors for surgical education and training was rated very high (95.0%). The didactic benefit of simultaneous operations performed on body donors and real patients was considered particularly useful (95.5%), whereas complete replacement of real patients by body donors was not favored (14.5%). Conclusions: The study demonstrated both the technical feasibility and didactic benefits of performing minimally invasive surgery in body donors as part of live surgery events. This novel concept has the potential to enhance anatomical knowledge, providing insights into complex surgical procedures, and may serve to overcome yet unresolved ethical concerns related to live surgery events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Postoperative Telephone-Based Questionnaire on Quality of Life after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy versus Conventional Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092849 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits of robotic-surgery for hysterectomy compared to conventional laparoscopy for benign indications. A specially prepared telephone-based questionnaire was used postoperatively. Method: All women (n = 155) undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy [...] Read more.
Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits of robotic-surgery for hysterectomy compared to conventional laparoscopy for benign indications. A specially prepared telephone-based questionnaire was used postoperatively. Method: All women (n = 155) undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign indications either by the robotic-assisted procedure (RALH) or conventional laparoscopy (CL) between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017 at the Department of the Gynecology, University Hospitals, Campus Kiel, Germany, were eligible for analysis. Intra-operative and postoperative parameters affecting the patients’ quality of life were assessed by a telephone-based questionnaire. The latter addressed postoperative pain, limitations of basic hygiene, daily activity, active pursuit of hobbies, sexual intercourse, and days of sick leave. All patients received the questionnaire by post at least three weeks prior to being contacted on the phone. Results: 78% of the contacted patients responded to the questionnaire; 96% (n = 115) of the patients said they would recommend the operation to other patients. Both groups needed 42 days to resume their regular hobbies. In whole 90.8% (n = 108) were total satisfied with the cosmetic result of the abdominal incision; the numbers in the respective groups were 80% (80% n = 36) in RALH and 97.3% (n = 72) in CL. The difference was significant on the Chi-square test (p = 0.002). 5% (n = 7) were dissatisfied with the scar (13.3%; n = 6) in the RALH group, and 1.4% (n = 1) in CL. In all 1.7 % of patients were dissatisfied with the position of the incisions; the respective numbers were 4.4 % (n = 2) in the RALH group and no patient in the CL group. 33% of patients experienced no limitations in regard of sexual intercourse after the operation. The median number of days taken to resume sexual intercourse after the operation was 56 days in the CL group, and 49 days in the RALH group. Nearly 30% (n = 25) were hesitant to resume intercourse. The median operating time was 145 min in the RALH group, which was significantly longer than the 117 min taken in the CL group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The RALH procedure was associated with some minor advantages for the patients according to the results, however it does not have major significant advantages, especially in regard of early restoration of sexual function, while the CL shows shorter operating times and similar limitation. Postoperative counseling of patients should be aligned to their fears and expectations in regard of sexual function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Article
Management of a Thin Endometrium by Hysteroscopic Instillation of Platelet-Rich Plasma Into The Endomyometrial Junction: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092795 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
In patients whose embryo transfer has been previously canceled due to a thin endometrium, the injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) guided by hysteroscopy into the endomyometrial junction improves endometrial thickness and vascularity. This may well serve as a novel approach for the management [...] Read more.
In patients whose embryo transfer has been previously canceled due to a thin endometrium, the injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) guided by hysteroscopy into the endomyometrial junction improves endometrial thickness and vascularity. This may well serve as a novel approach for the management of these patients. In this study, 32 patients aged between 27 and 39 years, suffering from primary or secondary infertility, were selected for hysteroscopic instillation of PRP. This cross-sectional study included a retrospective assessment of the improvement of endometrial thickness (>7 mm) on the commencement of progesterone treatment in 24 of 32 patients (75%) after hysteroscopy-guided injections of PRP into the subendometrial zone. After PRP instillation, the endometrium was 7 mm or thicker in 24 of 32 patients, and all 24 patients underwent frozen embryo transfer. Moreover, 12 of 24 patients who underwent embryo transfer conceived, whereas 10 had a clinical pregnancy with visualization of cardiac activity at 6 weeks and two had a biochemical pregnancy. Our approach of PRP injection into the subendometrial region is consistent with the histologically proven regeneration of the endometrium from the endomyometrial junction. We observed an improvement of endometrial thickness and higher pregnancy rates in cases of previously canceled embryo transfer due to a thin endometrium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Bariatric Surgery–How Much Malabsorption Do We Need?—A Review of Various Limb Lengths in Different Gastric Bypass Procedures
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040674 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
The number of obese individuals worldwide continues to increase every year, thus, the number of bariatric/metabolic operations performed is on a constant rise as well. Beside exclusively restrictive procedures, most of the bariatric operations have a more or less malabsorptive component. Several different [...] Read more.
The number of obese individuals worldwide continues to increase every year, thus, the number of bariatric/metabolic operations performed is on a constant rise as well. Beside exclusively restrictive procedures, most of the bariatric operations have a more or less malabsorptive component. Several different bypass procedures exist alongside each other today and each type of bypass is performed using a distinct technique. Furthermore, the length of the bypassed intestine may differ as well. One might add that the operations are performed differently in different parts of the world and have been changing and evolving over time. This review evaluates the most frequently performed bariatric bypass procedures (and their variations) worldwide: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass, Single-Anastomosis Duodeno-Ileal Bypass + Sleeve Gastrectomy, Biliopancreatic Diversion + Duodenal Switch and operations due to weight regain. The evaluation of the procedures and different limb lengths focusses on weight loss, remission of comorbidities and the risk of malnutrition and deficiencies. This narrative review does not aim at synthesizing quantitative data. Rather, it provides a summary of carefully selected, high-quality studies to serve as examples and to draw tentative conclusions on the effects of the bypass procedures mentioned above. In conclusion, it is important to carefully choose the procedure and small bowel length excluded from the food passage suited best to each individual patient. A balance has to be achieved between sufficient weight loss and remission of comorbidities, as well as a low risk of deficiencies and malnutrition. In any case, at least 300 cm of small bowel should always remain in the food stream to prevent the development of deficiencies and malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Impact of Surgical Management of Endometrioma on AMH Levels and Pregnancy Rates: A Review of Recent Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030414 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Ovarian endometrioma are found in up to 40% of women with endometriosis and 50% of infertile women. The best surgical approach for endometrioma and its impact on pregnancy rates is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a literature review on surgical management of ovarian [...] Read more.
Ovarian endometrioma are found in up to 40% of women with endometriosis and 50% of infertile women. The best surgical approach for endometrioma and its impact on pregnancy rates is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a literature review on surgical management of ovarian endometrioma and its impact on pregnancy rates and ovarian reserve, assessed by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serum levels. Ovarian cystectomy is the preferred technique, as it is associated with lower recurrence and higher spontaneous pregnancy rate. However, ablative approaches and combined techniques are becoming more popular as ovarian reserve is less affected and there are slightly higher pregnancy rates. Preoperative AMH level might be useful to predict the occurrence of pregnancy. In conclusion, AMH should be included in the preoperative evaluation of reproductive aged women with endometriosis. The surgical options for ovarian endometrioma should be individualized. The endometrioma ablation procedure seems to be the most promising treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
Review
Genital Prolapse Surgery: What Options Do We Have in the Age of Mesh Issues?
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020267 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Here, we describe the current laparoscopic procedures for prolapse surgery and report data based on the application of these procedures. We also evaluate current approaches in vaginal prolapse surgery. Debates concerning the use of meshes have seriously affected vaginal surgery and threaten to [...] Read more.
Here, we describe the current laparoscopic procedures for prolapse surgery and report data based on the application of these procedures. We also evaluate current approaches in vaginal prolapse surgery. Debates concerning the use of meshes have seriously affected vaginal surgery and threaten to influence reconstructive laparoscopic surgery as well. We describe the option of using autologous tissue in combination with the laparoscopic approach. Study data and problematic issues concerning the existing techniques are highlighted, and future options addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Radiotherapy and Its Intersections with Surgery in the Management of Localized Gynecological Malignancies: A Comprehensive Overview for Clinicians
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010093 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Surgery, including minimally invasive surgery, and radiotherapy are key modalities in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. The aim of this review is to offer the multidisciplinary care team a comprehensive summary of the intersections of surgery and radiotherapy in the local treatment of [...] Read more.
Surgery, including minimally invasive surgery, and radiotherapy are key modalities in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. The aim of this review is to offer the multidisciplinary care team a comprehensive summary of the intersections of surgery and radiotherapy in the local treatment of gynecological malignancies. Recent advances in radiotherapy are highlighted. Relevant publications were identified through a review of the published literature. Ovarian, endometrial, cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer were included in the search. Current guidelines are summarized. The role of radiotherapy in adjuvant as well as definitive treatment of these entities is synthesized and put into context with surgery, focusing on survival and quality of life. Although these outcomes have improved recently, further research must be focused on the number of life years lost, and the potential morbidity encountered by patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Challenges Posed by Embryonic and Anatomical Factors in Systematic Lymphadenectomy for Endometrial Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124107 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Lymph node involvement has been shown to be one of the most relevant prognostic factors in a variety of malignancies; this is also true of endometrial cancer. The determination of the lymph node status is crucial in order to establish the tumor stage, [...] Read more.
Lymph node involvement has been shown to be one of the most relevant prognostic factors in a variety of malignancies; this is also true of endometrial cancer. The determination of the lymph node status is crucial in order to establish the tumor stage, and to consider adjuvant treatment. A wide range of surgical staging practices are currently used for the treatment of endometrial cancer. The necessity and extent of lymph node dissection is an ongoing controversial issue in gynecological oncology. Lymph node surgery in endometrial cancer is technically challenging, and can be time consuming because of the topographic complexity of lymphatic drainage as such, and the fact that the lymph nodes are directly adjacent to both blood vessels and nerves. Therefore, profound and exact knowledge of the anatomy is essential. Sentinel lymph node mapping was recently introduced in surgical staging with the aim of reducing morbidity, whilst also obtaining useful prognostic information from a patient’s lymph node status. The present review summarizes the current evidence on the role of lymph node surgery in endometrial cancer, focusing on the embryological, anatomical, and technical aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Do Small Incisions Need Only Minimal Anesthesia?—Anesthetic Management in Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4058; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124058 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
Laparoscopic techniques have established themselves as a major part of modern surgery. Their implementation in every surgical discipline has played a vital part in the reduction of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Precise robotic surgery, as an evolution of this, is shaping the present [...] Read more.
Laparoscopic techniques have established themselves as a major part of modern surgery. Their implementation in every surgical discipline has played a vital part in the reduction of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Precise robotic surgery, as an evolution of this, is shaping the present and future operating theatre that an anesthetist is facing. While incisions get smaller and the impact on the organism seems to dwindle, challenges for anesthetists do not lessen and could even become more demanding than in open procedures. This review focuses on the pathophysiological effects of contemporary laparoscopic and robotic procedures and summarizes anesthetic challenges and strategies for perioperative management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
Review
Advances and Trends in Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123999 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 651
Abstract
As many meta-analyses comparing pediatric minimally invasive to open surgery can be found in the literature, the aim of this review is to summarize the current state of minimally invasive pediatric surgery and specifically focus on the trends and developments which we expect [...] Read more.
As many meta-analyses comparing pediatric minimally invasive to open surgery can be found in the literature, the aim of this review is to summarize the current state of minimally invasive pediatric surgery and specifically focus on the trends and developments which we expect in the upcoming years. Print and electronic databases were systematically searched for specific keywords, and cross-link searches with references found in the literature were added. Full-text articles were obtained, and eligibility criteria were applied independently. Pediatric minimally invasive surgery is a wide field, ranging from minimally invasive fetal surgery over microlaparoscopy in newborns to robotic surgery in adolescents. New techniques and devices, like natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), single-incision and endoscopic surgery, as well as the artificial uterus as a backup for surgery in preterm fetuses, all contribute to the development of less invasive procedures for children. In spite of all promising technical developments which will definitely change the way pediatric surgeons will perform minimally invasive procedures in the upcoming years, one must bear in mind that only hard data of prospective randomized controlled and double-blind trials can validate whether these techniques and devices really improve the surgical outcome of our patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Hysterectomy by Vaginal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (vNOTES) Compared to Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Benign Indications
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3959; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123959 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
(1) Objective: We aimed to report an update of the systematic review and meta-analysis by Baekelandt et al. (2016). (2) Method: We followed PRISMA guidelines to perform this systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and additional sources and aimed to retrieve randomised [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: We aimed to report an update of the systematic review and meta-analysis by Baekelandt et al. (2016). (2) Method: We followed PRISMA guidelines to perform this systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and additional sources and aimed to retrieve randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and prospective/retrospective cohort studies in human subjects that allowed direct comparison of vNOTES to laparoscopy. (3) Results: Our search yielded one RCT and five retrospective cohort trials. Pooled analysis of two subgroups showed that, compared to conventional laparoscopy, vNOTES is equally effective to successfully remove the uterus in individuals meeting the inclusion criteria. vNOTES had significantly lower values for operation time, length of stay and estimated blood loss. There was no significant difference in intra- and postoperative complications, readmission, pain scores at 24 h postoperative and change in hemoglobin (Hb) on day 1 postoperative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Augmented Realities, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning: Clinical Implications and How Technology Is Shaping the Future of Medicine
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3811; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123811 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Technology has been integrated into every facet of human life, and whether it is completely advantageous remains unknown, but one thing is for sure; we are dependent on technology. Medical advances from the integration of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and augmented realities are [...] Read more.
Technology has been integrated into every facet of human life, and whether it is completely advantageous remains unknown, but one thing is for sure; we are dependent on technology. Medical advances from the integration of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and augmented realities are widespread and have helped countless patients. Much of the advanced technology utilized by medical providers today has been borrowed and extrapolated from other industries. There remains no great collaboration between providers and engineers, which may be why medicine is only in its infancy of innovation with regards to advanced technologic integration. The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight the different technologies currently being utilized in a variety of medical specialties. Furthermore, we hope that by bringing attention to one shortcoming of the medical community, we may inspire future innovators to seek collaboration outside of the purely medical community for the betterment of all patients seeking care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Neuropelveology: An Emerging Discipline for the Management of Pelvic Neuropathies and Bladder Dysfunctions through to Spinal Cord Injury, Anti-Ageing and the Mars Mission
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103285 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Neuropelveology is a new specialty in medicine that has yet to prove itself but the need for it is obvious. This specialty includes the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies and dysfunctions of the pelvic nerves. It encompasses knowledge that is for the most [...] Read more.
Neuropelveology is a new specialty in medicine that has yet to prove itself but the need for it is obvious. This specialty includes the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies and dysfunctions of the pelvic nerves. It encompasses knowledge that is for the most part already known but scattered throughout various other specialties; neuropelveology gathers all this knowledge together. Since the establishment of the International Society of Neuropelveology, this discipline is experiencing an ever-growing interest. In this manuscript, the author gives an overview of the different aspects of neuropelveology from the management of pelvic neuropathic pain to pelvic nerves stimulation for the control of pelvic organ dysfunctions and loss of functions in people with spinal cord injuries. The latter therapeutic option opens up new treatments but also widens preventive horizons not only in the field of curative medicine (osteoporosis and cardio-vascular diseases) but also in preventive medicine and anti-ageing, all the way to future applications in the “Mars mission” project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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Review
Three and Five-Year Mortality in Ovarian Cancer after Minimally Invasive Compared to Open Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082507 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
As regards ovarian cancer, the use of minimally invasive surgery has steadily increased over the years. Reluctance persists, however, about its oncological outcomes. The main objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the three and five-year mortality of patients operated by minimally invasive [...] Read more.
As regards ovarian cancer, the use of minimally invasive surgery has steadily increased over the years. Reluctance persists, however, about its oncological outcomes. The main objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the three and five-year mortality of patients operated by minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for ovarian cancer to those operated by conventional open surgery (OPS), as well as their respective perioperative outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane library and CinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched, using the terms laparoscopy, laparoscopic or minimally invasive in combination with ovarian cancer or ovarian carcinoma. We finally included 19 observational studies with a total of 7213 patients. We found no statistically significant difference for five-year (relative risk (RR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.53–1.49, p = 0.62)) and three-year mortality (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.80–1.12, p = 0.52) between the patients undergoing MIS and those operated by OPS. When five and three-year recurrences were analyzed, no statistically significant differences were also observed. Analysis in early and advanced stages subgroups showed no significant difference for survival outcomes, suggesting oncological safety of MIS in all stages. Whether the surgery was primary or interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer, did not influence the comparative results on mortality or recurrence. Although the available studies are retrospective, and mostly carry a high risk for bias and confounding, an overwhelming consistency of the evidence suggests the likely effectiveness of MIS in selected cases of ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. To validate the use of MIS, the development of future randomized interventional studies should be a priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery)
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