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Oral–Gut Microbiota and Arthritis: Is There an Evidence-Based Axis?
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Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiome and Otitis Media Intertalk: Lessons from the Literature

1
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Department of Biomedical Surgical Dental Science, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
6
Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biomedical Science for Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092845
Received: 19 July 2020 / Revised: 27 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common diseases occurring during childhood. Microbiological investigations concerning this topic have been primarily focused on the four classical otopathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes) mainly because most of the studies have been conducted with culture-dependent methods. In recent years, the introduction of culture-independent techniques has allowed high-throughput investigation of entire bacterial communities, leading to a better comprehension of the role of resident flora in health and disease. The upper respiratory tract (URT) is a region of major interest in otitis media pathogenesis, as it could serve as a source of pathogens for the middle ear (ME). Studies conducted with culture-independent methods in the URT and ME have provided novel insights on the pathogenesis of middle ear diseases through the identification of both possible new causative agents and of potential protective bacteria, showing that imbalances in bacterial communities could influence the natural history of otitis media in children. The aim of this review is to examine available evidence in microbiome research and otitis media in the pediatric age, with a focus on its different phenotypes: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion and chronic suppurative otitis media. View Full-Text
Keywords: otitis media; microbiota; upper respiratory tract; adenoid; middle ear; microbiota axes otitis media; microbiota; upper respiratory tract; adenoid; middle ear; microbiota axes
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Folino, F.; Ruggiero, L.; Capaccio, P.; Coro, I.; Aliberti, S.; Drago, L.; Marchisio, P.; Torretta, S. Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiome and Otitis Media Intertalk: Lessons from the Literature. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2845.

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