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Special Issue "Diabetic Nephropathy"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Nephrology & Urology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Juan F. Navarro-González

Division of Research and Nephrology Service, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +34 922 602349
Interests: chronic kidney disease; diabetic nephropathy; mineral bone metabolism; cardiovascular complications
Guest Editor
Dr Desirée Luis

Nephrology Service, University Hospital Nuestra Senora de Candelaria, Carretera del Rosario, 145, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +34 922 602349
Interests: diabetic nephropahty; chronic kidney disease; nutrition in renal disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diabetic kidney disease describes the alterations of the kidney that are produced by diabetes mellitus, including the functional, structural and clinical abnormalities. Nowadays, this important complication of diabetes has become the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. The pathophysiology of DKD comprises the interaction of both genetic and environmental determinants that trigger a complex network of pathophysiological events, which involve all the compartments of the kidneys. Diabetic kidney disease progresses gradually over years through different stages, from reversible glomerular hyperfiltration at the beginning to renal failure at the final phase. Importantly, new forms of evolution have been described recently. The screening and early diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease, which is based on the measurement of urinary albumin excretion, is critical for an adequate management and for the prevention of renal disease progression.

Prof. Dr. Juan F. Navarro-González
Dr. Desirée Luis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • albuminuria
  • diabetes
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • glomerular filtration barrier
  • microvascular
  • tubulo-interstitial damage
  • podocytes
  • renin-angiotensin system
  • inflammation

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1518-1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071518
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and [...] Read more.
Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN), using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt) relative to distribution volume (V) (or total body water) (Kt/V), or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl) decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively), and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively). Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0.22, 12 months 1.63 ± 0.39, 24 months 1.73 ± 0.47; NDN: baseline 1.59 ± 0.40, 12 months 1.76 ± 0.47, 24 months 1.80 ± 0.46), in order to maintain the net water balance. The daytime dwell contribution, the fraction of day and the renal fraction of studies parameters provide sustained benefit in the follow-up time, above 30%. Conclusions: The wet day and residual renal function are determinants in the achievement of the objective dose of dialysis, as well as in the water and sodium balance. The cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) does not seem to influence the cleansing effectiveness of the technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessArticle
Urinary MicroRNA Profiling Predicts the Development of Microalbuminuria in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1498-1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071498
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Microalbuminuria provides the earliest clinical marker of diabetic nephropathy among patients with Type 1 diabetes, yet it lacks sensitivity and specificity for early histological manifestations of disease. In recent years microRNAs have emerged as potential mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, suggesting [...] Read more.
Microalbuminuria provides the earliest clinical marker of diabetic nephropathy among patients with Type 1 diabetes, yet it lacks sensitivity and specificity for early histological manifestations of disease. In recent years microRNAs have emerged as potential mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, suggesting a possible role in the diagnosis of early stage disease. We used quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate the expression profile of 723 unique microRNAs in the normoalbuminuric urine of patients who did not develop nephropathy (n = 10) relative to patients who subsequently developed microalbuminuria (n = 17). Eighteen microRNAs were strongly associated with the subsequent development of microalbuminuria, while 15 microRNAs exhibited gender-related differences in expression. The predicted targets of these microRNAs map to biological pathways known to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic renal disease. A microRNA signature (miR-105-3p, miR-1972, miR-28-3p, miR-30b-3p, miR-363-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-486-5p, miR-495, miR-548o-3p and for women miR-192-5p, miR-720) achieved high internal validity (cross-validated misclassification rate of 11.1%) for the future development of microalbuminuria in this dataset. Weighting microRNA measurements by their number of kidney-relevant targets improved the prognostic performance of the miRNA signature (cross-validated misclassification rate of 7.4%). Future studies are needed to corroborate these early observations in larger cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Osteopontin Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1281-1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061281
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Osteopontin (OPN) C-443T promoter polymorphism has been shown as a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). Methods: In the present study we investigated the association of three functional promoter gene polymorphisms C-443T, delG-156G, [...] Read more.
Background: Osteopontin (OPN) C-443T promoter polymorphism has been shown as a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). Methods: In the present study we investigated the association of three functional promoter gene polymorphisms C-443T, delG-156G, and G-66T and their haplotypes with the risk of DN and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Asian Indians T2D patients using Real time PCR based Taqman assay. A total of 1165 T2D patients, belonging to two independently ascertained Indian Asian cohorts, were genotyped for three OPN promoter polymorphisms C-443T (rs11730582), delG-156G (rs17524488) and G-66T (rs28357094). Results: -156G allele and GG genotypes (delG-156G) and haplotypes G-C-G and T-C-G (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G) were associated with decreased risk of DN and higher eGFR. Haplotype G-T-delG and T-T-delG (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G) were identified as risk haplotypes, as shown by lower eGFR. Conclusion: This is the first study to report an association of OPN promoter gene polymorphisms; G-66T and delG-156G and their haplotypes with DN in T2D. Our results suggest an association between OPN promoter gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade in Diabetic Nephropathy. Present Evidences
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(11), 1908-1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4111908
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 9 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries and its prevalence has increased dramatically in the past few decades. These patients are at an increased risk for premature death, cardiovascular disease, and other severe illnesses that [...] Read more.
Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries and its prevalence has increased dramatically in the past few decades. These patients are at an increased risk for premature death, cardiovascular disease, and other severe illnesses that result in frequent hospitalizations and increased health-care utilization. Although much progress has been made in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, renal dysfunction and the development of end-stage renal disease remain major concerns in diabetes. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) results in progressive renal damage. RAAS blockade is the cornerstone of treatment of DKD, with proven efficacy in many arenas. The theoretically-attractive option of combining these medications that target different points in the pathway, potentially offering a more complete RAAS blockade, has also been tested in clinical trials, but long-term outcomes were disappointing. This review examines the “state of play” for RAAS blockade in DKD, dual blockade of various combinations, and a perspective on its benefits and potential risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Open AccessReview
Nephroprotection by Hypoglycemic Agents: Do We Have Supporting Data?
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(10), 1866-1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4101866
Received: 11 July 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current therapy directed at delaying the progression of diabetic nephropathy includes intensive glycemic and optimal blood pressure control, renin angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and multifactorial intervention. However, the renal protection provided by these therapeutic modalities is incomplete. There is a scarcity of studies analysing [...] Read more.
Current therapy directed at delaying the progression of diabetic nephropathy includes intensive glycemic and optimal blood pressure control, renin angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and multifactorial intervention. However, the renal protection provided by these therapeutic modalities is incomplete. There is a scarcity of studies analysing the nephroprotective effect of antihyperglycaemic drugs beyond their glucose lowering effect and improved glycaemic control on the prevention and progression of diabetic nephropathy. This article analyzes the exisiting data about older and newer drugs as well as the mechanisms associated with hypoglycemic drugs, apart from their well known blood glucose lowering effect, in the prevention and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Most of them have been tested in humans, but with varying degrees of success. Although experimental data about most of antihyperglycemic drugs has shown a beneficial effect in kidney parameters, there is a lack of clinical trials that clearly prove these beneficial effects. The key question, however, is whether antihyperglycemic drugs are able to improve renal end-points beyond their antihyperglycemic effect. Existing experimental data are post hoc studies from clinical trials, and supportive of the potential renal-protective role of some of them, especially in the cases of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Dedicated and adequately powered renal trials with renal outcomes are neccessary to assess the nephrotection of antihyperglycaemic drugs beyond the control of hyperglycaemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Open AccessReview
Non-Proteinuric Diabetic Nephropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(9), 1761-1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4091761
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy patients traditionally show significant macroalbuminuria prior to the development of renal impairment. However, this clinical paradigm has recently been questioned. Epidemiological surveys confirm that chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed by a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is more common in diabetic [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy patients traditionally show significant macroalbuminuria prior to the development of renal impairment. However, this clinical paradigm has recently been questioned. Epidemiological surveys confirm that chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed by a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is more common in diabetic patients than in the non-diabetic population but a low number of patients had levels of proteinuria above that which traditionally defines overt diabetic nephropathy (>500 mg/g). The large number of patients with low levels of proteinuria suggests that the traditional clinical paradigm of overt diabetic nephropathy is changing since it does not seem to be the underlying renal lesion in most of diabetic subjects with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Open AccessReview
Ethnic/Race Diversity and Diabetic Kidney Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(8), 1561-1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4081561
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (84 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color) and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language) respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM) [...] Read more.
Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color) and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language) respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a huge global public health problem. As the number of individuals with Type 2 DM grows, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which is one of the most serious complications, is expected to rise sharply. Many ethnic and racial groups have a greater risk of developing DM and its associated macro and micro-vascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Open AccessReview
Mitochondrial Glutathione in Diabetic Nephropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1428-1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071428
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there are many etiologies for diabetic nephropathy (DN), one common characteristic of all cases involves mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequent bioenergetic dysfunction. As the predominant low-molecular-weight, intramitochondrial thiol reductant, the mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) pool plays important roles in how this organelle adapts [...] Read more.
Although there are many etiologies for diabetic nephropathy (DN), one common characteristic of all cases involves mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequent bioenergetic dysfunction. As the predominant low-molecular-weight, intramitochondrial thiol reductant, the mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) pool plays important roles in how this organelle adapts to the chronic hyperglycemia and redox imbalances associated with DN. This review will summarize information about the processes by which this important GSH pool is regulated and how manipulation of these processes can affect mitochondrial and cellular function in the renal proximal tubule. Mitochondria in renal proximal tubular (PT) cells do not appear to synthesize GSH de novo but obtain it by transport from the cytoplasm. Two inner membrane organic anion carriers, the dicarboxylate carrier (DIC; Slc25a10) and 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC; Slc25a11) are responsible for this transport. Genetic modulation of DIC or OGC expression in vitro in PT cells from diabetic rats can alter mitochondrial function and susceptibility of renal PT cells to oxidants, with overexpression leading to reversion of bioenergetic conditions to a non-diabetic state and protection of cells from injury. These findings support the mtGSH carriers as potential therapeutic targets to correct the underlying metabolic disturbance in DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1403-1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071403
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Diabetic Nephropathy and CKD—Analysis of Individual Patient Serum Creatinine Trajectories: A Forgotten Diagnostic Methodology for Diabetic CKD Prognostication and Prediction
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1348-1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071348
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Creatinine is produced in muscle metabolism as the end-product of creatine phosphate and is subsequently excreted principally by way of the kidneys, predominantly by glomerular filtration. Blood creatinine assays constitute the most common clinically relevant measure of renal function. The use of individual [...] Read more.
Creatinine is produced in muscle metabolism as the end-product of creatine phosphate and is subsequently excreted principally by way of the kidneys, predominantly by glomerular filtration. Blood creatinine assays constitute the most common clinically relevant measure of renal function. The use of individual patient-level real-time serum creatinine trajectories provides a very attractive and tantalizing methodology in nephrology practice. Topics covered in this review include acute kidney injury (AKI) with its multifarious rainbow spectrum of renal outcomes; the stimulating vicissitudes of the diverse patterns of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) progression, including the syndrome of rapid onset end stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD); the syndrome of late onset renal failure from angiotensin blockade (LORFFAB); and post-operative AKI linked with the role of intra-operative hypotension in patients with diabetes mellitus and suspected diabetic nephropathy with CKD. We conclude that the study of individual patient-level serum creatinine trajectories, albeit a neglected and forgotten diagnostic methodology for diabetic CKD prognostication and prediction, is a most useful diagnostic tool, both in the short-term and in the long-term practice of nephrology. The analysis of serum creatinine trajectories, both in real time and retrospectively, indeed provides supplementary superior diagnostic and prognostic insights in the management of the nephrology patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Horizon 2020 in Diabetic Kidney Disease: The Clinical Trial Pipeline for Add-On Therapies on Top of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1325-1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061325
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways. Among agents currently undergoing trials that may modify the clinical practice on top of RAS blockade in a 5-year horizon, anti-inflammatory agents currently hold the most promise while anti-fibrotic agents have so far disappointed. Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent already in clinical use, was recently reported to delay estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3–4 diabetic kidney disease when associated with RAS blockade and promising phase 2 data are available for the pentoxifylline derivative CTP-499. Among agents targeting chemokines or chemokine receptors, the oral small molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor CCX140 decreased albuminuria and eGFR loss in phase 2 trials. A dose-finding trial of the anti-IL-1β antibody gevokizumab in diabetic kidney disease will start in 2015. However, clinical development is most advanced for the endothelin receptor A blocker atrasentan, which is undergoing a phase 3 trial with a primary outcome of preserving eGFR. The potential for success of these approaches and other pipeline agents is discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Neuropilin-1 in Diabetic Nephropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1293-1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061293
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) often develops in patients suffering from type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. DN is characterized by renal injury resulting in proteinuria. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a single-pass transmembrane receptor protein devoid of enzymatic activity. Its large extracellular tail is structured [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) often develops in patients suffering from type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. DN is characterized by renal injury resulting in proteinuria. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a single-pass transmembrane receptor protein devoid of enzymatic activity. Its large extracellular tail is structured in several domains, thereby allowing the molecule to interact with multiple ligands linking NRP-1 to different pathways through its signaling co-receptors. NRP-1’s role in nervous system development, immunity, and more recently in cancer, has been extensively investigated. Although its relation to regulation of apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization of glomerular vascular endothelial cells was reported, its function in diabetes mellitus and the development of DN is less clear. Several lines of evidence demonstrate a reduced NRP-1 expression in glycated-BSA cultured differentiated podocytes as well as in glomeruli from db/db mice (a model of type 2 Diabetes) and in diabetic patients diagnosed with DN. In vitro studies of podocytes implicated NRP-1 in the regulation of podocytes’ adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis via not completely understood mechanisms. However, the exact role of NRP-1 during the onset of DN is not yet understood. This review intends to shed more light on NRP-1 and to present a link between NRP-1 and its signaling complexes in the development of DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1269-1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061269
Received: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, kidney transplantation (KT) with or without a pancreas transplant is the treatment of choice. We aimed to review current data regarding kidney [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, kidney transplantation (KT) with or without a pancreas transplant is the treatment of choice. We aimed to review current data regarding kidney and pancreas transplant options in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes and the outcomes of different treatment modalities. In general, pancreas transplantation is associated with long-term survival advantages despite an increased short-term morbidity and mortality risk. This applies to simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation or pancreas after KT compared to KT alone (either living donor or deceased). Other factors as living donor availability, comorbidities, and expected waiting time have to be considered whens electing one transplant modality, rather than a clear benefit in survival of one strategy vs. others. In selected type 2 diabetic patients, data support cautious utilization of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation when a living kidney donor is not an option. Pancreas and kidney transplantation seems to be the treatment of choice for most type 1 diabetic and selected type 2 diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
The Concept and the Epidemiology of Diabetic Nephropathy Have Changed in Recent Years
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1207-1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061207
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a growing worldwide epidemic. It was estimated that more than 366 million people would be affected. DM has spread its presence over the world due to lifestyle changes, increasing obesity and ethnicities, among others. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one [...] Read more.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a growing worldwide epidemic. It was estimated that more than 366 million people would be affected. DM has spread its presence over the world due to lifestyle changes, increasing obesity and ethnicities, among others. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important DM complications. A changing concept has been introduced from the classical DN to diabetic chronic kidney disease (DCKD), taking into account that histological kidney lesions may vary from the nodular or diffuse glomerulosclerosis to tubulointerstitial and/or vascular lesions. Recent data showed how primary and secondary prevention were the key to reduce cardiovascular episodes and improve life expectancy in diabetic patients. A stabilization in the rate of end stage kidney disease has been observed in some countries, probably due to the increased awareness by primary care physicians about the prognostic importance of chronic kidney disease (CKD), better control of blood pressure and glycaemia and the implementation of protocols and clinical practice recommendations about the detection, prevention and treatment of CKD in a coordinated and multidisciplinary management of the DM patient. Early detection of DM and DCKD is crucial to reduce morbidity, mortality and the social and economic impact of DM burden in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Endothelin Blockade in Diabetic Kidney Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(6), 1171-1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4061171
Received: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 25 May 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the most common cause of chronic kidney disease and multiple therapeutic agents, primarily targeted at the renin-angiotensin system, have been assessed. Their only partial effectiveness in slowing down progression to end-stage renal disease, points out an evident need [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the most common cause of chronic kidney disease and multiple therapeutic agents, primarily targeted at the renin-angiotensin system, have been assessed. Their only partial effectiveness in slowing down progression to end-stage renal disease, points out an evident need for additional effective therapies. In the context of diabetes, endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in vasoconstriction, renal injury, mesangial proliferation, glomerulosclerosis, fibrosis and inflammation, largely through activation of its endothelin A (ETA) receptor. Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists have been proposed as potential drug targets. In experimental models of DKD, endothelin receptor antagonists have been described to improve renal injury and fibrosis, whereas clinical trials in DKD patients have shown an antiproteinuric effect. Currently, its renoprotective effect in a long-time clinical trial is being tested. This review focuses on the localization of endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB) within the kidney, as well as the ET-1 functions through them. In addition, we summarize the therapeutic benefit of endothelin receptor antagonists in experimental and human studies and the adverse effects that have been described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 1010-1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4051010
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those [...] Read more.
Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those who will progress to end stage renal disease. In clinical practice, most commonly used markers of renal disease and progression are serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria. Unfortunately, they are all insensitive. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the prognostic value and benefits of targeting some novel risk markers for development of diabetic nephropathy and its progression. It is focused mainly on tubular biomarkers (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, liver-fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), markers of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α and tumour necrosis factor-α receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines) and markers of oxidative stress. Despite the promise of some of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed before they can be used in everyday clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Open AccessReview
Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 998-1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4050998
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another [...] Read more.
The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Hypoglycemia in Patients with Diabetes and Renal Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 948-964; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4050948
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 19 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article summarizes our current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and morbidity of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease and reviews therapeutic limitations in this situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
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Open AccessReview
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Diabetic Kidney, the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(4), 715-740; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4040715
Received: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading worldwide cause of end stage kidney disease and a growing public health challenge. The diabetic kidney is exposed to many environmental stressors and each cell type has developed intricate signaling systems designed to restore optimal cellular function. [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading worldwide cause of end stage kidney disease and a growing public health challenge. The diabetic kidney is exposed to many environmental stressors and each cell type has developed intricate signaling systems designed to restore optimal cellular function. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic pathway that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane structure and secretory function. Studies suggest that the UPR is activated in the diabetic kidney to restore normal ER function and viability. However, when the cell is continuously stressed in an environment that lies outside of its normal physiological range, then the UPR is known as the ER stress response. The UPR reduces protein synthesis, augments the ER folding capacity and downregulates mRNA expression of genes by multiple pathways. Aberrant activation of ER stress can also induce inflammation and cellular apoptosis, and modify signaling of protective processes such as autophagy and mTORC activation. The following review will discuss our current understanding of ER stress in the diabetic kidney and explore novel means of modulating ER stress and its interacting signaling cascades with the overall goal of identifying therapeutic strategies that will improve outcomes in diabetic nephropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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