Special Issue "Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Related Diseases"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Maria Pina Dore
Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Sperimentali, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Prof. Giovanni Mario Pes
Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Sperimentali, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: Helicobacter pylori infection; epidemiology; children; pathophysiology; gastro-intestinal diseases; extra gastro-intestinal disorders; autoimmune disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Helicobacter pylori is the most common infection in humans, with 50% of the world's population being affected. The incidence and prevalence of infection vary across and within countries, being more common in low-income countries compared to high-income countries. The infection is acquired, usually, in childhood and persists unless treated. Risk factors capable of influencing the rate of bacterial infection are socioeconomic status and living conditions, including overcrowding, number of siblings, sharing a bed, and a lack of running water, among others. Human gastric mucosa appear to be the major reservoir of infection. However, in some circumstances, farm animals and/or contaminated food may contribute to the spread of bacteria.
Colonization by H. pylori stimulates a robust inflammatory and immune response resulting invariably in tissue injury. The infection is always associated with a chronic active gastritis and, in long-lasting gastritis, precancerous lesions, such as atrophy and dysplasia, may develop. Clinical outcomes, including peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, are the result of a complex interaction among host characteristics, bacteria virulence, and environmental factors.

Current evidence suggests that H. pylori infection also plays a role in a number of extra-gastrointestinal diseases, probably induced by the occurrence of molecular mimicry and maintenance of a low-grade inflammation. This Special Issue aims to highlight new contributions in the field of H. pylori infection and related diseases in children and adult individuals.

Prof. Maria Pina Dore
Prof. Giovanni Mario Pes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Helicobacter pylori infection and epidemiology
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and children
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and pathophysiology
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-intestinal diseases
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and extra gastro-intestinal disorders
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune disorders.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Active Helicobacter pylori Infection is Independently Associated with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Morbidly Obese Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040933 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) emerges as an important global burden and Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) has been suggested as a risk factor of NAFLD, although controversy exists. This retrospective study aimed to investigate a potential impact of active Hp-I [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) emerges as an important global burden and Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) has been suggested as a risk factor of NAFLD, although controversy exists. This retrospective study aimed to investigate a potential impact of active Hp-I on NAFLD severity in morbidly obese patients, subjected to bariatric surgery and gastric biopsy for documentation of Hp-I. Of 64 eligible participants, 15 (23.4%) were diagnosed with active Hp-I, showing higher rates of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than those without Hp-I (86.7% vs. 26.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Concerning histological lesions, steatosis grade (p = 0.027), ballooning (p < 0.001), lobular inflammation (p = 0.003), and fibrosis stage (p < 0.001) were also more severe in Hp-I positive patients. Likewise, liver function tests, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension were significantly higher in Hp-I positive patients. Hp-I was independently positively associated with NASH (beta = 3.27; p = 0.002), severe NASH (beta = 2.37; p = 0.018), and the presence of fibrosis (beta = 3.86; p = 0.001) in a binary regression model, after adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, active Hp-Ι was independently associated with NASH and fibrosis, findings offering potential clinical implication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Related Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Clarithromycin Versus Metronidazole in First-Line Helicobacter Pylori Triple Eradication Therapy Based on Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents: Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020543 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background: International treatment guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection recommend a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)/amoxicillin/clarithromycin (CAM) regimen (PAC) or PPI/amoxicillin/metronidazole (MNZ) regimen (PAM) as first-line therapy based on culture and sensitivity testing. As incidence rates of antimicrobial agent-resistant strains are changing year by year, [...] Read more.
Background: International treatment guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection recommend a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)/amoxicillin/clarithromycin (CAM) regimen (PAC) or PPI/amoxicillin/metronidazole (MNZ) regimen (PAM) as first-line therapy based on culture and sensitivity testing. As incidence rates of antimicrobial agent-resistant strains are changing year by year, it is important to reevaluate the efficacy of eradication regimens. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PAC and PAM based on different locations categorized by the reported incidence of CAM- and MNZ-resistant strains. Methods: Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing eradication rates between PAC and PAM first-line treatment up to December 2018 were included. We divided RCTs into four groups based on resistance to CAM (< 15% or ≥ 15%) and MNZ (< 15% or ≥ 15%). Results: A total of 27 studies (4825 patients) were included. Overall eradication rates between PAC and PAM were similar (74.8% and 72.5%, relative risk (RR): 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91–1.39, P = 0.27) in the intention-to-treat analysis. In areas with low MNZ- and high CAM-resistance rates, PAM had a significantly higher eradication rate than PAC (92.5% vs. 70.8%, RR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13–0.68). In areas with high MNZ- and low CAM-resistance rates, the eradication rate with PAC was only 72.9%. Conclusions: Overall eradication rates with PAC and PAM were equivalent worldwide. In low MNZ-resistance areas, PAM may be recommended as first-line therapy. However, the efficacy of PAC may be insufficient, irrespective of susceptibility to CAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Related Diseases)
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