Special Issue "Diabetic Foot Complications: Current Challenges and Future Prospects-Part I"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Luis Lázaro-Martínez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Diabetic Foot Unit, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: diabetic foot; diabetic foot ulcers; diabetic foot infections; diabetic foot osteomyelitis; diabetic symmetric polyneuropathy; charcot foot
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Luigi Uccioli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Diabetic Foot Unit, Department Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Interests: diabetic foot; diabetic foot ulcers; diabetic foot infections; diabetic foot osteomyelitis; diabetic symmetric polyneuropathy; peripheral atherial disease; charcot foot
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eric Senneville
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Infectious Diseases Department, Gustave Dron Hospital, Tourcoing, France
Interests: diabetic foot infections; antibiotics; diabetic foot; diabetic foot ulcers; diabetic foot osteomyelitis; diabetic symmetric polyneuropathy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diabetic foot is a growing complication due the global raising of Diabetes mellitus prevalence affecting 9.1 to 26.1 million people annually worldwide and approximately between 19% and 34% of people with diabetes at least once in their life. Diabetic foot is sometimes associated with lower limb amputations and higher rates of mortality than some kind of cancer, such as breast cancer or prostate cancer. In recent years, evidence has been focused on the management of the main complications that lead the patients to limb loss, such as diabetic foot infections or peripheral vascular disease. The majority of studies have investigated the outcomes over the acute phase when the patient has a complicated diabetic foot ulcer. However, long-term studies, randomized control trials, and studies on prevention, both primary and secondary, are still few in the literature. On the other hand, the benefits of the multidisciplinary team on the patient outcomes, health care system organization, and competences of the different specialities and health care professionals, and what the impact is of different organizational and structural approaches are not yet very well studied on the literature. With this Special Issue, we hope to encourage submissions that discuss the current state-of-the-art, address ongoing knowledge gaps, and focus on ongoing controversies related to diabetic foot complications.

We look forward to receiving your submission.

Prof. Dr. José Luis Lázaro-Martínez
Prof. Dr. Luigi Uccioli
Dr. Eric Senneville
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Diabetic foot ulcers
  • Diabetic foot infections
  • Charcot foot
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Prevention diabetic foot
  • Lower limb amputation
  • Diabetic foot mortality
  • Biomechanics of diabetic foot

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Bone Scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in the Characterization and Early Diagnosis of Stage 0 Charcot Neuroarthropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124123 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 563
Abstract
We describe the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the investigation and diagnosis of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in patients with a hot swollen foot but normal radiographs and clinical suspicion of CN, usually termed Stage 0. This was a [...] Read more.
We describe the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the investigation and diagnosis of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in patients with a hot swollen foot but normal radiographs and clinical suspicion of CN, usually termed Stage 0. This was a retrospective cohort review of 46 diabetes patients who underwent 3 phase bone scintigraphy with “High Resolution” SPECT/CT. The imaging demonstrated that Stage 0 Charcot foot has a distinct bone pathology, which can be classified into three groups: (1) fractures on Computed Tomography (CT) with accompanying focal uptake of tracer on SPECT, (2) bony abnormalities apart from fracture on CT with focal uptake of tracer on SPECT, and (3) normal CT but focal bony uptake of tracer on SPECT. The CT component of SPECT/CT detected bony fractures in 59% of patients. Early treatment with below knee cast and follow-up for 24 months showed only 4 patients who developed Stage 1 Eichenholtz Charcot foot. Our findings support the use of 3 phase bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in the characterization and early diagnosis of CN. Stage 0 Charcot foot has a distinct bone pathology which requires urgent treatment to prevent progression to Stage 1 Eichenholtz Charcot foot. If SPECT/CT is unavailable, CT alone will detect bone fracture in 59% patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cellular Proliferation, Dermal Repair, and Microbiological Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Assisted Wound Debridement (UAW) Versus Standard Wound Treatment in Complicated Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU): An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4032; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124032 - 13 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-assisted wound (UAW) debridement on cellular proliferation and dermal repair in complicated diabetic foot ulcers as compared to diabetic foot ulcers receiving surgical/sharp wound debridement. A randomized controlled trial was performed involving 51 outpatients with complicated [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-assisted wound (UAW) debridement on cellular proliferation and dermal repair in complicated diabetic foot ulcers as compared to diabetic foot ulcers receiving surgical/sharp wound debridement. A randomized controlled trial was performed involving 51 outpatients with complicated diabetic foot ulcers that either received surgical debridement (n = 24) or UAW debridement (n = 27) every week during a six-week treatment period. Compared to patients receiving surgical debridement, patients treated with UAW debridement exhibited significantly improved cellular proliferation, as determined by CD31 staining, Masson’s trichrome staining, and actin staining. Bacterial loads were significantly reduced in the UAW debridement group compared to the surgical group (UAW group 4.27 ± 0.37 day 0 to 2.11 ± 0.8 versus surgical group 4.66 ± 1.21 day 0 to 4.39 ± 1.24 day 42; p = 0.01). Time to healing was also significantly lower (p = 0.04) in the UAW group (9.7 ± 3.8 weeks) compared to the surgical group (14.8 ± 12.3 weeks), but both groups had similar rates of patients that were healed after six months of follow-up (23 patients (85.1%) in the UAW group vs. 20 patients (83.3%) in the surgical group; p = 0.856). We propose that UAW debridement could be an effective alternative when surgical debridement is not available or is contraindicated for use on patients with complicated diabetic foot ulcers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver Sulfadiazine Eradicates Antibiotic-Tolerant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms in Patients with Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3807; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123807 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Infections are among the most frequent and challenging events in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Pathogenic bacteria growing in biofilms within host tissue are highly tolerant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics. The present study was aimed at assessing the use of silver [...] Read more.
Infections are among the most frequent and challenging events in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Pathogenic bacteria growing in biofilms within host tissue are highly tolerant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics. The present study was aimed at assessing the use of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) for wound healing and infection control in 16 patients with DFUs harboring biofilm-growing Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All patients received a treatment based on a dressing protocol including disinfection, cleansing, application of SSD, and application of nonadherent gauze, followed by sterile gauze and tibio-breech bandage, in preparation for toilet surgery after 30 days of treatment. Clinical parameters were analyzed by the T.I.M.E. classification system. In addition, the activity of SSD against biofilm-growing S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed in vitro. A total of 16 patients with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa infected DFUs were included in the study. Clinical data showed a statistically significant (p < 0.002) improvement of patients’ DFUs after 30 days of treatment with SSD with significant amelioration of all the parameters analyzed. Notably, after 30 days of treatment, resolution of infection was observed in all DFUs. In vitro analysis showed that both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates developed complex and highly structured biofilms. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles indicated that biofilm cultures were significantly (p ≤ 0.002) more tolerant to all tested antimicrobials than their planktonic counterparts. However, SSD was found to be effective against fully developed biofilms of both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at concentrations below those normally used in clinical preparations (10 mg/mL). These results strongly suggest that the topical administration of SSD may represent an effective alternative to conventional antibiotics for the successful treatment of DFUs infected by biofilm-growing S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Utility of Blood Parameters to Detect Complications during Long-Term Follow-Up in Patients with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113768 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
The evidence is still unclear regarding the role of blood parameters in detecting complications in patients who suffer from diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). In this study, the aim was to identify the capacity of different blood parameters in the diagnosis and prediction of [...] Read more.
The evidence is still unclear regarding the role of blood parameters in detecting complications in patients who suffer from diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). In this study, the aim was to identify the capacity of different blood parameters in the diagnosis and prediction of the onset of complications. A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out with 116 DFO patients. The following blood parameters were evaluated during 1 year of follow-up: leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and creatinine. Complication events were assessed for each participant during the study period. We investigated the association between blood parameter values and the onset of complication events by conducting a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Eighty-five (73.3%) patients developed complications. Regarding blood parameters, higher values of lymphocytes and albumin were predictive factors at the 12-month follow-up once the ulcer had healed. Higher values of ESR had predictive and diagnostic value for the onset of complication events, and higher values of CRP and hyperglycemia were diagnostic factors since they were elevated during the occurrence of an event. In conclusion, after suffering from DFO, the elevation of lymphocytes, ESR, CRP, albumin, and glycemia could be useful in detecting and diagnosing patients who are likely to develop a complication. Serial blood tests are a useful tool for early detection by healthcare professionals to prevent complications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics and Outcome for Persons with Diabetic Foot Ulcer and No-Option Critical Limb Ischemia
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113745 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate clinical and vascular characteristics, as well as outcomes, for diabetic persons with foot ulceration and no-option critical limb ischemia (CLI). The study group included a sample of patients admitted to our diabetic foot unit because of a new [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate clinical and vascular characteristics, as well as outcomes, for diabetic persons with foot ulceration and no-option critical limb ischemia (CLI). The study group included a sample of patients admitted to our diabetic foot unit because of a new diabetic foot ulcer and CLI. All subjects were managed using a limb salvage protocol which includes lower-limb revascularization. According to whether or not the revascularization procedure was a success, patients were respectively divided into two groups: successfully treated CLI patients (ST-CLI) and no-option CLI patients (NO-CLI). Failed revascularization was considered in the case of technical recanalization failure of occluded vessels (inability to overcome the obstruction) and/or absence of arterial flow to the foot. Limb salvage, major amputation, and death after 1 year of follow-up were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Overall, 239 patients were included, 74.9% belonging to ST-CLI and 25.1% to NO-CLI. NO-CLI patients reported more cases of ischemic heart disease (80 vs. 62.1, p = 0.008), heart failure (63.3 vs. 32.4%, p < 0.0001), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (60 vs. 25.7%) than ST-CLI patients. In addition, more vessels were affected in the NO-CLI group (5.2 ± 1.6 vs. 4 ± 1.5, p < 0.0001), and there was more involvement of tibio-peroneal trunk (50 vs. 30.2%, p = 0.006), anterior tibial (93.3 vs. 82.7, p = 0.03), posterior tibial (93.3 vs. 73.7%, p = 0.0005), peroneal (70 vs. 48%, p = 0.002), and below-the-ankle arteries (73.3 vs. 39.1%, p < 0.0001) than ST-CLI. The 1 year outcomes for the whole population were 69.9% limb salvage, 10.9% major amputation, and 19.2% death. The outcomes for NO-CLI and ST-CLI were, respectively, as follows: limb salvage (13.8 vs. 73.4%, p < 0.0001), amputation (30 vs. 4.5%, p = 0.0001), and mortality (50 vs. 8.9%, p < 0.0001). NO-CLI patients showed a more severe pattern of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with distal arterial lesions and worse outcomes than ST-CLI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multidisciplinary Approach for the Management and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections with a Resorbable, Gentamicin-Loaded Bone Graft Substitute
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113586 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Diabetic patients are at increased risk of developing foot ulcers which may cause bone infections associated with a high probability of both amputation and mortality. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are of key importance. In our Diabetic Foot Unit, effective multidisciplinary treatment [...] Read more.
Diabetic patients are at increased risk of developing foot ulcers which may cause bone infections associated with a high probability of both amputation and mortality. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are of key importance. In our Diabetic Foot Unit, effective multidisciplinary treatment of osteomyelitis secondary to diabetes involves the application of a gentamicin-eluting calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute to fill residual bone voids after debridement. The data of all patients treated with the gentamicin-eluting calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute for diabetic foot infections with ulcer formation and osteomyelitis at metatarsals, calcaneus and hindfoot at our institute from July 2013 to September 2016 were retrospectively collected and evaluated. A total of 35 patients were included in this retrospective single-arm case series and were either continuously followed up for at least one year or until healing was confirmed. Nineteen lesions affected the distal row of tarsus/talus, ten the calcaneus and a further six were located at the metatarsals. While all of the metatarsal lesions had healed at 1-year follow-up, the healing rate in the hindfoot region was lower with 62.5% at the calcaneus and 72.2% at the distal tarsus and talus at 12 months, respectively. The overall cure rate for ulcerous bone infection was 81.3%. In two calcaneal lesions (25%) and two lesions of distal tarsus/talus (11.1%) amputation was considered clinically necessary. Promising results were achieved in the treatment of diabetic foot infections with soft tissue ulcers by a multidisciplinary approach involving extensive debridement followed by adequate dead space management with a resorbable gentamicin-eluting bone graft substitute. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Causes, Risk Factors, and Their Association with Evolution and Severity of Ulcer
by , and
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3009; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093009 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Background: This study reviews the mortality of patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) from the first consultation with a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Team (MDFT) and analyzes the main cause of death, as well as the relevant clinical factors associated with survival. Methods: Data [...] Read more.
Background: This study reviews the mortality of patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) from the first consultation with a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Team (MDFT) and analyzes the main cause of death, as well as the relevant clinical factors associated with survival. Methods: Data of 338 consecutive patients referred to the MDFT center for a new DFU during the 2008–2014 period were analyzed. Follow-up: until death or until 30 April 2020, for up to 12.2 years. Results: Clinical characteristics: median age was 71 years, 92.9% had type 2 diabetes, and about 50% had micro-macrovascular complications. Ulcer characteristics: Wagner grade 1–2 (82.3%), ischemic (49.2%), and infected ulcers (56.2%). During follow-up, 201 patients died (59.5%), 110 (54.7%) due to cardiovascular disease. Kaplan—Meier curves estimated a reduction in survival of 60% with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI), (54.7–65.3) at 5 years. Cox regression analysis adjusted to a multivariate model showed the following associations with mortality, with hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI): age, 1.07 (1.05–1.08); HbA1c value < 7% (53 mmol/mol), 1.43 (1.02–2.0); active smoking, 1.59 (1.02–2.47); ischemic heart or cerebrovascular disease, 1.55 (1.15–2.11); chronic kidney disease, 1.86 (1.37–2.53); and ulcer severity (SINBAD system) 1.12 (1.02–1.26). Conclusion: Patients with a history of DFU have high mortality. Two less known predictors of mortality were identified: HbA1c value < 7% (53 mmol/mol) and ulcer severity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation and Validation of the Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale-Short Form in Spanish Subjects
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082497 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a chronic complication that negatively affects the quality of life (QoL) of diabetic patients. In Spain, there is no specifically designed and validated instrument to assess the QoL of patients with DFU. Our aim was to adapt the [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a chronic complication that negatively affects the quality of life (QoL) of diabetic patients. In Spain, there is no specifically designed and validated instrument to assess the QoL of patients with DFU. Our aim was to adapt the Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale-Short Form (DFS-SF) questionnaire to a Spanish population and validate it. A prospective, observational design was used. The DFS-SF was administered by personal interview. The validated SF-36 and EQ-5D generic instruments were used as reference tools. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity to changes were assessed using standard statistical methods. A sample of 141 patients with DFU was recruited. The content validity was 3.46 on average (maximum score of 4). The internal consistency of the DFS-SF subscales showed a standardized Cronbach’s α range between 0.720 and 0.948. The DFS-SF domains showed excellent reproducibility measures (intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.77–0.92). The criterion validity was good with significant correlations between each DFS-SF subscale and its corresponding SF-36 and EQ-5D subscales (p < 0.001). However, the questionnaire structure was not validated (comparative fit index = 0.844, root mean square error of approximation = 0.095, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.093). The instrument showed high sensitivity to ulcer changes over time (p < 0.001). The adapted and validated Spanish version of the DFS-SF questionnaire has good psychometric properties and shows good sensitivity to ulcer changes, although the construct validity was not optimal. The adapted questionnaire will be a useful tool specifically to assess the QoL in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers in the clinical and research settings in Spain. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prevalence, Clinical Aspects and Outcomes in a Large Cohort of Persons with Diabetic Foot Disease: Comparison between Neuropathic and Ischemic Ulcers
by , , , and
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061780 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate clinical and ulcer characteristics as well the outcomes of patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The study group was composed of DFUs patients managed by a limb salvage protocol according to guidance. Clinical and ulcers findings were described, [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate clinical and ulcer characteristics as well the outcomes of patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The study group was composed of DFUs patients managed by a limb salvage protocol according to guidance. Clinical and ulcers findings were described, and 1-year outcomes defined as limb salvage, healing, healing time, major amputation and death were compared between neuropathic and ischemic DFUs. One thousand, one hundred and ninety-eight subjects were included; 386 (32.2%) neuropathic and 812 (67.8%) ischemic DFUs. Neuropathic patients were younger (69.5 ± 11.5 vs. 74.5 ± 11.5, p < 0.0001) and reported less cases of nephropathy (22.8 vs. 39.6%, p < 0.0001), ischemic heart disease (22.8 vs. 36.9, p = 0.0004), cerebrovascular disease (8.3 vs. 17.2%, p = 0.002), heart failure (10.1 vs. 24.7%, p = 0.0002) and end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD) (5.4 vs. 27%, p = 0.0001) than ischemic patients; they also showed less cases of large (>5 cm2) (10.3 vs. 22.9%, p = 0.0007), infected (40.4 vs. 55.7%, p = 0.0005) and deep to the bone (22.3 vs. 39.2, p = 0.0002) ulcers, as well less multiple ulcerations (21.8 vs. 32.8%, p = 0.006) than patients with ischemic DFUs. The outcomes for neuropathic and ischemic DFUs were limb salvage (98.4 vs. 82.3%, p < 0.0001), healing (97.3 vs. 79.6%, p < 0.0001), healing time (34.9 vs. 35.6 weeks, p = 0.8), major amputation (0.5 vs. 6.6%, p = 0.0001), death (1.1 vs. 11%, p < 0.0001) respectively. Revascularization failure and ESRD were independent predictors of major amputation, while heart failure and number of co-morbidities (≥5) were independent predictors of death. Ischemic DFUs patients showed more severe clinical and ulcers features as well worse outcomes than neuropathic DFUs patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-System Factors Associated with Metatarsophalangeal Joint Deformity in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041012 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The underlying factors contributing to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity, a known precursor to skin breakdown in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), is likely to involve multiple body systems. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify multi-system factors associated with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity [...] Read more.
The underlying factors contributing to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity, a known precursor to skin breakdown in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), is likely to involve multiple body systems. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify multi-system factors associated with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity in individuals with type 2 DM and peripheral neuropathy (n = 60). Metatarsophalangeal joint deformity was quantified with a computed tomography (CT) scan. System biomarkers included the musculoskeletal system (foot intrinsic muscle deterioration, tarsal/metatarsal bone mineral density, ankle dorsiflexion, metatarsophalangeal extension movement during a sit to stand task); the vascular system (ankle-brachial index); and the endocrine/immune systems (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, skin intrinsic fluorescence, and hemoglobin A1C). Muscle deterioration (r = 0.27), bone density (r = −0.35), metatarsophalangeal extension movement (r = 0.50), maximum dorsiflexion (r = −0.31), and ankle-brachial index (r = 0.33) were related to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity (p < 0.05). Bone mineral density and metatarsophalangeal extension movement were retained in a regression model relating to deformity (R2 = 0.34). All musculoskeletal system biomarkers and the ankle-brachial index demonstrated weak to moderate relationships to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity. Bone mineral density of the tarsal/metatarsal bones and extending the toes during a sit to stand task were the two strongest factors associated with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity. Evaluation and management of foot bone mineral density and toe extension movement pattern could reduce metatarsophalangeal joint deformity and the risk of skin breakdown and subsequent amputation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Footwear Outsole Rigidity in Improving Spatiotemporal Parameters in Patients with Diabetes and Previous Forefoot Ulcerations
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040907 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
We aimed to identify if any differences existed in spatiotemporal parameters during gait among different densities of rocker soles in patients with a history of neuropathic ulcerations and the differences in comfort between shoe conditions. This study was a cross-sectional study of 24 [...] Read more.
We aimed to identify if any differences existed in spatiotemporal parameters during gait among different densities of rocker soles in patients with a history of neuropathic ulcerations and the differences in comfort between shoe conditions. This study was a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with diabetes and a history of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Spatiotemporal parameters (duration of stance phase (ms), stride length (cm), and step velocity (m/s)) were analyzed in barefoot, semirigid outsole, and rigid outsole footwear conditions. A dynamic pressure measurement system (Footscan® system, RSscan International, Olen, Belgium) was used to assess shoe conditions. We also analyzed differences in comfort between the shoe conditions using a visual analog scale. A Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used to assess gait differences. Result showed that a rigid outsole causes changes in the subphases of the stance phase (p < 0.001; Cohen d = 0.6) compared to a semirigid outsole. Stride length (p < 0.001; Cohen d = 0.66) and step velocity were significantly longer (p < 0.001; Cohen d = 2.03) with the use of rigid outsole footwear. A rigid rocker sole reduces the time of the stance phase, in addition to increasing the stride length and velocity of step in patients with a previous history of DFUs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in the Sub-Metatarsal Fat Pad Atrophy Symptoms between Patients with Metatarsal Head Resection and Those without Metatarsal Head Resection: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030794 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the differences in the sub-metatarsal skin and fat pad atrophy between patients at a high risk of ulceration with and without previous metatarsal head resection. A cross-sectional study was performed in a diabetic foot unit involving 19 participants with [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the differences in the sub-metatarsal skin and fat pad atrophy between patients at a high risk of ulceration with and without previous metatarsal head resection. A cross-sectional study was performed in a diabetic foot unit involving 19 participants with a history of metatarsal head resection (experimental group) and 19 (control group) without a history of metatarsal head resection but with an ulcer in other locations in the metatarsal head. No participants had active ulcerations at study inclusion. Sub-metatarsal skin thickness and fat pad thickness in the first and second metatarsals were evaluated by an ultrasound transducer. The experimental group showed sub-metatarsal fat pad atrophy (3.74 ± 1.18 mm and 2.52 ± 1.04 mm for first and second metatarsal, respectively) compared with the control group (5.44 ± 1.12 mm and 4.73 ± 1.59 mm) (p < 0.001, confidence interval: (CI): 0.943–2.457 and p < 0.001, CI: 1.143–3.270 for first and second metatarsal, respectively); however, sub-metatarsal skin thickness was not different between groups (experimental 2.47 ± 0.47 mm vs. control 2.80 ± 0.58 mm (p = 0.063, CI: −0.019–0.672) and 2.24 ± 0.60 mm vs. 2.62 ± 0.50 mm (p = 0.066, CI: −0.027–0.786) for first and second metatarsal, respectively). Patients with previous metatarsal head resection showed sub-metatarsal fat pad atrophy, which could be associated with the risk of reulceration in the metatarsal head. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Foot-Loading Factors and Their Associations with Ulcer Development and Ulcer Healing in People with Diabetes: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3591; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113591 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 758
Abstract
We aimed to comprehensively and systematically review studies associating key foot-loading factors (i.e., plantar pressure, weight-bearing activity, adherence or a combination thereof) with ulcer development and ulcer healing in people with diabetes. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. We [...] Read more.
We aimed to comprehensively and systematically review studies associating key foot-loading factors (i.e., plantar pressure, weight-bearing activity, adherence or a combination thereof) with ulcer development and ulcer healing in people with diabetes. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. We included studies if barefoot or in-shoe plantar pressure, weight-bearing activity or footwear or device adherence was measured and associated with either ulcer development or ulcer healing in people with diabetes. Out of 1954 records, 36 studies were included and qualitatively analyzed. We found low to moderate quality evidence that lower barefoot plantar pressure and higher footwear and device adherence associate with lower risk of ulcer development and shorter healing times. For the other foot-loading factors, we found low quality evidence with limited or contradictory results. For combined measures of foot-loading factors, we found low quality evidence suggesting that lower cumulative plantar tissue stress is associated with lower risk of ulcer development and higher ulcer healing incidence. We conclude that evidence for barefoot plantar pressure and adherence in association with ulcer outcome is present, but is limited for the other foot-loading factors. More comprehensive investigation in particularly the combination of foot-loading factors may improve the evidence and targeting preventative treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Metatarsal Head Resections in Diabetic Foot Patients: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061845 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
A systematic review and proportional meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the complications that occur after surgical metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot patients. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist recommendations were applied, and the selected studies were [...] Read more.
A systematic review and proportional meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the complications that occur after surgical metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot patients. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist recommendations were applied, and the selected studies were evaluated using a Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. PubMed (Medline) and Embase (Elsevier) were searched in December 2019 to find clinical trials, cohort studies, or case series assessing the efficacy of the metatarsal head resection technique in diabetic foot patients. The systematic review covered 21 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria and included 483 subjects. The outcomes evaluated were the time to heal, recurrence, reulceration, amputation, and other complications. The proportion of recurrence was 7.2% [confidence interval (CI) 4.0–10.4, p < 0.001], that of reulceration was 20.7% (CI 11.6–29.8, p < 0.001), and that of amputation was 7.6% (CI 3.4–11.8, p < 0.001). A heterogeneity test indicated I2 = 72.6% (p < 0.001) for recurrences, I2 = 94% (p < 0.001) for reulcerations, and I2 = 79% (p < 0.001) for amputations. We conclude that metatarsal head resections in diabetic foot patients are correlated with significant complications, especially reulceration. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Clinician Assessment Tools for Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051487 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The amputation rate in patients with diabetes is 15 to 40 times higher than in patients without diabetes. To avoid major complications, the identification of high-risk in patients with diabetes through early assessment highlights as a crucial action. Clinician assessment tools are scales [...] Read more.
The amputation rate in patients with diabetes is 15 to 40 times higher than in patients without diabetes. To avoid major complications, the identification of high-risk in patients with diabetes through early assessment highlights as a crucial action. Clinician assessment tools are scales in which clinical examiners are specifically trained to make a correct judgment based on patient outcomes that helps to identify at-risk patients and monitor the intervention. The aim of this study is to carry out a systematic review of valid and reliable Clinician assessment tools for measuring diabetic foot disease-related variables and analysing their psychometric properties. The databases used were PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, and EMBASE. The search terms used were foot, ankle, diabetes, diabetic foot, assessment, tools, instruments, score, scale, validity, and reliability. The results showed 29 validated studies with 39 Clinician assessment tools and six variables. There is limited evidence on all of the psychometric characteristics of the Clinician assessment tools included in this review, although some instruments have been shown to be valid and reliable for the assessment of diabetic neuropathy (Utah Early Neuropathy Scale or UENS); ulceration risk (Queensland High Risk Foot Form or QHRFF); diabetic foot ulcer assessment, scoring, and amputation risk (Perfusion, extent, depth, infection and sensation scale or PEDIS and Site, Ischemia, Neuropathy, Bacterial Infection, and Depth score or SINBAD); and diabetic foot ulcer measurement (Leg Ulcer Measurement Tool LUMT). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Instruments of Choice for Assessment and Monitoring Diabetic Foot: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020602 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Diabetic foot is the most frequent disorder among the chronic complications of diabetes, happening in 25% of patients. Objective clinical outcome measures are tests or clinical instruments that provide objective values for result measurement. The aim of this study was to carry out [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot is the most frequent disorder among the chronic complications of diabetes, happening in 25% of patients. Objective clinical outcome measures are tests or clinical instruments that provide objective values for result measurement. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of specific objective clinical outcome measures focused on the assessment and monitoring of diabetic foot disorders. The databases used were PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PEDro, Cochrane, SciELO and EMBASE. Search terms used were foot, ankle, diabet*, diabetic foot, assessment, tools, instruments, objective outcome measures, valid*, reliab*. Because of the current published evidence, diabetic neuropathy assessment via sudomotor analysis, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease detection by non-invasive electronic devices, wound 3D dimensional measurement, hyperspectral imaging for ulcer prediction and the probe-to-bone test for osteomyelitis diagnosis were highlighted in this study. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Videocapillaroscopy of the Oral Mucosa in Patients with Diabetic Foot: Possible Diagnostic Role of Microangiopathic Damage?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3641; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113641 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Introduction: Diabetic foot represents one of the most serious and expensive complications of diabetes and is subject to a high percentage of amputations that are almost always preceded by ulcers ascribable to neuropathy and/or vasculopathy. Videocapillaroscopy (VCS) can be a valuable aid in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Diabetic foot represents one of the most serious and expensive complications of diabetes and is subject to a high percentage of amputations that are almost always preceded by ulcers ascribable to neuropathy and/or vasculopathy. Videocapillaroscopy (VCS) can be a valuable aid in order to uncover morpho-structural anomalies in the vascular bed, both at the level of the oral mucosa and at the level of the terminal vessels of the lower limb. Materials and methods: Sixty subjects divided into 4 groups were enrolled: 15 healthy subjects; 15 patients with diabetes for more than 10 years without ulcerative foot lesions; 15 patients with neuropathic diabetic foot (clinical diagnosis, MDNS); 15 patients with ischemic diabetic foot (clinical diagnosis, ABI, lower limb doppler). A complete videocapillaroscopic mapping of the oral mucosa was carried out on each patient. The areas investigated were: labial mucosa, the retro-commissural region of the buccal mucosa, and the vestibular masticatory mucosa (II and V sextant). Results: The analysis of the morphological and densitometric characteristics of the capillaries revealed the following: a significant reduction in capillary density in neuropathic (mean ± SD 7.32 ± 2.1) and ischemic patients (mean ± SD 4.32 ± 3.2) compared to the control group of patients (both diabetic mean ± SD 12.98 ± 3.1 and healthy mean ± SD 19.04 ± 3.16) (ANOVA test and Bonferroni t test p < 0.05); a reduction in the average length of the capillaries and a significant increase in tortuosity (ANOVA test and Bonferroni t test p < 0.05). In the neuropathic patients, a recurrent capillaroscopic pattern that we defined as “sun” was found, with capillaries arranged radially around an avascular area. Conclusions: The data obtained from this preliminary study suggest a potential diagnostic role of oral capillaroscopy in the early and subclinical identification of microangiopathic damage in patients with diabetic foot. Full article
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