Special Issue "Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Lorenzo Drago
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Interests: prosthetic and joint infections; biofilm implant related infections; osteomyelitis; diagnosis for bone-joint infections; markers of bone infections; implant antibacterial coating; antimicrobial devices
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The microbial community of the human gastrointestinal tract is unique for each individual and contributes to maturation of the host immune system and is important in maintaining human health. Numerous factors which are able to alter the microbiota composition exist: The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics or extreme diets perturb the gut microbiota, and it may take weeks, months, even years, for it to return to its pre-exposure state. Modern infants, in particular those delivered by cesarean section and fed with milk powder formula, may lack sufficient stimulation of the mucosal immune system and are predisposed to develop chronic inflammations. Skin microflora can play a pivotal role in non-infectious skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, rosacea, psoriasis, and acne. The skin microbiome is an active field where we continue to find new relationships between skin-gut microbiota and skin diseases. Emerging evidence arising from interdisciplinary research supports the occurrence of communication axes between organs, such as the breast-gut or gut-skin axis. They are often employed in response to stress challenges and to neurogenic organ inflammation as well. With this Special Issue, we would like to introduce a new microbiota communication between organs and encourage researchers to publish evidence which amalgamates this concept into a new, unifying model, such as the Skin-Gut-Breast axis.

Prof. Dr. Lorenzo Drago
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • microbiota axes
  • skin-gut microbiota
  • breast-gut microbiota
  • skin-breast-gut microbiota homeostasis
  • microbiota skin diseases
  • microbiota gut diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities and Meta-Analysis of Their Occurrence during Diseases of Small–Large Intestine Axis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101656 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often isolated from animals and people with ulcerative colitis and can be involved in the IBD development in the gut–intestine axis. The background of the research consisted of obtaining mixed cultures of SRB communities from healthy mice and mice [...] Read more.
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often isolated from animals and people with ulcerative colitis and can be involved in the IBD development in the gut–intestine axis. The background of the research consisted of obtaining mixed cultures of SRB communities from healthy mice and mice with colitis, finding variation in the distribution of their morphology, to determine pH and temperature range tolerance and their possible production of hydrogen sulfide in the small–large intestinal environment. The methods: Microscopic techniques, biochemical, microbiological, and biophysical methods, and statistical processing of the results were used. The results: Variation in the distribution of sulfate-reducing microbial communities were detected. Mixed cultures from mice with ulcerative colitis had 1.39 times higher production of H2S in comparison with samples from healthy mice. The species of Desulfovibrio genus play an important role in diseases of the small–large intestine axis. Meta-analysis was also used for the observation about an SRB occurrence in healthy and not healthy individuals and the same as their metabolic processes. Conclusions: This finding is important for its possible correlation with inflammation of the intestine, where the present of SRB in high concentration plays a major part. It can be a good possible indicator of the occurrence of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolic Potential in Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Olanzapine: Results from a Six-Week Observational Prospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101605 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Accumulating evidence indicates the potential effect of microbiota on the pathogenesis and course of schizophrenia. However, the effects of olanzapine, second-generation antipsychotics, on gut microbiota have not been investigated in humans. This study aimed to analyze fecal microbiota in schizophrenia patients treated with [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence indicates the potential effect of microbiota on the pathogenesis and course of schizophrenia. However, the effects of olanzapine, second-generation antipsychotics, on gut microbiota have not been investigated in humans. This study aimed to analyze fecal microbiota in schizophrenia patients treated with olanzapine during six weeks of their hospital stay. After a seven-day washout from all psychotropic medications, microbiota compositions were evaluated at baseline and after six weeks of hospitalization using 16S rRNA sequencing. The study was conducted in 20 inpatients, who followed the same hospital routine and received 5–20 mg daily doses of olanzapine. Olanzapine treatment was associated with clinical improvements in all patients and significant increases in body mass index in females, but not changes in gut microbiota compositions and predicted function. The severity of symptoms at the beginning of treatment varied in accordance with the predicted metabolic activity of the bacteria. The present findings indicate that the microbiota of schizophrenia patients is highly individual and has different taxonomical (Type 1, with a predominance of Prevotella, and Type 2 with a higher abundance of Bacteroides, Blautia and Clostridium) and functional clusters, and it does not change following six weeks of olanzapine therapy; in addition, the microbiota is not associated with either the weight gain observed in women or the effectiveness of olanzapine therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Sulfide as a Toxic Product in the Small–Large Intestine Axis and its Role in IBD Development
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071054 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The small–large intestine axis in hydrogen sulfide accumulation and testing of sulfate and lactate in the gut–gut axis of the intestinal environment has not been well described. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Desulfovibrio genus reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide and can be [...] Read more.
The small–large intestine axis in hydrogen sulfide accumulation and testing of sulfate and lactate in the gut–gut axis of the intestinal environment has not been well described. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Desulfovibrio genus reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide and can be involved in ulcerative colitis development. The background of the research was to find correlations between hydrogen sulfide production under the effect of an electron acceptor (sulfate) and donor (lactate) at different concentrations and Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 growth, as well as their dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the intestinal small–large intestinal environment. Methods: Microbiological, biochemical, and biophysical methods, and statistical processing of the results (principal component and cross-correlation analyses) were used. Results: D. piger Vib-7 showed increased intensity of bacterial growth and hydrogen sulfide production under the following concentrations of sulfate and lactate: 17.4 mM and 35.6 mM, respectively. The study showed in what kind of intestinal environment D. piger Vib-7 grows at the highest level and produces the highest amount of hydrogen sulfide. Conclusions: The optimum intestinal environment of D. piger Vib-7 can serve as a good indicator of the occurrence of inflammatory bowel diseases; meaning that these findings can be broadly used in medicine practice dealing with the monitoring and diagnosis of intestinal ailments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oral–Gut Microbiota and Arthritis: Is There an Evidence-Based Axis?
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101753 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The gut microbiome appears to be a significant contributor to musculoskeletal health and disease. Recently, it has been found that oral microbiota are involved in arthritis pathogenesis. Microbiome composition and its functional implications have been associated with the prevention of bone loss and/or [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome appears to be a significant contributor to musculoskeletal health and disease. Recently, it has been found that oral microbiota are involved in arthritis pathogenesis. Microbiome composition and its functional implications have been associated with the prevention of bone loss and/or reducing fracture risk. The link between gut–oral microbiota and joint inflammation in animal models of arthritis has been established, and it is now receiving increasing attention in human studies. Recent papers have demonstrated substantial alterations in the gut and oral microbiota in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). These alterations resemble those established in systemic inflammatory conditions (inflammatory bowel disease, spondyloarthritides, and psoriasis), which include decreased microbial diversity and a disturbance of immunoregulatory properties. An association between abundance of oral Porphyromonas gingivalis and intestinal Prevotella copri in RA patients compared to healthy controls has been clearly demonstrated. These new findings open important future horizons both for understanding disease pathophysiology and for developing novel biomarkers and treatment strategies. The changes and decreased diversity of oral and gut microbiota seem to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of RA and OA. However, specific microbial clusters and biomarkers belonging to oral and gut microbiota need to be further investigated to highlight the mechanisms related to alterations in bones and joints inflammatory pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
Open AccessReview
What Pediatricians Should Know before Studying Gut Microbiota
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(8), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081206 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Billions of microorganisms, or “microbiota”, inhabit the gut and affect its homeostasis, influencing, and sometimes causing if altered, a multitude of diseases. The genomes of the microbes that form the gut ecosystem should be summed to the human genome to form the hologenome [...] Read more.
Billions of microorganisms, or “microbiota”, inhabit the gut and affect its homeostasis, influencing, and sometimes causing if altered, a multitude of diseases. The genomes of the microbes that form the gut ecosystem should be summed to the human genome to form the hologenome due to their influence on human physiology; hence the term “microbiome” is commonly used to refer to the genetic make-up and gene–gene interactions of microbes. This review attempts to provide insight into this recently discovered vital organ of the human body, which has yet to be fully explored. We herein discuss the rhythm and shaping of the microbiome at birth and during the first years leading up to adolescence. Furthermore, important issues to consider for conducting a reliable microbiome study including study design, inclusion/exclusion criteria, sample collection, storage, and variability of different sampling methods as well as the basic terminology of molecular approaches, data analysis, and clinical interpretation of results are addressed. This basic knowledge aims to provide the pediatricians with a key tool to avoid data dispersion and pitfalls during child microbiota study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
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