Next Article in Journal
Role of MicroRNAs-221/222 in Digestive Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Non-Proteinuric Diabetic Nephropathy
Previous Article in Journal
Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
Previous Article in Special Issue
Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(8), 1561-1565;

Ethnic/Race Diversity and Diabetic Kidney Disease

Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
Barts Health NHS Trust and Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan F. Navarro-González and Desirée Luis
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [84 KB, uploaded 31 July 2015]


Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color) and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language) respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a huge global public health problem. As the number of individuals with Type 2 DM grows, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which is one of the most serious complications, is expected to rise sharply. Many ethnic and racial groups have a greater risk of developing DM and its associated macro and micro-vascular complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; ethnicity; race diabetic kidney disease; ethnicity; race
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Muthuppalaniappan, V.M.; Yaqoob, M.M. Ethnic/Race Diversity and Diabetic Kidney Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1561-1565.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top